Chapter 5

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Chapter 5

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Section I
  2. 2. Nonrenewable energy resources <ul><li>energy resources that can be used up; that take millions of years to form and are used faster that can be replenished </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fossil Fuels <ul><li>form from the remains of plants and other organisms that were buried and altered over millions of years </li></ul>
  4. 4. Coal <ul><li>1 – contains at least 50% plant remains </li></ul><ul><li>2- generates electricity </li></ul><ul><li>3 – current reserves will only last another 250 years </li></ul>
  5. 5. Oil <ul><li>produced from microscopic marine organisms </li></ul><ul><li>produce gas, fuels, lubricants, plastics, AND FERTILIZERS ($$$$$$)!!! </li></ul>
  6. 7. Natural Gas <ul><li>produced from microscopic marine organisms </li></ul><ul><li>1 – mainly used for heating and cooking </li></ul><ul><li>current US reserves will only last another 60 years </li></ul>
  7. 8. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>splitting of heavy elements to produce energy (fission) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>URANIUM-235 IS THE FUEL FOR FISSION REACTIONS IN POWER PLANTS. </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANTAGES: NO AIR OR WATER POLLUTION / SMALL AMOUNT OF FUEL GIVES A LARGE AMOUNT OF HEAT! </li></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGES: RADIACTIVE WASTE MUST BE MANAGED AND STORED FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME! </li></ul>
  9. 10. Section II <ul><li>Renewable energy resources – energy resources that are replaced over a relatively short time – 100 years or less </li></ul>
  10. 11. Inexhaustible <ul><li>energy resources that are constant and will not run out </li></ul>
  11. 12. Solar – energy from the sun <ul><li>“ SOLAR CELLS” used in satellites, calculators, streetlights, cars, etc. TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY! </li></ul><ul><li>not readily usable on cloudy days or at night </li></ul>
  12. 13. Wind Farms – areas with strong enough winds <ul><li>windmills and wind vanes create electricity </li></ul><ul><li>few regions of the world have strong enough or steady enough winds </li></ul><ul><li>visual pollution </li></ul>
  13. 15. Hydroelectric - running water flowing over dams, down waterfalls and rapids <ul><li>electricity from dams </li></ul><ul><li>water wheels for grinding; individual local use </li></ul><ul><li>dams create environment problems </li></ul>
  14. 16. Geothermal – energy obtained from Earth’s interior; hot magma or dry hot rocks <ul><li>HEAT USED TO MAKE STEAM TO CREATE ELECTRICITY. </li></ul><ul><li>ICELAND / HAWAII </li></ul>
  15. 17. Biomass Energy – energy from burning organic material <ul><li>alcohol – corn can be distilled into ethanol and used as a fuel – with or without another fuel added to the ethanol. GASAHOL USED IN VIRGINIA. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Wood – most commonly used biomass fuel – burning for heat </li></ul><ul><li>1 – causes pollution </li></ul><ul><li>2 – disrupts natural habitats when trees are cut down </li></ul>
  17. 19. Garbage – trash burning power plants burn garbage to generate electricity <ul><li>air pollution and toxic ash residue </li></ul>
  18. 20. Section III
  19. 21. Mineral Resources <ul><li>Deposits of energy resources that can be mined </li></ul>
  20. 22. “ ORE”: A MIXTURE OF PARENT MATERIAL AND A VALUABLE, USABLE RESOURCE SUCH AS IRON, COPPER, OTHER METALS.
  21. 23. <ul><li>METALLIC MINERAL RESOURCES: </li></ul><ul><li>1 – minerals that can be mined at a profit </li></ul><ul><li>2 – quantities large enough to be worth removing </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>3 – relatively easy to separate from parent material. </li></ul><ul><li>4 – has to be in demand – supply and demand </li></ul>
  23. 25. Nonmetallic Mineral Resources <ul><li>any mineral resources not used as fuels or as sources of metals </li></ul>
  24. 26. Industrial minerals <ul><li>sandstone for glass making, halite for table and road salt, garnet for abrasive sandpaper </li></ul>
  25. 27. Nonmetal Mineral Resources <ul><li>used for building materials including aggregate (for concrete), gypsum (for plaster and wallboards), and building stone (granite, limestone, and sandstone) </li></ul>
  26. 28. Virginia Mineral Resources <ul><li>coal – for fuel </li></ul>
  27. 29. Limestone – building stone
  28. 30. gravel – construction (concrete and road beds)
  29. 31. Crushed rock <ul><li>construction (concrete and road beds) </li></ul>
  30. 32. Titanium <ul><li>lightweight, durable (wheelchairs, auto and airplane parts, </li></ul><ul><li>non-toxic (repair broken bones </li></ul><ul><li>found in coastal plains – black sand </li></ul>

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