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GENDER IN MEDIA
Lindsey Kartaszewicz
Friday, April 25, 14
A CRITICAL EYE
It is important to study media with a critical
approach because many people view media
without considering ...
PHOTOSHOP
Photoshop is a primary example of media image
modification. Almost every magazine modifies pictures of the
feature...
A MODERN EXAMPLE
Pop singer, Lorde, recently
made headlines by fighting
back against beauty norms
shown in media. When an
u...
SOCIAL LEARNING
THEORY
“...human beings learn by watching others, and this includes watching
characters on television or i...
GENDERED MEDIA
THEORIES
Research from the 1970s identified two main ways in which
visual media gender how audiences view im...
DOES THIS IMAGE SEEM
ODD TO YOU?
The image of the woman likely does not seem unusual, but the image of the
male in the sam...
THE GAZE
The second theory discussed in the chapter is
from media theorist Lara Mulvey. Mulvey’s
theory discuses how cinem...
OPPOSITIONAL GAZE
In order to have a more informed, conscious relationship
with media, the textbook suggests adopting an o...
4 ELEMENTS OF AN
OPPOSITIONAL GAZE
I. Be conscious of the perspective from which we look.
II.Active awareness of how immer...
WHO IS REPRESENTED IN
MEDIA?
Women are underrepresented:
In the top 100 films of 2012 females held only 28.4% of speaking r...
HOW PEOPLE ARE
REPRESENTED
Hypersexualization of women and girls in media:
Women are sexualized 3-5
times more often than ...
HOW PEOPLE ARE
REPRESENTED
Men and Masculinity:
The majority of 2010 Superbowl ads all seemed to have a common
theme of “m...
CONCLUSION
The preceding discussion provides examples of
media and why it is important to have a critical eye
and try to a...
WORKS CITED
Images:
http://secretsofagoodgirl.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/810television_0.jpg
http://mbizcontent.com/bl...
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Media gender presentation

