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Geologic time chapter 14


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Geologic time chapter 14

  1. 1. Geologic Time
  2. 2. Trilobite eye position changed as the species adapted to various environments.
  3. 3. Trilobite bodies and tails changed in response to changing environments.
  4. 4. Continental collisions formed the giant landmass Pangaea near the end of the Paleozoic Era. These collisions may have dropped sea levels causing the extinction of trilobites.
  5. 5. Precambrian time: from 4 billion to ~544 million years ago. <ul><li>Very few fossils remain from this time. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Precambrain rocks were deeply buried, causing the fossils in them to be changed by heat and pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Precambrain organisms lacked hard parts. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Cyanobacteria are blue-green algae. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the earliest life forms to appear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added oxygen to the atmosphere through photosynthesis. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><ul><li>Invertebrates and Ediacaran animals appeared late in Precambrian time. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. The Paleozoic Era: 544 million years ago to ~245 million years ago. <ul><li>Many organisms with shells and vertebrates evolved in the warm shallow seas. </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians evolved to survive in water and on land. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Might have evolved from fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could obtain oxygen from gills or from lungs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>Reptiles evolved from amphibians to survive farther from water. </li></ul><ul><li>Several mountain-building episodes occurred during the Paleozoic Era because of plate collisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Most marine and land species became extinct at the end of the Paleozoic. </li></ul>
  10. 14. Mesozoic Era: 245-65 million years ago. <ul><li>Pangaea separated into continents and the climate became drier. </li></ul><ul><li>Dinosaurs evolved; they might have been warm-blooded, traveled in herds and nurtured their young. </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Birds, which probably evolved from small, meat-eating dinosaurs, appeared during the Jurassic Period. </li></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>Small, mouse-like mammals which are warm-blooded vertebrates with hair and milk to feed their young, appeared in the Triassic Period. </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>Gymnosperms, plants that produce seeds but not flowers, appeared in the Paleozoic Era. </li></ul><ul><li>Flowering plants or angiosperms appeared during the Cretaceous Period. </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>A great extinction, perhaps caused by a comet or an asteroid collision, occurred about 65 million years ago, marking the end of the Mesozoic Era. </li></ul>
  15. 19. The Cenozoic Era: 65 million years ago – today. <ul><li>Many mountain ranges formed, perhaps creating cooler climates worldwide. </li></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>Mammals continued to evolve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many species became isolated as the continents continued to separate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens or humans appeared about 400,000 years ago. </li></ul></ul>