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LKCE18 Andreas Bartel - What does it take to grab a cupcake?

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If organizational survival is determined by its capability to move, we can conclude that organizations must have developed brains and feedback loops to coordinate movement and thereby avoid extinction. However, organizational structures and functions are at times as hard to figure out as those of the brain.
Thus, I suggest studying organizational dysfunctions will help us improve our change management activities in organizational systems. Ultimately, what we call organizational agility – intentional, goal-directed and smooth organizational movement, shall become as easy as grabbing a cupcake.

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LKCE18 Andreas Bartel - What does it take to grab a cupcake?

  1. 1. flow.hamburg PLAN SYSTEMS. MANAGE WORK. LEAD PEOPLE. Andreas Bartel andreas@flow.hamburg @trichromacy What Does It Take to Grab a Cupcake How Systems of Feedback Loops Regulate Motion – A Neuroscience Perspective Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  2. 2. flow.hamburg GbR– From Hamburg with Love PLAN SYSTEMS. MANAGE WORK. LEAD PEOPLE. The Geeky Kanban Couple Kanban Coaching Certified Kanban Training Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  3. 3. Line of Thought • Organizational survival is determined by its capability to move in a dynamic and complex environment • Organizations must have developed “brains” and feedback loops to coordinate their movement • Dysfunctions of movement = dysfunctions of feedback • Studying dysfunctions will help understand and improve feedback loops • Improved feedback loops = Improved Business Agility Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  4. 4. Feedback Loops The Basic Principles Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  5. 5. Coupling – Relation of Two Parts ℙ" ℙ# ℙ" dominates ℙ# linear relation ℙ" ⟶ ℙ# Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  6. 6. Coupling – Relation Properties I Rectified Impact (positive) Opposing Impact (negative) LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR ℙ" ℙ# ℙ" dominates ℙ# ℙ" ⟶ ℙ# The more … The more … The less … The less … ℙ" ℙ# ℙ" dominates ℙ# ℙ" ⟶ ℙ# The more … The less … The less … The more …
  7. 7. Coupling – Relation Properties II Effect Progression Temporal Constraints LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR ℙ" dominates ℙ# ℙ" ℙ# ℙ" ⟶ ℙ# +/- ℙ" ℙ# ℙ" dominates ℙ# ℙ" ⟶ ℙ# +/- linear progressive degressive oscillating decelerating accelerating slow fast
  8. 8. LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR !"#$%&' ('%) ℙ+ dominates ℙ, linear relation ℙ+ ⟶ ℙ, https://tinyurl.com/y9w8vm9c
  9. 9. Let’s spice it up a bit – Discourse LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR https://tinyurl.com/y8ypektq What is different here? Could you predict the outcome?
  10. 10. Coupling – Relation of Two Parts LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR ℙ" ℙ# ℙ" affects ℙ# dynamic relation https://tinyurl.com/y8ypektq ℙ" ⇄ ℙ#
  11. 11. Coupling – Feedback Properties Reinforcing Relation (positive) Stabilizing Relation (negative) LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR ℙ" ℙ# ℙ" ⇆ ℙ# ℙ" increases ℙ# increases ℙ" ℙ" decreases ℙ# decreases ℙ" ℙ" ℙ# ℙ" ⇆ ℙ# %&'()*(+, -./0(12(,3 %&'()*(+, 4+5,*&6)7*(,3 ℙ" increases ℙ# decreases ℙ" ℙ" decreases ℙ# increases ℙ"
  12. 12. LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Feedback Loops – Examples
  13. 13. Positive Feedback Loops – Example Reinforcing Loop – Virtuous Cycle LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR “The more money you have in the bank, the more interest you earn, which is added to the money already in the bank, where it earns even more interest.” Meadows (2008)!"#$% &# '((")#* +#*$,$-* ./*$ The more … The more … The more …
  14. 14. Positive Feedback Loops – Example Reinforcing Loop – Vicious Cycle LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR “Boards that overemphasize collaboration fuel groupthink, as threat rigidity and escalating commitment foster even greater collaboration in a vicious spiral.” Sundaramurthy and Lewis (2003)!"#$#%&ℎ()*+#, -.//(0.$(1*.2 3$.4&1ℎ*25 The more … The more … The more … Pressure for uniformity
