ARC Enginyeria i Ar quitectur a La Salle-Univer sitat Ramon Llull www.salle.ur l.edu/ar c
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BARCODE_HOUSING_SYSTEM (POSTER)

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This poster summarizes the first version of the BARCODE HOUSING SYSTEM, a research project carried out by the research group ARC Engineering and Architecture La Salle, from 2002 to 2009. The purpose of the research has been the creation of an Internet-based environment which facilitates the interaction of the different actors (architects, builders, manufacturers, occupants, facilities managers) involved in the design, construction and use of affordable housing built with industrialized methods. This research project began in 2002, when we started to develop a rule-based system to automatically generate housing units and buildings resulting from their aggregation, by means of user-friendly interfaces. This system, which is summarized in this poster, was completed in 2005. Afterwards, we developed a web-based system that facilitates the participation and interaction of different agents in the process of designing, building and using the housing generated with the support of the system. This second version of the system was carried out with a research grant of the Spanish National RDI plan, from 2005 to 2009. It is a modular environment which supports the decision-making process in an open and distributed fashion, allowing inputs from different users at any stage of the design and building process. The full development of the system can be seen in this presentation:

http://www.slideshare.net/lmadrazo/barcode-housing-system

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BARCODE_HOUSING_SYSTEM (POSTER)

