Faculty orientation,
development, and
   support in virtual
  university settings

  Lauryl A. Lefebvre, Ph.D.
         In...
Purpose
1.   To examine the demographics and
     job satisfaction of part-time faculty at
     for-profit virtual univers...
Outline
   Study Background
   Theoretical Framework
   Research Questions
   Methodology
   Select Findings
   Impl...
Research Gap at Policy-level
                    1986 - 2001 Journal of Distance Education
                               ...
2002 - 2008

                                                              evaluation
                                    ...
Part-time Faculty Usage at U.S.
  Postsecondary Institutions
                         60

                         50
% of...
8
9
Typical P-T Virtual Faculty Roles
           • faculty hiring
           • student admissions decisions
           • curri...
Research Questions
#1. Faculty Profile.
   What is the demographic and employment profile of
   part-time virtual faculty?...
Significance
   contributes to the research gap on faculty
    attitudes with virtual workplace

   provides insight on ...
Literature Review

                Part-time
          campus-based faculty
                Distance
          campus-base...
Theoretical Framework
                            Self-
                        actualization


                        Se...
Job Satisfaction
                             - a positive emotional
                             response resulting
     ...
Hygiene                      Motivator
                                                                     Herzberg (1966...
Privacy
Support
                                  Job
                                Security

                 Existence...
N. Alberta (2)

Methodology
Structured
             Questionnaire




Open-ended                   Closed-ended
 Responses                    Responses
Excel                      SPSS




          Interim Data
             Analysis

Informs                     Informs




...
Transcripts




                Import of
              Demographics
  NVivo




  Final
Analysis
RQ#1: Faculty Profile
                                                        Study Sample             Bricks-and-Mortar1
...
RQ#2: Job Satisfaction

 Satisfaction    n      Mean      Std. Error   Std. Dev.   Cronbach's
   Scores                   ...
RQ#2 Existence (Hygiene) Needs
  Existence          n       Mean            S.D.       Group A       Group B           B–A...
Orientation   Support Services


              Prof. Development
R#3: Working Conditions
           Orientation Method                       Mean             S.D.



Online instructor cer...
Orientation Topic                    Mean                 S.D.


Alumni updates                                  1.97     ...
Professional Development Method           Mean   S.D.


3- and 5-day short courses offered by
                            ...
Course platform
management


   Student advising




   Group discussion forum
   facilitation


Assessment (course +
stud...
Support Service                        Mean             S.D.


Multimedia design                                     2.82 ...
Foster peer-to-peer
   Identify reflection
 Embed just-in-time IT
andopportunities in
     interactions for
       library...
Review
   Virtual universities have attracted an older and more
    experienced/educated workforce.
   Work need theorie...
Hygiene                      Motivator
                                                                     Herzberg (1966...
Questions?
Research Gap
Part-time Faculty Trends
Theoretical Framework
RQ#1: Demographic Profile
RQ#2: Job Satisfaction
RQ...
References
Chronister, J. L., Baldwin, R. G., & Conley, V. M. (1997). Retirement and other
    departure plans of instruct...
Rourke, L., & Szabo, M. (2002). A content analysis of the Journal of Distance
   Education, 1986-2001. Journal of Distance...
Sloan09 Lauryl A Lefebvre
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Sloan09 Lauryl A Lefebvre