  15. 15. Negative Feedback Loops – Example Stabilizing Loop – Virtuous Cycle LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR “Increased prey leads to increased predators and this reduces the prey back to its original value.” Lewontin and Levins (2007) !"#$ !"#%&'(" The less … The more … The more …
  16. 16. Negative Feedback Loops – Example Stabilizing Loop – Vicious Cycle LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR “Success Trap – organizations come to over-rely on their own past experience and do not adjust to new demands and challenges.” Levinthal and March (1993)!"#$%&'" (& )%*+ ,-."/$"&'" 01%.+%2$#$+3 +( 4ℎ%&6" The more … The more … The less …
  17. 17. Types of Feedback Loops – Summary LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Feedback Loop Positive Reinforcing Negative Stabilizing Virtuous Cycle Vicious Cycle Virtuous Stabilizing Loop Vicious Stabilizing Loop Hari Tsoukas and Miguel Pina e Cunha, 2017 Make a good situation better Make a bad situation worse Create stability Resist change
  18. 18. A Good Modell of Organizational Feedback Loops? The Watt‘s Governot – The Principle of Regulation LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Ulrich and Probst (1988)
  19. 19. „ Homo Sapiens – Ocean and Museum of Feedback Loops LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR The brainstem regulates our body functions through feedback loops, the limbic system our behavior and emotions, the neocortex our reasoning and judgement. All three influence each other, again through feedback loops. Jürgen Beetz, Feedback, 2016
  20. 20. What Does It Take To Grab a Cupcake? A Brain and Feedback Loops! Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR https://tinyurl.com/y7oaafzj LKCE18 06.11.18
  21. 21. Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR The See Squirt https://tinyurl.com/y88w9l9c Starts off as an egg Develops into tadpole like creature Spinal cord, simple eye, tail Simple brain for control LKCE18 06.11.18
  22. 22. Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR https://tinyurl.com/y88w9l9c Starts off as an egg Develops into tadpole like creature Spinal cord, simple eye, tail Simple brain for control LKCE18 06.11.18 Looses brain when stops moving
  23. 23. 300.000.000 years of evolution made for Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Feed Mate Fight or Flight LKCE18 06.11.18
  24. 24. Requirements for Motion • A movement apparatus • Supporting systems • Processing of external signals • Processing of internal signals • Coordination Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  25. 25. Some Facts About The Human Brain • About three pounds • A trillion of neurons – 1012 • Up to a 10.000 synaptic connections with other neurons • A quintillion number of synapses – 1015 • Potential number of all connection higher than the number of all atoms in the universe Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18 More than a universe in three pounds
  26. 26. „ Systems Thinking Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR More is different! Jürgen Beetz, Feedback, 2016 LKCE18 06.11.18
  27. 27. From Parts To Systems – From Simple To Complex Copyright flow.hamburgLKNA18 10.04.18
  28. 28. From Parts To Systems – From Simple To Complex Copyright flow.hamburgLKNA18 10.04.18
  29. 29. From Parts To Systems – From Simple To Complex Copyright flow.hamburgLKNA18 10.04.18
  30. 30. Copyright flow.hamburgLKNA18 10.04.18
  31. 31. Copyright flow.hamburgLKNA18 10.04.18
  32. 32. Copyright flow.hamburgLKNA18 10.04.18
  33. 33. From Parts To Systems – From Simple To Complex Structure Interaction Interdependence Feedback Loops Emergent Properties Reshaping & Rewiring (Plasticity) Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  34. 34. „ What does it take to grab a cupcake? Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR A brain and feedback loops! LKCE18 06.11.18
  35. 35. Humans Move With a Purpose1 Voluntary Motor Control – Achieving Balance Through Excitation and Inhibition 1. The Cognitive Neuroscience. Gazzaniga, 2009 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  36. 36. The Challenge • Degrees of freedom in limb movement • Almost infinite number of possible muscle activation patterns that could lead to similar movements • Massive redundancy • Naturally occurring errors Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  37. 37. Basics of Motor Control Cortex (drafts of motor programs) Basal Ganglia (coarse plans for fast movements) Thalamus (interface) Cerebellum (fine plans for slow movements) Spine & Muscles (execution) Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  38. 