  1. 1. ARC Enginyeria i Ar quitectur a La Salle-Univer sitat Ramon Llull www.salle.ur l.edu/ar c FAÇADE G E N E R A T I O N P R O C E S S GLOBAL CONDITIONS HOUSING UNITS SYSTEM STRUCTURAL SYSTEMACCESS SYSTEM 1 2. |11|11|11|11|11|11|11|11| | #| #| | | | | 8| 8| 8| 8| 8| 8| 8| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| #| #| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| | 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| | | | | |10|10|10|10|10|10|10|10|#|#|#|7|7|7|7|7|7|7| | |6|6|6|6|6|6|#|#|2|2|2|2|2| | |7|7|7|7|7|7|7| | | |11|11|11|11|11|11|11|11| | #| #| | 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| | 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| | #| #| 3| 3| 3| 3| 3| | | 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| | | | |8|8|8|8|8|8|8| |#|#|#| |10|10|10|10|10|10|10|10|4|4|4|4|4|4|#|#|6|6|6|6|6|6| | |8|8|8|8|8|8|8| | 3. | 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| | | | | #| #| | | | | 3| 3| 3| 3| 3| | | | | | | #| #| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| | | | | |10|10|10|10|10|10|10|10| | #| #| | | | | 3| 3| 3| 3| 3| | | | | | | #| #| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| | | | | | |10|10|10|10|10|10|10|10| |#|#|7|7|7|7|7|7|7|4|4|4|4|4|4| | |#|#|4|4|4|4|4|4|7|7|7|7|7|7|7| | | | | | 8| 8| 8| 8| 8| 8| 8| | | #| #| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| | | | #| #| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| | | | | 4. 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| | | #| #| #| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| | | | | #| #| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| 8| 8| 8| 8| 8| 8| 8| | | | | | 6|6|6|6|6|6| | |#|#|#|3|3|3|3|3|11|11|11|11|11|11|11|11| | | |#|#|#|6|6|6|6|6|6|9|9|9|9|9|9|9| | | | 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| | | #| #| #| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| 7| | | | #| #| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| | | | | | 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| | | | #| #| #| | |11|11|11|11|11|11|11|11| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| #| #| #| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| 3| 3| 3| 3| 3| | | | | | | 1. 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| | | #| #| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| | | | 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| 9| #| #| #| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| | | | | 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| | | #| #| 3| 3| 3| 3| 3| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| | #| #| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 6| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| | | | |11|11|11|11|11|11|11|11|#|#|8|8|8|8|8|8|8| | |8|8|8|8|8|8|8| |#|#|#|11|11|11|11|11|11|11|11|5|5|5|5|5|5| | | |8|8|8|8|8|8|8|#|#|8|8|8|8|8|8|8| |11|11|11|11|11|11|11|11| |#|#|#|4|4|4|4|4|4|4|4|4|4|4|4| | | | : area (50,60,…m2) : proportions (%) : distributions of types : distance to staircases: relations filled-unfilled. : staircases dimensions : minimum distance to the edge : min/màx distance between staircases 3 42: volume : budget : number of housing units : distances between pillars : cantilevers : pillars : beams : slabs v KWD V Ad SWD v v KWD V v aD ad v KWD V aD v V KWD v KWD V AD SWDv v KWD V aD v ad v KWD V aD v KWD V 80 m. 2 90 m. 2 60 m. 2 50 m. 2 MIRAR PUJAR SENTAR-SE PARLAR CAMINAR CAMINAR R e s e a r c h p r o j e c t f i n a n c e d b y t h e S p a n i s h N a t i o n a l R + D + i P l a n 2 0 0 5 - 2 0 0 8 ( B I A 2 0 0 5 - 0 8 7 0 7 - C 0 2 - 0 1 ) A c o m p u t e r - a i d e d d e s i g n a n d b u i l d i n g s y s t e m t o b u i l d h o u s i n g b l o c k s BAR_CODE HOUSING SYSTEM is a computer aided design and building system for housing blocks built with industrialized processes. A prototype system, developed by the research group ARC Enginyeria i Arquitectura La Salle in the period 2002-2005. It consists of a generative application to create housing units, blocks and facades and a web-based environment to visualize blocks in three-dimensions in the Internet. The prototype system has become the starting point for a new research programme financed by the Spanish National Research, Development and Innovation Plan, to be carried out between 2005 and 2008. Altogether, a 12-person multidisciplinary team made up of architects, civil engineers, and computer engineers are currently working in the development of the project. The goal is to create an integrated platform which will support communication and collaboration among all agents involved in the design and construction of affordable housing blocks: architects, manufacturers, contractors and occupants. w w w . b a r c o d e h o u s i n g . n e t RESEARCH TEAM: Arquitectura i Enginyeria La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull: Leandro Madrazo, Ph.D., Architect (Project coordinator). Collaborators: Álvaro Sicilia, Tech. Engineer Computer Science; Eduardo Hernández, Architect; Alfredo Peñafiel, Architect; David Pascual, Multimedia Technical Engineer; David Hidalgo, Technical Architect Contact: Prof. Dr. Leandro Madrazo (madrazo@salle.url.edu) BAR_CODE HOUSING SYSTEM is made up of three interrelated systems closely interwoven: 1 Architectural system, with housing layouts conceived as aggregations of space-bars which are then grouped in linear blocks. 2 Building system, which is based on industrially produced components, assembled according to principles of open prefabrication systems. 3 Computer-aided design system which allows users to explore, formal and spatial configurations of housing units and blocks. In its current implementation, BAR_CODE HOUSING SYSTEM can be described as a procedural system operating on a finite number of spatial and building components. The generative process takes place at three different levels, in this sequence: housing units generating, blocks assembling and façades composition. The generation process of a housing unit is divided into two stages: 1. Production of all possible space-bar combinations fitting within a given rectangular area and 2. Construction of proper layouts for each space-bar arrangement. The first part of the process is an exhaustive search of the solutions space, which can be automatically performed after setting a few constraints (surface, number of inhabitants,..) The second one is a heuristic process seeking for a valid solution. The interface to generate and visualize the floor-plans is simple and straightforward. A user interacting with a set of sliders can search for valid plans interacting with the system. GENERATION OF HOUSING UNITS Blocks are the result of assembling a set of housing units in a previously defined volume. A block is generated in two steps: first, staircases are place; then housing units are inserted. Both generation processes are based on Best First Search techniques. The process of placing units in the block can be performed automatically or, alternatively, it