  1. 1. Faculty orientation, development, and support in virtual university settings Lauryl A. Lefebvre, Ph.D. Indiana University lef@indiana.edu October 30, 2009 Sloan-C
  2. 2. Purpose 1. To examine the demographics and job satisfaction of part-time faculty at for-profit virtual universities 2. To review their institutional support preferences with respect to: › Orientation topics and delivery methods › Professional development resources › Support services
  3. 3. Outline  Study Background  Theoretical Framework  Research Questions  Methodology  Select Findings  Implications for Practice  Future Research
  4. 4. Research Gap at Policy-level 1986 - 2001 Journal of Distance Education Content Analysis faculty Course-level 6% 41% Policy-level 25% admin. 15% Editorial 10% evaluation Intl. Foundations 5% 7% 16% SOURCE: Rourke & Szabo (2002) Course-level: technology and media (16%), instructional design (13%), learner characteristics (12%), and student support services (15%).
  5. 5. 2002 - 2008 evaluation 11% faculty 5% Course-level 55% Policy-level 25% admin. 9% Editorial Intl. Foundations 13% 2% 5% Course-level: technology and media (13%), instructional design (21%), learner characteristics (13%), and student support services (9%).
  6. 6. Part-time Faculty Usage at U.S. Postsecondary Institutions 60 50 % of Part-time Faculty 40 30 20 10 0 1970 1977 1984 1991 1998 2005 Year SOURCES: Snyder, Dillow, & Hoffman (2009)
  7. 7. 8
  8. 8. 9
  9. 9. Typical P-T Virtual Faculty Roles • faculty hiring • student admissions decisions • curriculum development Teaching • course design/development • course delivery • evaluation and assessment Research • Knowledge Generation Service • Institution, Region, Profession
  10. 10. Research Questions #1. Faculty Profile. What is the demographic and employment profile of part-time virtual faculty? #2. Job Satisfaction. What is their job satisfaction? Are they more intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated? #3. Working Conditions. What are their working conditions? Do these conditions meet their expectations?
  11. 11. Significance  contributes to the research gap on faculty attitudes with virtual workplace  provides insight on working conditions that contribute to faculty satisfaction,  engagement and retention  guides administrators in the design of university and program policies
  12. 12. Literature Review Part-time campus-based faculty Distance campus-based faculty Virtual faculty
  13. 13. Theoretical Framework Self- actualization Self-esteem Belonging Safety Physiological SOURCE: Maslow (1943)
  14. 14. Job Satisfaction - a positive emotional response resulting from an appraisal of Object the job in fulfillment of an individual’s values Cognition sensory conceptual = perception + identification Value Appraisal Emotion SOURCE: Locke, 1984
  15. 15. Hygiene Motivator Herzberg (1966) Hygiene factors → Dissatisfaction (when absent) or No Dissatisfaction (when present) Existence Relatedness Growth Alderfer (1969) Motivator factors → Satisfaction (when present) or No Satisfaction (when absent) Self- Physiological Security Social Self-esteem actualization Maslow (1949) SOURCE: Ronen (1994)
  16. 16. Privacy Support Job Security Existence Needs Pay Workload Benefits Flextime
  17. 17. N. Alberta (2) Methodology
  18. 18. Structured Questionnaire Open-ended Closed-ended Responses Responses
  19. 19. Excel SPSS Interim Data Analysis Informs Informs Semi-structured Interviews
  20. 20. Transcripts Import of Demographics NVivo Final Analysis
  21. 21. RQ#1: Faculty Profile Study Sample Bricks-and-Mortar1 n = 39 wt. n = 416 Gender (M-to-F) 56:44 52:48 Mean age (yrs) 57 46 Terminal degree 90% 26% Employment tenure (yrs) 6 6 Appointment as primary 24% 23% Employed elsewhere 90% n.a. - # of outside jobs 1.5 1.7 - full-time positions 42% 64% Retired professional 26% n.a. Expected retirement >70 yrs 59% 10.7% 1Sources: Chronister, Baldwin, & Conley (1997), Conley & Leslie (2002), and Forrest, Cataldi, Fahimi, & Bradburn (2005).
  22. 22. RQ#2: Job Satisfaction Satisfaction n Mean Std. Error Std. Dev. Cronbach's Scores Alpha General 32 72.84 2.719 15.38 0.938 Intrinsic 37 38.95 1.217 7.41 0.880 Extrinsic 35 22.09 1.210 7.16 0.906 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) response options for 20-item short form: 1 = Very dissatisfied, 2 = Dissatisfied, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Satisfied, and 5 = Very satisfied (Vocational Psychology Research, 1977).
  23. 23. RQ#2 Existence (Hygiene) Needs Existence n Mean S.D. Group A Group B B–A Factors rate of pay 39 2.03 0.873 1.64 2.18 0.54 Employment35 benefits Motivator 2.31 1.132 Mean 1.91 2.50 S.D. 0.59 orientation 37 2.49 1.070 2.40 2.52 0.12 Benefits teaching 1.23 .627 39 2.56 1.021 2.18 2.71 0.53 support Salary technical 1.64 .811 38 2.68 0.842 2.50 2.75 0.25 support Online teaching experience 2.38 1.138 workload 39 2.77 0.931 2.18 3.00 0.82 Part-time nature of work 3.18 .942 security 37 2.78 1.031 2.64 2.85 0.21 Ability to set own hours 3.32 .809 privacy 38 3.47 0.725 3.18 3.59 0.41 flextime No influence, 2 – Some influence, 3 – Influential, and 4 – Great influence. 1– 37 3.70 0.618 3.36 3.85 0.49 Average of means: 2.75 1 – Very Dissatisfied, 2 – Somewhat dissatisfied, 3 – Somewhat satisfied, 4 – Very satisfied Group A: Very Dissatisfied/ Somewhat Dissatisfied; Group B: Somewhat Satisfied/ Very Satisfied