38. Cortico-Basal Ganglia Loop (Simplified) Cortex Basal Ganglia Thalamus Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  39. 39. Cortex Striatum External Pallidum inhibitory excitatory Internal Pallidum Thalamus STN BG Motor Loop tonic inhibition directindirect BGInBGOut Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  40. 40. Cortex Striatum BGInBGOut inhibitory excitatory Internal Pallidum Thalamus External Pallidum STN BG Direct Pathway tonic inhibition Disinhibition Increasedactivity Striatum Thalamus Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  41. 41. Cortex Striatum External Pallidum BGInBGOut inhibitory excitatory Internal Pallidum Thalamus STN BG Indirect Pathway tonic inhibition Disinhibition Decreasedactivity Striatum STN Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  42. 42. Two Pathways Model – Opposite Effects Direct Pathway Indirect Pathway Inhibition of the thalamus Excitatory input from thalamus to cortex Overall motor activity EffectGo! No-Go! Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  43. 43. The Basal Ganglia modulate the flow of actions https://tinyurl.com/y7rfocao Selective Initiation or Suppression of Movement Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  44. 44. „ But wait … How is it determined which pathway to take? Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  45. 45. Enter Dopamine – The Goal Setter https://tinyurl.com/y9ar3jzy HO HO NH2 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  46. 46. Cortex Striatum External PallidumBGInBGOut inhibitory excitatory Internal Pallidum Thalamus STN BG Motor Loop tonic inhibition Substantia Nigra SNc Dopamine D1 receptor Facilitate transmission Dopamine D2 receptor Inhibit transmission directindirect Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR modulatory tonic firing, 3 – 6 Hz dopamine LKCE18 06.11.18 Disinhibition
  47. 47. Gating-Like Modulation Through Dopamine • Strong signals take the Go pathway and are expedited • Weak signals take the No-Go pathway and are delayed or discarded • Dopamine bursts reinforce cortically initiated activation • Support activation of intended motor programs • Minimize interference of conflicting motor programs Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  48. 48. Dopamine – It’s About Reward! https://tinyurl.com/ybcv3hqj Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  49. 49. Reward & Punishment • Compare signal to expected value • Learning loop through expectation and experience • Double loop learning • The Policy • Select most rewarding motor programs à Dopamine burst à Go pathway • Avoid punishing ones à Dopamine dips à No-Go pathway • Filter out the noise • Caution • Tonic dopamine levels influence the relative balance • The more dopamine the more risky the choices • Insensitivity to negative outcome Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18 Normal condition = incredibly high discard rate of cortical activity
  50. 50. What Does It Take to Grab a Cupcake? An End-to-End System View Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  51. 51. https://tinyurl.com/ybcv3hqj You can’t focus! I’ll select & sequence most rewarding plans! (Basal Ganglia) I’ll inform those in the ivory tower! If you let me. (Thalamus) Execute! (Spinal cord) Alright! I have a direct line to the muscles! And I have many possible activation patterns. (Motor Cortex) Want cupcake! (Limbic System) End-to-End System View Here’s how I’d do it. Report any errors! I’ll forecast and correct. (Cerebellum) Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  52. 52. https://tinyurl.com/ybcv3hqj End-to-End System View You can’t focus! I’ll select & sequence most rewarding plans! (Basal Ganglia) I’ll inform those in the ivory tower! If you let me. (Thalamus) Execute! (Spinal cord) Alright! I have a direct line to the muscles! And I have many possible activation patterns. (Motor Cortex) Want cupcake! (Limbic System) Here’s how I’d do it. Report any errors! I’ll forecast and correct. (Cerebellum) Doing The Right Things! (What) Getting Things Done Right! (How) Doing Things Better! (Learning & Improving) Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  53. 53. Grabbing a Cupcake Requires … • Motivation or purpose • Huge number of activation plans (variety) • Selection and sequencing • Reward and punishment • Excitation & Inhibition • Detailing out the plans • Execution and regulation • Continuous monitoring • Continuous adaptation Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  54. 