Computer Science & Information Systems


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Computer Science & Information Systems
First attempt to offer a broad view of CS & IS field by comparing and relate its disciplines

Luis Borges Gouveia
November 2013

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Computer Science & Information Systems

  1. 1. Computer Science & Information Systems First attempt to offer a broad view of CS & IS field by comparing and relate its disciplines Luis Borges Gouveia V1.1 – December 2013 Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  2. 2. It is all about information… Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013 v1.0 Nov 2013
  3. 3. Criteria for this first draft • Select the most high level or relevant areas, related whith computer and networks and to how they convey digital information within and across organizations • No people names and origin dates… • Avoid external references • Made a genuine effort to relate them • First draft use mainly available wording from Wikipedia • To be continued… Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  4. 4. Terms considered • • • • • • • • • • • • • Information Technology – IT Information and Communication Technology - ICT Computer Science – CS Software Engineering – SE Information Management – IM Informatics – Inf Information Science - IStu (information studies) Human Computer Interation - HCI Business Analysis - BA Requirements analysis - ReqA Information Systems - IS Information Systems Analysis – ISA, SA Analysis of data - ADat Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013 • • • • • • • • • • • • • Information Security - InfoSec Project Management - PM Knowledge Management - KM Information Engineering – IE Information Systems Development – ISD, SD System Development Life Cycle - SDLC Systems Engineering - SysEng Information Systems Planning – ISP Information Systems Strategy – ISS Information Systems Integration – ISI Information Systems Management ISM Information Systems Exploration - ISE Information Governance – IG
  5. 5. Information Technology • Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  6. 6. Also, Information and Communication Technology • Information and communications technology (ICT) is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications, computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  7. 7. Computer Science • The definition of computer science is a branch of engineering science that studies the technology and the principles of computers • Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  8. 8. Software Engineering • Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software • It is also the process of making, testing and documenting computer programs and is considered as one of the applied areas of computer science • The Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK): Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  9. 9. Information Management • The discipline that analyzes information as an organizational resource. It covers the definitions, uses, value and distribution of all data and information within an organization whether processed by computer or not. It evaluates the kinds of data/information an organization requires in order to function and progress effectively Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  10. 10. Informatics • Sometimes referred as a synonym for information technology (IT), but better defined as an umbrella term for "information management" and "computer science." • In other situations, informatics is used as an equivalent for computer science or, alternately, to information science Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  11. 11. Information Science (information studies) • Is an interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, and dissemination of information • As of computer science, includes information retrieval, knowledge representation, natural language processing and human-computer interaction as its main areas • As applications, information science also includes information access, information architecture, information management, information seeking, and information society Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  12. 12. Side, but related: Human-Computer Interaction • Involves the study, planning, and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers. • It is often regarded as the intersection of computer sciences, behavioral sciences, design and several other fields of study • HCI is also sometimes referred to as man–machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI) Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  13. 13. Business Analysis • Business analysis is a research discipline of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems. Solutions often include a systems development component, but may also consist of process improvement, organizational change or strategic planning and policy development. • One of the BA areas is requirements analysis • The Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BABOK): Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  14. 14. Requirements analysis • Describes how to develop and specify requirements in enough detail to allow them to be successfully implemented by a project team • Among the forms of analysis are: architecture analysis; business process analysis; object oriented analysis; structured analysis and data based analysis, known as systems analysis altogether • System analysis is one of the three roles: strategy; architecture and system analysis Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  15. 15. Information Systems • Is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software (information technology) that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, and distribute data and information – bridges business and computer science using the theoretical foundations of information and computation to study various business models and related algorithmic processes – computer information systems (CIS) is a field studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society while IS emphasizes functionality over design • Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and decision making. In a broad sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology that an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes • A Framework of Information Systems Concepts (FRISCO report, IFIP): Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  16. 16. Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  17. 17. Information Systems Analysis • The definition of a systems analysis is a method of figuring out the basic elements of a project and deciding how to combine them in the best way to solve a problem • The major forms of analysis are: data analysis; structured analysis and object oriented analysis Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  18. 18. Side, but related: Data Analysis • Is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains • DAMA Data Management Body of Knowledge (DAMA DMBOK): Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  19. 19. Side, but related: Information Security • Information security is the practice of defending information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction. It is a general term that can be used regardless of the form the data may take (electronic, physical or any other combination) • Common body of knowledge (CBK) – CISSP curriculum: Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  20. 20. Side, but related: Project Management • Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals – a project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. • The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations) • Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK): Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  21. 