  24. 24. Orientation Support Services Prof. Development
  25. 25. R#3: Working Conditions Orientation Method Mean S.D. Online instructor certification courses 2.22 1.058 Newcomers web conferences 2.63 0.942 Newcomers face-to-face workshops 2.84 1.093 Tutorials (self-paced) 2.89 0.924 Faculty handbook 3.00 1.013 Peer mentoring 3.26 0.685 Questionnaire response options for part-time virtual faculty sample: 1 – Not Important, 2 – Somewhat important, 3 – Important and 4 – Very important.
  26. 26. Orientation Topic Mean S.D. Alumni updates 1.97 1.102 Institutional history 2.66 1.072 Student demographics 2.84 1.027 Institutional performance progress 2.97 0.944 reports Institutional mission 3.21 0.991 Organizational culture 3.24 0.943 Policies clarification 3.50 0.647 Teaching philosophy 3.58 0.722 Faculty resources 3.71 0.515 Questionnaire response options for part-time virtual faculty sample: 1 – Not Important, 2 – Somewhat important, 3 – Important and 4 – Very important.
  27. 27. Professional Development Method Mean S.D. 3- and 5-day short courses offered by 2.03 1.038 outside educational vendors Faculty exchange program with other 2.33 1.060 virtual institutions Release time/sabbatical 2.53 1.224 Web conferences 2.62 0.990 Professional association memberships 2.69 1.030 Face-to-face workshops offered by 2.95 0.972 institution Faculty retreat 3.03 1.013 Teaching and learning professional staff 3.21 0.978 Conference travel stipends 3.44 0.912
  28. 28. Course platform management Student advising Group discussion forum facilitation Assessment (course + student)
  29. 29. Support Service Mean S.D. Multimedia design 2.82 1.023 Andragogical assistance 2.92 0.997 Live concierge helpdesk 3.26 0.993 Librarian 3.38 0.815 Information technology 3.79 0.469 Questionnaire response options for part-time virtual faculty sample: 1 – Not Important, 2 – Somewhat important, 3 – Important and 4 – Very important.
  30. 30. Foster peer-to-peer Identify reflection Embed just-in-time IT andopportunities in interactions for library services cross-fertilization of focused on the virtual space ideas and reduction teaching strategies of and outcomes faculty isolation assessment
  31. 31. Review  Virtual universities have attracted an older and more experienced/educated workforce.  Work need theories provides a basis for examination of faculty work attitudes.  WASC virtual faculty are intrinsically motivated.  The existence needs of faculty orientation, development, and support were not dissatisfiers for WASC faculty.
  32. 32. Hygiene Motivator Herzberg (1966) Existence Relatedness Growth Alderfer (1969) Self- Physiological Security Social Self-esteem actualization Maslow (1949) SOURCE: Ronen (1994)
  33. 33. Questions? Research Gap Part-time Faculty Trends Theoretical Framework RQ#1: Demographic Profile RQ#2: Job Satisfaction RQ#3: Working Conditions – Support See also: Lefebvre, L.A. (2008). Demographics, roles, and employment motivations of part-time faculty at virtual universities. In N. Van Note Chism (ed.), Faculty at the margins, New Directions in Higher Education (no. 143, pp. 37-44), San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
  34. 34. References Chronister, J. L., Baldwin, R. G., & Conley, V. M. (1997). Retirement and other departure plans of instructional faculty and staff in higher education institutions. (Report No. NCES 98-254), Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Conley, V. M., & Leslie, D. W. (2002). Part-time instructional faculty and staff: Who they are, what they do, and what they think. (Report No. NCES 2002-163), Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Forrest Cataldi, E., Fahimi, M., Bradburn, E. M. , & Zimbler, L. (2005). 2004 National study of postsecondary faculty (NSOPF:04): Report on faculty and instructional staff in Fall 2003 (Report No. NCES 2005-172). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Locke, E. A. (1984). Job satisfaction. In M. M. Gruneberg, & T. D. Wall (Eds.), Social psychology and organizational behaviour (pp. 93-117). Chichester, England: Wiley. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396. Ronen, S. (1994). An underlying structure of motivational need taxonomies: A cross-cultural confirmation. In H. C. Triandis, M. D. Dunnette, & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 241-269). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  35. 35. Rourke, L., & Szabo, M. (2002). A content analysis of the Journal of Distance Education, 1986-2001. Journal of Distance Education, 17(1), 63-74. Snyder, T. D., Dillow, S. A., & Hoffman, C. M. (2009). Digest of education statistics 2008. (Report No. NCES 2009-020). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Vocational Psychology Research. (1977). Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (short-form ed.). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

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