Ganoderma Lucidum

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Ganoderma Lucidum

  1. 1. Luigi Leung 80171899 Lingzhi ( Ganoderma Lucidum )
  2. 2. Names <ul><li>Traditional Chinese: 靈芝 (pronounced: ling gi) </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified Chinese: 灵芝 (pronounced: ling zhi) </li></ul><ul><li>Korean: 영지 (pronounced: yeong ji) </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese: 靈芝 (pronounced: rei shi) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific name: Ganoderma Lucidum </li></ul>
  3. 3. Area of Origin <ul><li>Ganoderma lucidum originated from Asia (specifically China and Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>Appears in a 1800 1 years old Chinese medicinal book: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shennong’s Herbal Classic 2 ( 神農本草經 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest mushroom recorded and known used in medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Shennong lived between 2737 - 2697 BC. (over 4000 years ago) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book was published in around 220AD. (around 1800 years ago) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Also known as: Materia Medica , The Divine Farmer's Herb-Root Classic, Shennong Bencao Jing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Area of Origin Isolated Ganoderma Ganoderma in natural habitat Shennong (aka. Yan Emperor) (aka. Father of Chinese agriculture)
  5. 5. Current Area of Cultivation <ul><li>Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Grown in tropical and temperate geographical regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal growth conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: between 18 - 30°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity: between 85 - 95%. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are three methods of Ganoderma cultivation: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wood log cultivation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pot or bottle cultivation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tank cultivation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In conclusion in numerous studies of methods of cultivation in the past 30 years, Ganoderma harvested by wood log cultivation have shown to be the best method for high quality Ganoderma lucidum . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Current Area of Cultivation Wood log cultivation Pot or bottle cultivation Tank (box) cultivation
  7. 7. Historical Significance/Usage <ul><li>The word “ling zhi” literally means “spirit divine-plant” or “herb of spiritual potency” </li></ul><ul><li>In Shennong’s Herbal Classic, Ganoderma is listed under the “superior” category out of the three categories. This category is also known as “God’s herbs” which includes herbs effective for multiple diseases because of its effect on maintaining and restoring the body’s balance. (this is the yin/yang theory regarding diseases are caused by imbalances). These herbs can be eaten for long periods of time without adverse side effects. Ganoderma was used as a cure-it-all tonic. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of Ganoderma’s rarity in ancient time, only the emperors took them as a regular and integral part of their diet. Ganoderma was reputed to generate power and to promote a long, healthy, wise life. For an emperor to survive and prosper, it was essential to prevent potential enemies obtaining benefits of Ganoderma . As a result, unauthorized possession of Ganoderma subjected the person to a death sentence in ancient Imperial China. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Current Significance <ul><li>Because of modern cultivation techniques, Ganoderma is now much more widely available and affordable. </li></ul><ul><li>Because Ganoderma is highly regarded in Oriental medicine, research is conducted worldwide (mainly in China and Japan). Like most western drugs, pharmaceutical companies are interested in isolating the effective chemical in these herbs so they can be mass manufactured using synthetic organic reaction techniques. From PubMed database, around 500 papers were published since the early 1970s. Most of these papers are on Ganoderma’s effect on the immune system and antioxidant activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent claims were made about its anti-tumor properties. Studies are currently conducted to study Ganoderma ’s effect on cancer cells. This topic is still controversial because not much studies have been done to significantly support the claim. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there are significant data supporting Ganoderma’s effects on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowering blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase production of immune cells (IL-1, IL-2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance immune cells activity (NK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidant activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Current Significance Fig. 3. Induction of G2/M arrest in HL-60 cells by G. lucidum extract. Panel a shows cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry after PI staining for untreated control cells. Panel b depicts cell cycle analysis for cells treated with G. lucidum , 100 μg/ml for 72 h. Increasing number of HL-60 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle were detected. Horizontal and vertical axis represent DNA content and cell number, respectively. Percentages of the different cell cycle phases are calculated for the population of cells within the dashed lines. Representative of one of two experiments with similar results. Müller, Claudia I., et al. “Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells.” Leukemia Research 30.7 (June 2006): 841-848. <ul><li>A recent study about </li></ul><ul><li>Ganoderma ’s effect on cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>The graph comparison shows Ganoderma lucidum extract halts cancer cells’ (HL-60) division. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Current Significance Fig. 2. Growth arrest of hematologic cell lines induced by G. lucidum extract. Cells included: panel a, acute myeloid leukemia (HL-60, U937); panel b, erythroid chronic myeloid leukemia (K562); panel c, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Blin-1, Nalm-6); panel d, multiple myeloma (RPMI8226). Cells of each line were treated with G. lucidum (10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100  μ g/mg) for 96 h. MTT assay was performed. Viable cells were expressed as a percentage of untreated control cultures for each line. Results represent the mean ± S.D. of three different experiments performed in triplicates. <ul><li>The graphs show a constant decrease of various cancer cell counts as Ganoderma lucidum amount increases. </li></ul><ul><li>(effectiveness peaks at </li></ul><ul><li>around 60-80 ug/ml) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Components Major components found in Ganoderma Lucidum <ul><li>It is interesting to note there are relatively more organic Germanium than other species. From some articles 1 found on PubMed, Germanium has low toxicity in mammals but has strong toxic effects against certain bacteria. Along the lines 2 , Germanium has anti-inflammatory effects. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, Ganodenic acids (includes Ganoderic acid, Lucidenic acid, Ganodermic acid and Lucidone) are unique to Ganoderma mushrooms. Research have shown that they lower blood pressure. </li></ul>2 Lee, JH., et al. “Anti-inflammatory effect of germanium-concentrated yeast against paw oedema is related to the inhibition of arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin E production in RBL 2H3 cells.” Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 25.4 (Oct 2005): 129-134. 1 Tao, SH., Bolger, PM. “Hazard Assessment of Germanium Supplements.” Regulatory Toxicol. and Pharmacol. 25.3 (Jun 1997): 211-219. <ul><ul><li>Major Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ganoderma Polysaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ganoderma Adenosine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ganodenic Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Germanium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other trace minerals (Fe, Ca , Mn, Zn) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. “ Old Wives” Tales <ul><li>There are various “old wives” tales relating to Ganoderma lucidum . Most of which are about bringing the dead back and immortality. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a story titled “Lady White Snake” ( 白蛇傳 ) [literal translation: white snake biography] has Lingzhi ( Ganoderma lucidum ) as one of the quest for a character in the story to obtain. Because the story was passed on orally in the beginning, there are several variations. Here is one variation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 snake spirits transformed to female humans. 1 named White. The other named Green. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White visited a shop and fell in love with a character named Xu. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One day, the two couples went to a festival. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White drank a cup of wine and got sick. They went back the their house to rest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xu went out to get some medicine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White was unable to hold her human form and turned back to a snake. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xu came back and found a huge snake on his bed. He fell scared to death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White woke up and found her husband dead on the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White went on a quest for Lingzhi ( Ganoderma lucidum ) to bring Xu back from the dead (White has to fight some guardians of Lingzhi on a mountain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White got the Lingzhi and bought Xu back to life. The couple later got a son. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A monk came to find White and trapped her into a bottle. (This was because there was a tragedy during the fighting against the guardians of Lingzhi where White accidentally flooded a nearby village with her magic. So, the monk came to find this “evil spirit”.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The son became a great scholar and one day went to the temple to pay respect for his mother. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White was release from her bottle and gets to reunite with her family. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The moral of the story is “filial piety”. Filial piety is a Confucian philosophy about love and respect for one's parents and ancestors. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bibliography <ul><li>Müller, Claudia I., et al. “Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells.” Leukemia Research 30.7 (June 2006): 841-848. </li></ul><ul><li>Tao, SH., Bolger, PM. “Hazard Assessment of Germanium Supplements.” Regulatory Toxicol. and Pharmacol. 25.3 (Jun 1997): 211-219. </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, JH., et al. “Anti-inflammatory effect of germanium-concentrated yeast against paw oedema is related to the inhibition of arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin E production in RBL 2H3 cells.” Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 25.4 (Oct 2005): 129-134. </li></ul><ul><li>Tims, Michael C. “Reishi Medicinal Research.” Green Mountain Mycosystems. 2006. Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc. 28 May 2007. < http://www.vermontmushrooms.com/herbmed_gmm.php?HerbID=3 >. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Emperors and Physicians.” Classics of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2000. National Institutes of Health. 28 May 2007. < http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/chinese/emperors.html >. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ganoderma Cultivation.” Ganoderma Online. 2006. Ganoderma-Online.com. 28 May 2007 < http://www.ganoderma-online.com/Ganoderma-Cultivation.html >. </li></ul><ul><li>“ LifeArt LingZhi” LifeArt Products. 2005. Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology Limited. 28 May 2007. < http://www.hkib.org.hk/products/linzhi.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lingzhi Farm” Shuang Hor. 2007. Double Crane Enterprise Co., Ltd. 28 May 2007. < http://www.shuanghor.com/reishi.html >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Lingzhi.&quot; Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia . 25 May 2007, 14:20 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 28 May 2007 < http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lingzhi&oldid=133420998 >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Madame White Snake.&quot; Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia . 31 May 2007, 11:42 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 28 May 2007 < http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Madame_White_Snake&oldid=134789156 >. </li></ul>

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