The Dtm


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The Dtm

  1. 2. Introduction <ul><li>In this amazing presentation I will cover: </li></ul><ul><li>Links between the DTM and age structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The usefulness of the DTM. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, relating the DTM to LEDCs/MEDCs. </li></ul>
  2. 3. What is the DTM? <ul><li>The DTM describes how the population of a country changes over time. It gives changes in birth and death rates, and shows that countries pass through 5 stages of population change. </li></ul>
  3. 4. The DTM
  4. 5. Links between the DTM and age structure (population pyramids) <ul><li>The DTM can be used as a vehicle to demonstrate changes in population and can be incorporated into a pyramid to identify which stage a country is in or a pyramid can be used to identify which stage a country is in. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Por ejemplo <ul><li>The pyramid indicates that Sudan has a high birth rate and a short life expectancy. This shows that Sudan is in stage one of the DTM because it falls into the stage one criteria. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The usefulness of the DTM <ul><li>The DTM is useful because: </li></ul><ul><li>It is universal – it can be applied to all countries. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a starting point for the study of demographic change over time. </li></ul><ul><li>The timescales are flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>It is easy to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables comparisons to be made between the countries. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Relating the DTM to LEDCs/MEDCs. <ul><li>In MEDCs: </li></ul><ul><li>Most MEDCs have passed through all of the stages. </li></ul><ul><li>At Stage 4 ny about the 1960s. </li></ul><ul><li>Some now moving to stage 5. </li></ul><ul><li>Took about 200 yrs to move through the stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rates rarely exceeded 1% per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth led the transition. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Examples <ul><li>Italy and Germany are in stage 5 – a population decline, where death rate has over took birth rate. </li></ul><ul><li>USA, Japan, France and the UK are in stage 4 – where birth and death rate are low however the birth rate is higher than the death rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for stages 4 and 5: </li></ul><ul><li>Birth rate - Family planning, good health, improving status of women, later marriages. </li></ul><ul><li>Death rate – Good health care. Reliable food supply. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Relating DTM to LEDCs/ MEDCs continued. <ul><li>In LEDCs: </li></ul><ul><li>Not yet passed through all stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Many entered Stage 2 in mid 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Many still in Stages 2 or 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Huge gap between birth and death rates – high population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Population increase exceeds 4% per yr in some countries and 2% in others. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving through stages more rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Driven more by government policies and western medical aid. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development lagging behind. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Examples <ul><li>Egypt, Kenya – Stage 2 – High birth rate, lower death rate – rapid population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil, India and China – Stage 3- Falling birth and death rate, increase slows down. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for stage 2: Birth rate – Child labour, no family planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for stage 2 and 3: Birth rate – Improved medical care and diet. Fewer children needed. Death rate – Improvements in medical care. Water supply and sanitation, fewer children dying. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Summary <ul><li>You hopefully should be able to know: </li></ul><ul><li>Links between the DTM and age structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The usefulness of the DTM. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, relating the DTM to LEDCs/MEDCs. </li></ul>
  12. 13. “ Very Nice! Any Questions?