54. Motor Control Summary • Movement is a complex product of multiple areas • Involved areas are organized in a hierarchy • These areas are connected through specific pathways • Feedback loops enable coordination • Suppress unintended movements (inhibition) • Let through intended movements (excitation) • Balance is achieved through using both loops types • Positive loops for reinforcement • Negative loops for stabilization • Dopamine modulates on the fly Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  55. 55. Dysfunctional Feedback Loops Every disturbance of a function in the brain reveals how it operates under normal, healthy condition Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  56. 56. Dysfunctions of Motor Control Too little (hypokinesia) • Morbus Parkinson • Death of cells in SNc • Loss of dopamine • Disability to modulate • Problems initiating movements • Problems terminating running movements Too much (hyperkinesia) • Chorea Huntington • Death of cells in striatum • Loss of GABA • Disability to suppress • Problems suppressing unintended movements • Reduced muscle tone Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  57. 57. Dysfunctions of Motor Control Too little (hypokinesia) • Morbus Parkinson • Death of cells in SNc • Loss of dopamine • Disability to modulate • Problems initiating movements • Problems terminating running movements Too much (hyperkinesia) • Chorea Huntington • Death of cells in striatum • Loss of GABA • Disability to suppress • Problems suppressing unintended movements • Reduced muscle tone Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  58. 58. LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Parkinson
  59. 59. Cortex Striatum External Pallidum Internal Pallidum Thalamus STN SNc directindirect Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Cortex Striatum External Pallidum Internal Pallidum Thalamus STN SNc directindirect Parkinson DiseaseNormal Condition dopamine dopamine LKCE18 06.11.18
  60. 60. „ Cupcake? Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR You will have a hard time initiating your movement in order to grab your cupcake! LKCE18 06.11.18
  61. 61. LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Huntington
  62. 62. Cortex Striatum External Pallidum Internal Pallidum Thalamus STN SNc directindirect Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Cortex Striatum (Lack of GABA) External Pallidum Internal Pallidum Thalamus STN SNc directindirect HuntingtonNormal Condition dopamine dopamine LKCE18 06.11.18
  63. 63. „ Cupcake? Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR You will have a hard time grabbing your cupcake because other undesired movements will interfere with your intention! LKCE18 06.11.18
  64. 64. Dysfunctional Feedback Loops – Recap • Two categories of movement disorders • Difficulties to initiate intended movement • Difficulties to suppress unintended movements • Both result from damages of the same loop (Cortex-BG) • Imbalance of excitation and inhibition • Significant impact on overall motor control Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  65. 65. Organizational Dysfunctions Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  66. 66. Organizational Dysfunctions Too little (hypokinesia) • Difficulties to initiate what is desired • Difficulties to discard what is already running Too much (hyperkinesia) • Difficulties to avoid what is not intended • Constant interference Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  67. 67. Organizational Hypokinesia – Difficulties to initiate • Cumbersome upstream process • Analysis paralysis • Starvation of downstream • Hand off processes • Sign off processes • Large lead times for acquiring options • Information hiding or information radiators • Lack of agreement about intent (Einheit) Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  68. 68. Organizational Hyperkinesia – Difficulties to avoid the unintended • Irrefutable demand • No demand shaping • Premature commitment • Push behavior • No sense of capability or capacity • No sense of risk management • No sense of optionality • Rewarding starting work instead of finishing Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  69. 69. „ Organizational Circularity LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Circles explain organizational destruction better than any other process. ... if we want to know more about the dynamics of self-destruction we can start by looking at vicious cycles. Hari Tsoukas and Miguel Pina e Cunha (2017)
