Grow Your Own Food A

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  • Observe shading patterns What is a potential hazard? Black WAlnut tree Lead paint- old building site What do you think of this site? shade, low area
  • First and foremost, get a soil test: pH, P, K, lime, Mg Should be done in fall if possible to apply lime in fall. $6 kit from Extension office, results mailed to homeowner Need a representative sample: several cores at same depth: stratification of soil especially top 1 inch. pH is probably single most important factor. N is not tested for because N is rapidly transformed in soils
  • nutrients according to soil test types of organic matter: compost, manure
  • How do you decide if you plant seeds or transplants? Days to harvest
  • Critical watering period chart in manual example melons- flowering fruit development
  • Grow Your Own Food A

    1. 1. Grow Your Own Food? Of Course You Can! (Part 1) Lee Young, Extension Educator, and Deb Andrus, Master Gardener Site Soils Planting Watering Techniques
    2. 2. in-ground vs. containers
    3. 3. GARDEN SITE NEEDS <ul><li>Sunlight, 8-10 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Level land </li></ul><ul><li>Good drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid low areas </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid windy sites </li></ul><ul><li>Near water source </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from trees </li></ul><ul><li>Protect from wildlife </li></ul>
    4. 4. Soil: a mixture of weathered minerals and decaying organic matter , covering the earth in a thin layer. When combined with air and water , soil provides mechanical support and nutrients for plants.
    5. 5. Soil Pie Solids 50 % Pore Space 50 % Minerals 45 % Sand, silt, clay Air 25 % Water 25 % O.M.
    6. 6. Organic Matter Matters! <ul><li>Biological activity=healthy soil </li></ul><ul><li>Water and nutrient retention and release </li></ul><ul><li>Buffers pH </li></ul><ul><li>Improved soil tilth=better root growth </li></ul>
    7. 7. Soil texture <ul><li>Relative proportion of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand = large particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silt = medium particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay = very, very small particles </li></ul></ul>Which type do we have?
    8. 8. Testing the Soil
    9. 10. Effect of pH on availability of plant nutrients
    10. 11. pH can be changed <ul><li>Lime will raise pH (reduce acidity) </li></ul>
    11. 12. Fertilizer Basics
    12. 13. Why fertilize?
    13. 14. Calcium deficiency
    14. 15. Fertilizer not Food
    15. 16. Fertilizer basics <ul><li>A fertilizer supplies one or more “essential nutrients”. </li></ul><ul><li>Not “Plant Food” </li></ul><ul><li>Plants make their own food… </li></ul>
    16. 17. Essential nutrients <ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Manganese </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Boron </li></ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Molybdenum </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Cobalt </li></ul>
    17. 18. Macro - nutrients <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (N) </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus (P) </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium (K) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium (Ca) </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium (Mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur (S) </li></ul>Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
    18. 19. How do we provide them to plants ? <ul><li>Complete fertilizer - N - P - K </li></ul><ul><li>Lime - Ca, Mg </li></ul><ul><li>Air/Water - C, H, O, S </li></ul>
    19. 20. “ Complete” fertilizers contain: <ul><li>N itrogen </li></ul><ul><li>P hosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Potash (K) </li></ul>
    20. 21. What’s in the bag?
    21. 22. Nitrogen - N <ul><li>Shoot growth </li></ul><ul><li>Green color </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative vs. reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. 31 - 0 - 0 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 - 10 - 10 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Phosphorus - P <ul><li>Seedling development </li></ul><ul><li>Root growth </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. 0 - 46 - 0 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 - 10 - 10 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Potassium - K <ul><li>Regulates water movement </li></ul><ul><li>Affects drought, disease, cold hardiness </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. 0 - 0 - 50 </li></ul><ul><li>10 - 10 - 10 </li></ul>
    24. 25. Manure (fresh is not best!)
    25. 26. Nutrient value of manures Cow manure analysis 0.5 - 0.3 - 0.5 Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium dairy cow 0.5 % 0.3 % 0.5% steer 0.7 % 0.5 % 0.5 % poultry 2.0 % 2.0 % 1.0 % hog 0.5 % 0.3 % 0.5%
    26. 27. Careful: low analysis but high rate!
    27. 28. Ball Park recommendations
    28. 29. Vegetable gardens <ul><li>1 - 2 lbs 10-10-10 per 100 square feet </li></ul><ul><li>5 lbs lime per 100 square feet, based on soil test results </li></ul>
    29. 30. Composting Short Course
    30. 31. Recipe for compost <ul><li>Mix equal proportions of green stuff and brown stuff </li></ul><ul><li>Add a shovel full of black stuff </li></ul><ul><li>Mix well </li></ul><ul><li>Wait </li></ul><ul><li>Stir occasionally </li></ul>
    31. 32. Green Stuff <ul><li>Stuff that decomposes quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Will rot and get slimy </li></ul><ul><li>Low C: N ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass clippings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kitchen waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weeds </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Brown Stuff <ul><li>Stuff that decomposes slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Will remain intact for months or years </li></ul><ul><li>High C: N ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dry leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wood chips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paper </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. PREPARING THE SOIL <ul><li>Test soil </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with sod </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Add nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Till (or alternatives) </li></ul>Goal: a great environment for roots .
    34. 35. PLANTING
    35. 36. IRRIGATION <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aids in seed emergence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces soil crusting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves germination and plant stand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces wilting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase fruit size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents premature ripening of peas, beans and sweet corn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves quality of yield </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. IRRIGATION, cont. <ul><li>What should you know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 inch of rain per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65-130 gallons of water per 100 square feet or 2-3 gallons per foot square </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A.M. watering preferred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know critical watering period </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Putting It All Together <ul><li>Raised bed gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Lasagna gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Continued in Part B: </li></ul><ul><li>Container gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Tips for small spaces </li></ul>
    38. 39. Raised Bed Gardening
    39. 40. Reasons to Used Raised Beds <ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Higher yields </li></ul><ul><li>Improved soil conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Warms up quicker in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Better drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Soil does not compact </li></ul><ul><li>Less maintenance once established </li></ul>
    40. 42. Lasagna Gardening
    41. 43. Lasagna Gardening <ul><li>A time-saving organic method of gardening first developed by Patricia Lanza. It requires no digging, no tilling and no sod removal. </li></ul>
    42. 44. Lasagna Gardening <ul><li>Select site. </li></ul><ul><li>Put down a layer of cardboard or newspaper; wet thoroughly. </li></ul><ul><li>More layers: shredded leaves, kitchen waste (no fat, bones or oil), straw, composted manure, grass clippings </li></ul><ul><li>Water each layer </li></ul><ul><li>Build to height of 18-24 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Let cook for 6-8 months. </li></ul>

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