21. Side, but related: • Knowledge Management Knowledge management (KM) is the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational knowledge. It refers to a multi-disciplined approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge – includes the fields of business administration, information systems, management, and library and information science, and computer sciences • • – some organizations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts, often as a part of their business strategy, information technology, or human resource management departments Knowledge management efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organization KM efforts overlap with organizational learning, and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the sharing of knowledge. It is seen as an enabler of organizational learning and a more concrete mechanism than the previous abstract research Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  22. 22. Information Engineering • An integrated set of methodologies and products used to guide and develop information processing within an organization. It starts with enterprise-wide strategic planning and ends with running applications • Information engineering first provided data analysis and database design techniques used by database administrators and systems analysis based upon an understanding of the operational processing needs of organizations for the 1980s Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  23. 23. Information Systems Development • Information technology departments in larger organizations tend to strongly influence information technology development, use, and application in the organizations A series of methodologies and processes can be used to develop and use an information system • Many developers have turned and used a more engineering approach such as the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) which is a systematic procedure of developing an information system through stages that occur in sequence Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  24. 24. System Development Life Cycle • The systems development life cycle (SDLC), also referred to as the application development life-cycle, is a term used in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering to describe a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an information system. • The systems development life-cycle concept applies to a range of hardware and software configurations, as a system can be composed of hardware only, software only, or a combination of both Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  25. 25. Systems Engineering • Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how to design and manage complex engineering projects over their life cycles. Deal with issues such as reliability, logistics, coordination of different teams (requirements management), evaluation measurements, as also work-processes, optimization methods, and risk management tools • It overlaps technical and human-centered disciplines such as control engineering, industrial engineering, organizational studies, and project management. • Systems Engineering ensures that all likely aspects of a project or system are considered, and integrated into a whole. Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  26. 26. Information Systems Planning • The activity of producing a broad enduring statement for the organizations alignment with its own strategy. Includes objectives (as the desired future positions an organization intends to reach in order to fulfill its mission); strategies (the general direction in which an objective is to be sought); and policies (a general guideline that directs and constrains decision-making within an organization) – involves the identification of the information systems stage (usually with a maturity model approach); list applications in operation; and its evaluation to prioritize those who are more relevant • The 4 stage model for IS planning: (1) strategic planning; (2) information requirement analysis; (3) resource allocation; and (4) project planning (using project management techniques) • Strategic information systems planning (SISP) is the process of identifying a portfolio of computer-based applications that will assist an organization in executing its business plans and realizing its goals Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  27. 27. Information Systems strategy • IS strategy is an organizational perspective on the investment in, deployment, use, and management of IS, that can be regarded as: – the use of IS to support business strategy; – the master plan of the IS function; – the shared view of the IS role within the organization Business Strategy Organizational Strategy Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013 Information Strategy
  28. 28. Information Systems Integration • Making diverse components work together and deals with interoperability issues (both present and future) Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  29. 29. Information Systems Management • Includes the activities of developing and planning information systems and cares about its aligment with the supported organization. • It is also referred as the development and use of information systems that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  30. 30. Information Systems Exploration • Deals with the exploration of existant information systems, taking care of their ability to offer service continuity, including the realization of maintenance efforts in a sustainable way • The explorarion also takes into consideration to take advantage of existing facilities to enhance functionality, provide extended or even new uses and applications Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  31. 31. Information Governance • the set of multi-disciplinary structures, policies, procedures, processes and controls implemented to manage information at an enterprise level, supporting an organization's immediate and future regulatory, legal, risk, environmental and operational requirements • Information Governance is the process of making the right information available to the right people at the right time until it reaches the end of its lifetime Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  32. 32. Some well accepted classification systems • ACM Computing Classification System – Proposed by ACM, the Association for Computing Machinery, EUA ( – The late revision is from 2012 (its version 4) – Complete description: • IEEE computer society (keywords) – Proposed by IEEE, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( – IEEE’s taxionomy for information technology and systems ( • Arxiv (the preprint paper repository) – Proposed and run by Cornell University Library – Has a classification/areas for Computer Science ( Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013
  33. 33. Final remarks & challenges • Computers and networks produces a new tangible digital dimension that adds to the physical one, as a collective result of the ongoing effort of many different people. • As so, a number of new areas and disciplines emerge. Most of them were coined just in the last half century (with some even more recently in the last decade) – as a result, a complex Web of relationships are in place • Challenge: – Represent the semantic network that relates all the described terms, by provind each term as a node, and their relationships as links – Create a timeline for the 26 terms. Also add the people who coined them (not always possible or known) Luis Borges Gouveia / v1.1 - Dez 2013