can be guided by the user by means of a diagram consisting of a set of sliders to position the insertion node and to select the housing units. BLOCKS ASSEMBLING BAR_CODE HOUSING SYSTEM : COMPUTER-AIDED SYSTEM : visualization A façade is conceived as a system of its own, independent from the spatial arrangement of units within the block. Therefore, for each block there can be an unlimited number of façades. In the existing prototype, the composition procedure is restricted to the front façade. The façade’s composition is designed by the user in interaction with the system by means of a diagram made up of connected circles. Each circle controls the values of a design parameter: orientation, illumination, color, acoustics and cost. As the user modifies these values the façade composition changes accordingly, interactively. For instance, if the façade is oriented to the south, the panel’s color becomes lighter, since dark colors would absorb more solar radiation. FAÇADE COMPOSITION The web environment allows users to visualize in 3-D the blocks created by the generative application. In the future implementation, generating and visualizing will be part of the same web-based environment. Blocks can be visualized in three- dimensions with different representations: volumetric composition, floor-.plans, structural components. Animated walks suited to the characteristics of a block (dimensions, spatial arrangement) are automatically created. WEB-BASED VISUALIZATION ENVIRONMENT The architectural system is composed of two basic elements: 1. a housing unit which is the result of the aggregation of space-bars 2. a block, which is produced out of the aggregation of housing units. The basic unit of composition of this architectural system is a space element rather than a set of building components. Housing units are the result of aggregating space-bars of two kinds: serving bars, including kitchen, bathroom and building services; and served bars, adjacent spaces which can be used for any other purpose (eating, sleeping, working...). One of the consequences of this spatial composition is the possibility to combine spaces in many different ways to create a large variety of housing units. There is no standard-house for a standard-occupant. Rather, each housing unit can be con-figured combining space-bars in different ways to accommodate the needs of different inhabitants. Furthermore, housing units can increase or decrease their size, by taking or giving away space-bars from or to the adjacent unit (horizontally and vertically). This way, a dwelling can easily adapt itself to the changing living conditions of the occupants throughout the life of the building. HOUSING UNITS A block is the result of the aggregation of housing units. However, the block has properties which are not inherited from the units and which makes the block a system of its own. For instance, to provide access to the units in a multi-story arrangement a ‘block’ has a circulation system, consisting of open staircases located at the interstices between units, connected to open walkways. The aggregation of units does not create the circulation system; rather this is part of the ‘block’. Also, since the housing units are not self-bearing (walls are simply enclosing) their aggregation does not result necessarily in a stable construction. Therefore, the ‘block’ must provide a structure too. A system of connected open and semi-open spaces (stairs, terraces, roofs, corridors, platforms), strengthens the communal dimension of living in the block. For the same purpose, in a block there is a provision of spaces which can be temporarily occupied by tenants to be used as working spaces, communal services, storage or any other use. The building system is based on open prefabrication methods, using components from different manufacturers. In the prototype system, the structural skeleton is made up of pre-cast reinforced concrete members, with girders spanning 4.80 to 6.00 m. Floor slabs are made of pre-stressed concrete plates, 1.20 m. wide and 8.40 m. long. This pre-cast system makes it possible to use large spans, limiting the placing of columns on the facades. A secondary structural system for walkways and staircases is made of steel and anchored to the concrete structure. Ventilated facades are built with resin panels and, eventually, photovoltaic panels. This layered facade, with an air gap, provides a good isolation both in winter and summertime. In the front facade, light protection is achieved with perforated panels and in the service facade with the shadow cast by walkways. Building services run outside the block, under the walkways, entering the housing unit at the serving bars, through the suspended ceiling. This way, any service can be easily accessible from the outside and from the inside of the apartment, facilitating maintenance. BLOCKS An integrated environment like the one being devised for BAR_CODE HOUSING SYSTEM should contribute to overcome the fragmentation of the construction industry. Integration means, in our case, to provide a computer-supported environment that facilitates parallel forms of collaboration among the different actors (designer-manufacturer- contractor-client) thus breaking away with the linear processes (from designer to contractor, from contractor to manufacturer) which characterize the design and construction of a building. In order to model the collaborative working processes, it is necessary to define the profiles of the different actors and their forms of interaction, as well as to create appropriate interfaces which make the processes visible and intelligible to the different participants. This means to come up with a meaningful scenario where virtual teams are assembled to work throughout the whole lifecycle of the building –design, construction, maintenance, facilities management and demolition– with the support of the system. TOWARDS AND INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT BAR_CODE HOUSING SYSTEM B U I L D I N G S Y S T E M A R C H I T E C T U R A L S Y S T E MCOMPUTER AIDED-DESIGN SYSTEM BARCODEHOUSINGSYSTEM 1154 m ESP. COMUNS 2 60 m. 2 4 50 m. 2 17 70 m. 2 4 m HABITATGE 2 m ESP. POLIVALENT 2 60 852 1330 m ESP. COMUNS 2 60 m. 2 4 50 m. 2 19 70 m. 2 2 m HABITATGE 2 m ESP. POLIVALENT 2 90 797 W W K W D VA D K W D v A d K W D VA D K W D V K W D VA D K W D v A D K W D VA D K W D VA D K W D v A d A d KWDvAdKWDVWWKWDVADKWDVKWDVADKWDVKWDVADKWDVAd 1410 m ESP. COMUNE 2 60 m. 2 5 50 m. 2 18 70 m. 2 3 m HABITATGE 2 m ESP. POLIVALENT 2 90 1379 1100 m ESP. COMUNS 2 60 m. 2 7 50 m. 2 8 70 m. 2 4 m HABITATGE 2 m ESP. POLIVALENT 2 90 858 K W D v A d K W D VADK W D VAdWWK W D vAdAd K W D A d K W D v A d K W D v A d K W D v A d A d K W D vAdAdK W D v A d K W D VADK W D VAdWW K W D v A d K W D v A d A d K W D A d K W D v A d ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEM BUILDING SYSTEM COMPUTER AIDED- DESIGN SYSTEM BAR_CODE HOUSING SYSTEM : SYSTEM

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