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Media gender presentation

  1. 1. GENDER IN MEDIA Lindsey Kartaszewicz Friday, April 25, 14
  2. 2. A CRITICAL EYE It is important to study media with a critical approach because many people view media without considering the fact that the majority of media have been edited. With modern technology, it is easy for media creators to modify images in any way to create what they view as more visually pleasing visuals. However, if the viewer is not conscious of this fact, it can create a distorted view of reality and unrealistic expectations. Friday, April 25, 14
  3. 3. PHOTOSHOP Photoshop is a primary example of media image modification. Almost every magazine modifies pictures of the featured people in one way or another. This creates unrealistic body images for both males and females. The textbook mentions female beauty as an example of media influence over gender perceptions. Media plays a pivotal role in defining and reenforcing gender norms and expectations. How women view themselves and other women is majorly influenced by the examples of female beauty portrayed in media. “Although media images are not real, they have real effects on how people perceive sex and gender” (Defrancisco, 2014, p.233) Friday, April 25, 14
  4. 4. A MODERN EXAMPLE Pop singer, Lorde, recently made headlines by fighting back against beauty norms shown in media. When an unknown source published an edited picture of Lorde performing, she found the picture and decided to post one of her own. The first picture shows an obvious retouching of her face and skin; the second, posted by Lorde, shows an unedited shot of the same performance. “Two photos from today, one edited so my skin is perfect and one real. remember flaws are ok :-)” (Lorde) Friday, April 25, 14
  5. 5. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY “...human beings learn by watching others, and this includes watching characters on television or in the movies” (Defrancisco, p. 225) Children, teens, and adults learn and internalize messages communicated by others. Television and films are full of messages communicated (verbally and nonverbally) by the actors and actresses. These messages convey ideals that audience members are encouraged to accept about “social issues and social change”. This includes messages and images that are edited, therefore impossible to mimic. (Defrancisco, p. 225) Friday, April 25, 14
  6. 6. GENDERED MEDIA THEORIES Research from the 1970s identified two main ways in which visual media gender how audiences view images and influence gender identity. The first theory describes how media position audiences into a male perspective regardless of their sex/gender. This aids in explaining why women are often perceived as passive objects to be seen while men are the active characters doing the seeing (as described in objectification theory). Let’s test the theory... Friday, April 25, 14
  7. 7. DOES THIS IMAGE SEEM ODD TO YOU? The image of the woman likely does not seem unusual, but the image of the male in the same pose probably does. This is because of the ideas behind objectification theory. As the author states, “While it is acceptable for women to present themselves as objects of the gaze, it is not acceptable for men to do the same” (Defrancisco, p. 234) Friday, April 25, 14
  8. 8. THE GAZE The second theory discussed in the chapter is from media theorist Lara Mulvey. Mulvey’s theory discuses how cinema tends to position the camera, actors, and audience in such a way that male perspective is the active viewer and women are passive objects. The following example from the film “Die Another Day” demonstrates cinema using the camera to place the audience in the male’s perspective of viewing the female actress. We (as audience members) are directly placed in the actor’s position of viewing the actress as she exits the water. Does the camera ever give us the perspective of the actress?... Friday, April 25, 14
  9. 9. OPPOSITIONAL GAZE In order to have a more informed, conscious relationship with media, the textbook suggests adopting an oppositional gaze. An oppositional gaze involves being a more critical participant when coming in contact with media rather than being a “passive recipient of it” (p.236). In order to adopt this perspective, a person must be aware of how media modify messages and images as well as have a critical eye. Basically, it involves being conscious of media content rather than accepting the preferred subject positions and values of the media creators. Friday, April 25, 14
  10. 10. 4 ELEMENTS OF AN OPPOSITIONAL GAZE I. Be conscious of the perspective from which we look. II.Active awareness of how immersed one is in culture. III. Political action- transforming media to encourage change rather than just critiquing existing media. IV. Mindful of how media engage in commodification. In other words, how media support institutionalized discrimination by selling cultural, sexual, or gender differences. Friday, April 25, 14
  11. 11. WHO IS REPRESENTED IN MEDIA? Women are underrepresented: In the top 100 films of 2012 females held only 28.4% of speaking roles Men outnumbered women five-to-one in “key, behind-the-camera roles” News reporting: 63.4% of reporters with bylines and on-camera appearances were men, 36.1% were women. In 2012’s top 100 films, women were four times more likely than men to wear “hypersexual clothing” and three times more likely to be partially naked. (Gray, 2014) Friday, April 25, 14
  12. 12. HOW PEOPLE ARE REPRESENTED Hypersexualization of women and girls in media: Women are sexualized 3-5 times more often than men Women’s magazines (such as Cosmo) contribute to sexualization of females: “a hegemonic message is presented: a woman’s self- worth is influenced by her looks, clothes and accessories” (Defrancisco, p.243) Friday, April 25, 14
  13. 13. HOW PEOPLE ARE REPRESENTED Men and Masculinity: The majority of 2010 Superbowl ads all seemed to have a common theme of “men’s masculinity was under attack and consuming the right product would resecure it”. (Defrancisco, p.246) Modern media has been sending men the message that their masculinity is in jeopardy- and they need to reclaim it. Normative views of masculinity include five characteristics: power by physical force, workplace achievement, men being the family breadwinner, frontier/outdoor men, and heterosexual. Here is an example of one of the 2010 Superbowl ads... Friday, April 25, 14
  14. 14. CONCLUSION The preceding discussion provides examples of media and why it is important to have a critical eye and try to adopt an oppositional gaze. The way people, places, and things are portrayed in the media are almost never a 100% accurate representation of reality. People should definitely interact with media, but in an active, informed way rather than passively receiving all media and its messages. Friday, April 25, 14
  15. 15. WORKS CITED Images: http://secretsofagoodgirl.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/810television_0.jpg http://mbizcontent.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/film-roll2.jpg http://www.delhilive.com/system/files/cosmo.jpg http://www4.images.coolspotters.com/photos/403315/rob-lowe-and-mens-fitness-magazine-gallery.jpg http://www.mrwallpaper.com/wallpapers/Music-equipment.jpg http://cdn2.thegloss.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/lorde-before-after-photoshop-twitter.jpg http://blog.onbase.com/wp-content/uploads/magnifying-glass.jpg http://cdn.morefm.co.nz/morefm/AM/2013/10/22/9379/Men_posing_as%20women02.jpg http://newscenter.sdsu.edu/sdsu_newscenter/images/stories/str-013012-film.jpg http://media-cache-ec0.pinimg.com/736x/89/62/1b/89621b9d7b20bbee7fba7bbc018a2131.jpg Texts: DeFrancisco, V.L & Palczewski, C.H. (2014). Gender in communication: a critical introduction (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Licata, E. (2014, March 31). Lorde Reveals Her Own Photoshopped Before And After Pictures Because 'Flaws Are OK'. The Gloss RSS. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.thegloss.com/2014/03/31/beauty/lorde-photoshop-before-after-pictures/ Gray, K. (n.d.). The Status of Women in the U.S. Media 2014. The Women's Media Center. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://wmc.3cdn.net/2e85f9517dc2bf164e_htm62xgan.pdf Friday, April 25, 14

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