Anth 316 Presentation


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Anth 316 Presentation

  1. 1. The Evolution, Structure, and Impact of the Chipko Movement Authors: Vandana Shiva and J. Bandyopadhyay Presentation By: Lauren Richey
  2. 2. Satyagraha or Forest Satyagraha <ul><li>A political strategy started by Mahatma Gandhi. </li></ul><ul><li>Started between 1930-31 as a result of the Forest Act of 1927. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resisting new oppressive forest laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-cooperative, non-violent, passive resistance movements, activities, and protests. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of non-violent resistance as a political weapon instead of using firearms. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Colonial Impacts <ul><li>Changes in land tenure were introduced, thus transforming common village resources into private properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale deforestation was occurring for non-local needs like expanding the railway network in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonizers wanted to ensure control of commercial forest exploitation as a means to maintain revenue. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chipko or Embrace-the-Tree Movement <ul><li>Started in the early 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking place in post-Independence India. </li></ul><ul><li>First practiced in Garhwal Himalaya. </li></ul><ul><li>Has now spread throughout most of India, especially in the hilly regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement to protect forests from commercial felling. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hug A Tree! <ul><li>Based on the 1960’s destruction of Himalayan forests through commercial exploitation carried out by private contractors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which became the major cause of ecological instability in the Himalayas, an already vulnerable ecosystem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Survival of local populations and forest dwelling communities is directly linked with access to the forests. </li></ul><ul><li>The movement attempted to stop the auctioning of forests for felling by contractors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Justice, Ecological Stability & Women Power <ul><li>Historically, philosophically, and organizationally, an extension of the traditional Gandhian Satyagraha . </li></ul><ul><li>Equipped with the Gandhian world-view of development which was based on justice and ecological stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of women-power and ecological consciousness. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Satyagraha & The Chipko Movement <ul><li>The Chipko Movement is an expression of an old social consciousness in a new context. </li></ul><ul><li>Satyagraha and the Chipko Movement have both aimed to protect forests, preserve cultures, and maintain livelihoods. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Satyagrahas and the Chipko Movement have both arisen from conflicts over forest resources. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What differentiates Chipko from Satyagraha is its ecological basis… <ul><li>Arose from rapid ecological destabilization in the hills. </li></ul><ul><li>Villages that were self-sufficient in food had to resort to food imports as a result of declining food productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of soil fertility in the forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Water sources dried up as forests disappeared. </li></ul><ul><li>Floods and landslides. </li></ul>
  9. 9. “ What do the forests bear? Soil, water, and pure air” <ul><li>The Chipko Movement has become a national campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the result of conflicts over forest resources at the scientific, technical, economic, and ecological levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Slogan of the Chipko Movement claims that the main products of the forests are not timber and resin but soil and water. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Forms of Development <ul><li>Dichotomy between ecologically sound development and unsustainable and ecologically destructive economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine development can only be based on ecological stability which ensures sustainable supplies of vital resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Rethink forest management and protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Himalayan forests as protected forests instead of production forests for commercial exploitation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. “ Ecology is permanent economy” <ul><li>The threat to survival from ecological disruption is becoming a major concern for the future in resource use. </li></ul><ul><li>And human survival in sensitive ecosystems, such as the Himalayas, is more severely threatened than other places. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Establish a new economy of permanence based on ecological principles… <ul><li>Chipko’s search for a strategy for survival has global implications. </li></ul><ul><li>What Chipko is trying to conserve is not merely local forest resources but the entire life support system, and with it the option for human survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi’s mobilization for a new society, where neither man nor nature is exploited and destroyed, was the beginning of this civilizational response to a threat to human survival. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Local and Global <ul><li>“ The spread of the message of an alternative world view is crucial to the creation of a sustainable world, particularly in the context of a highly integrated global economic system. The ecological world view of Chipko provides a strategy for survival not only for tiny villages in the Garhwal Himalaya, but for all human societies threatened by environmental disasters.” </li></ul>