  70. 70. Organizational Dysfunctions - Example A Vicious Cycle of Threat Rigidity • The inability to alter responses in the face of environmental change. A Vicious Cycle of Escalating Commitment • Maintaining or increasing commitment to a goal, despite considerable uncertainty about whether this will result in success. LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR !ℎ#$%& '()*+%+& ,$-.(+-$ The stronger … The stronger … The stronger … /())*&)$+& '$01*+*+2 3$#4(#)%+0$ The more … The more … The more …
  71. 71. „ So what? Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Organizational dysfunctions are observable effects of dysfunctional feedback loops. You need to look behind. LKCE18 06.11.18
  72. 72. The Feedback Lens beta Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  73. 73. „ The Feedback Lens Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Learn to view organizational behavior or “movement” as a result of a system of feedback loops (that can be improved). LKCE18 06.11.18
  74. 74. The Feedback Lens What to look for • What feedback loops are already there? How are they used? • What are no loops at all? • Feedback loops dementia? • What changes occur through active feedback loops? • Signs of escalating commitment or rigidity? What to do • Map how information and decisions flow through the system • Pay attention to what information or decisions go through and what don’t • Insert a “virus” or a trace element and watch it propagate • Identify the “reward” systems! Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  75. 75. Discover, Map and Classify Loops LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Feedback Loop Positive Reinforcing Negative Stabilizing Virtuous Cycle Vicious Cycle Virtuous Stabilizing Loop Vicious Stabilizing Loop Hari Tsoukas and Miguel Pina e Cunha, 2017 Make a good situation better Make a bad situation worse Create stability Resist change
  76. 76. Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Take – Aways LKCE18 06.11.18
  77. 77. Message #1 – Organizational Movement • Living beings developed brains in order to move • Movement requires external and internal coordination • Organizations compete in a environment that favors those who can move swiftly – Business Agility • Organizational movement requires a management system (brains) and feedback loops for coordination of external and internal interactions Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  78. 78. Message #2 – Dynamic Loop Types • In technical systems, engineered by humans, feedback loop types are usually hard-wired • In naturally occurring systems they are not • These systems can switch from escalation to de-escalation, from excitation to inhibition • Novelty can emerge, grow and stabilize • Organizations should develop their management capability to adjust & switch feedback loop types dynamically Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  79. 79. „ Message #3 – Org. & Loop Maturity LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR Organizational maturity is your feedback maturity is your organizational maturity!
  80. 80. Maturity Interdependency Organizational Maturity Feedback Loops Maturity Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18
  81. 81. Maturity Interdependency Organizational Maturity Feedback Loops Maturity Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18 Leadership Maturity
  82. 82. Maturity and Cadences Effectiveness LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR
  83. 83. „ Mature Kanban Cadences – As I see it LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR A system of distributed (interdependent) feedback loops for deliberate control and regulation of complex organizational behavior with the intention to achieve continuous fitness for purpose.
  84. 84. „ More on Feedback Loops Feedback and Cadence: essentials of agile control and evolution. Copyright © flow.hamburg GbRLKCE18 06.11.18 Andy Carmichael, 14:40 – 15:10, Downstream
  85. 85. https://flic.kr/p/6K41qv Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR @trichromacy https://manage-with-kanban-fra.eventbrite.de PLAN SYSTEMS. MANAGE WORK. LEAD PEOPLE. LKCE18 06.11.18
  86. 86. LKCE18 06.11.18 Copyright © flow.hamburg GbR

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