VAEA 2009 Presentation

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Summary of methods for teaching art through a multicultural perspective, focusing on contemporary artists.

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VAEA 2009 Presentation

  1. 1. Exploring Multicultural Approaches to Art Education<br />Why is it important, and how do we do it?<br />
  2. 2. Background and History of Multiculturalism<br />1880’s – America as a “Melting Pot”<br />Immigrants expected to meld into existing “American culture”<br /><ul><li>1920’s (after WWI) – Pluralism
  3. 3. Small groups within society maintain unique cultures
  4. 4. Referred originally to European cultures only
  5. 5. John Collier – advocated for American Indians (against assimilation)</li></li></ul><li>Background and History of Multiculturalism<br />1960’s – Pluralism expanded to include all races<br />1954-1960’s – School slowly become desegregated<br />1990’s – increased interest in multiculturalism and pluralism in education<br />
  6. 6. Multiculturalism in education defined<br />“Multicultural education is an idea, an educational reform movement, and a process whose major goal is to change the structure of educational institutions so that male and female students, exceptional students, and students who are members of diverse racial, ethnic, language, and cultural groups will have an equal chance to achieve academically in school.” <br />(James Banks, 2005)<br />
  7. 7. Art centered approaches to teaching from a multicultural perspective<br />Collins and Sandell<br />Attack response<br />Escape approach<br />Repair response<br />Transformative approach<br />Adapted from earlier work by James Banks<br />
  8. 8. Attack Response<br />Uses images which attack the dominant culture<br />Useful in bringing out hidden biasesand introducing themes of racism<br />Can continue the cycle of racism by making the minority culture feel like victims<br />
  9. 9. Escape Approach<br />Approaches other cultures in a romantic and idealized way<br />May arouse student interest in a previously unknown culture<br />Can lead to the view that the culture is naïve and simple<br />Paper bag poncho<br />
  10. 10. Repair Response<br />Intended to build self esteem of minority groups<br />Focuses on positive images from the minority culture<br />Can lead to trivialization if done without research and care<br />
  11. 11. Transformative Approach<br />Attempts to select the best aspects of different cultures to form a new, common culture<br />Aims to end violence and oppression due to race or cultural differences<br />Who determines what the “best aspects” are?<br />
  12. 12. Student Impact<br />Many student populations are increasingly multicultural<br />Helps teach tolerance and understanding<br /><ul><li> Student interest increases when they see themselves in the art shown in the classroom</li></li></ul><li>Concerns<br />Lack of prior knowledge on other cultures<br />Difficult to find resources, visuals, etc.<br />Discomfort bringing up issues of race and racism<br />No time to re-make the curriculum <br />Which cultures do we include?<br />
  13. 13. Contemporary Multicultural Approach<br />America is multicultural; American contemporary artists represent a variety of cultures<br />Easier for students to relate <br />Deals with current issues which directly impact students<br />Addresses cross-cultural identities<br />Represents a variety of points of view<br />
  14. 14. Robert Colescott<br />Feeling his Oats.1988<br />
  15. 15. Robert Colescott<br />George Washington Carver Crossing the Delaware: Page from an American History Textbook.1975<br />Emanuel Leutze’s famous 1851 painting George Washington crossing the Delaware<br />
  16. 16. Betye Saar <br />“ I’m the kind of person who recycles materials but I also recycle emotions and feelings, and I had a great deal of anger about the segregation and the racism in this country. And so this series sort of evolved. ”<br />The Liberation of Aunt Jemima. 1972<br />
  17. 17. Betye Saar <br />Sheba. 1992<br />Survival of the Spirit. 1993<br />
  18. 18. Roger Shimomura<br />DECEMBER 7, 1941<br />1997<br />Seattle, WA:<br />&quot;When I came back from church today, I heard the dreamlike news that Japanese airplanes had bombed Hawaii. I was shocked beyond belief. I sat in front of the radio and listened to the news all day. They said that at 6 a.m. Japan declared war on the United States. Our future has become gloomy. I pray that God will stay with us.&quot;<br />October 16, 1942<br />1997<br />Camp Minidoka:<br />&quot;It was fine weather today. I realized that today was Friday because fish was served. How monotonous life is here. Again, another day passed wastefully doing laundry and miscellaneous things.&quot;<br />
  19. 19. The History of Art, Version 2. 2003<br />
  20. 20. YinkaShonibare<br />Hopscotch. 2000<br />Lady on a Unicycle. 2005<br />
  21. 21. ShahziaSikander<br />&quot;The structure was built around narrative. The narrative utilized language which might resemble miniature, but when you came and looked at it closely it had nothing to do with old paintings. There is nothing being copied or borrowed. It was all coming from my own sort of diary of developing forms and giving meaning to them, and meaning actually emerges by usage...For instance, with &apos;Hood’s Red Rider,&apos; I did a series with children’s tales such as &apos;Little Red Riding Hood&apos;...&quot;<br />Hood&apos;s Red Rider #2. 1997<br />
  22. 22. To Reveal or Not to Reveal. 2004<br />
  23. 23. Gabriel Orozco<br />Galaxy Pot. 2002<br />Black Kites. 1997<br />
  24. 24. Kara Walker<br />Slavery! Slavery! 1997<br />
  25. 25. Kara Walker<br />&quot;The silhouette says a lot with very little information, but that&apos;s also what the stereotype does, so I saw the silhouette and stereotype as linked.&quot;<br />
  26. 26. SairaWasim<br />“ I like to put the stage drama (world politics) into the centuries-old format of the miniature painting that approaches to glamour and grandeur of the realms. “<br />East Versus West. 2007<br />
  27. 27. SairaWasim<br />Ignorance is Bliss. 2006<br />
  28. 28. Kehinde Wiley<br />“I do it because I want to see people who look like me.”<br />“I have a lot of young black kids come up to me and say they are grateful to look at this monumental mega-painting with someone who they can relate to.”<br />LL Cool J. 2005<br />
  29. 29. Ice T. 2005<br />Napoleon on his Imperial Throne. Ingres. 1806<br />
  30. 30. Resources<br />Art 21 series on PBS and online<br />Contemporary sections of local museums<br />VMFA has work by Kehinde Wiley and ShaziaSikander as well as several other interesting artists <br />Local galleries and artists in your community<br />Banks, J.A. (2006). Race, Culture, and Education. New York, NY: Routledge.<br />Collins, G. and Sandell, R. (1992). The Politics of Multicultural Art Education. Art Education, 45 (6), 8-13.<br />

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