Constructive Criticism: The Christian Humanists And for popes, that supply the place of Christ, if they should endeavor to imitate His life, to wit His poverty, labor, doctrine, cross, and contempt of life, or should they consider what the name pope, that is father, or holiness, imports, who would live more disconsolate than themselves? or who would purchase that chair with all his substance? or defend it, so purchased, with swords, poisons, and all force imaginable? -- Erasmus, In Praise of Folly (1509) St. Thomas More Erasmus These are their religious principles, that the soul of man is immortal, and that God of his goodness has designed that it should be happy; and that he has therefore appointed rewards for good and virtuous actions, and punishments for vice, to be distributed after this life - More, Utopia (1516)
Church Abuses <ul><li>Worldly popes </li></ul>Lucretia Borgia Pluralism an indulgence is a remission of the temporal punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has been forgiven - New Advent Encyclopedia Indulgences
Ignorant Priests Te ígitur, clementíssime Pater, per Jesum Christum Fílium tuum Dóminum nostrum súpplices rogámus ac pétimus ( osculatur altare ) uti accépta hábeas, et benedícas.. . Wherefore, O most merciful Father, we humbly pray and beseech thee, through Jesus Christ thy Son, our Lord ( he kisses the altar ), that thou wouldst vouchsafe to receive and bless...
Salvation Faith Good Works sacraments charity prayer I meditated night and day on those words until at last, by the mercy of God, I paid attention to their context: "The justice of God is revealed in it, as it is written: 'The just person lives by faith.'" I began to understand that in this verse the justice of God is that by which the just person lives by a gift of God, that is by faith. - Martin Luther
It has been the custom hitherto for men to bold us as their own property, which is pitiable enough, considering that Christ has delivered and redeemed us all, without exception, by the shedding of His precious blood, the lowly as well as the great. Accordingly, it is consistent with Scripture that we should be free and wish to be so. - from the Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants 1525 Political and Social Impact of Lutheranism
3. Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) 2. Mary I (r. 1553-58) Catholic, married Philip II of Spain 1. Edward VI (d. 1553 at 15)
Catholic or Counter Reformation In his hands I saw a long golden spear and at the end of the iron tip I seemed to see a point of fire. With this he seemed to pierce my heart several times so that it penetrated to my entrails. When he drew it out, I thought he was drawing them out with it and he left me completely afire with a great love for God. - St. Teresa of Avila Jesuits Council of Trent (1545-63) Index of Prohibited Books The Inquisition