“ The American Expeditionary Force” America’s Army had to be built from scratch. Only the USMC had real combat experience -and then only in “ Small Wars” against poorly armed guerillas. "90 Day Wonders" Minimal training turned civilians into officers, NCO’s and “Doughboys” AEF 4 million Overseas 2 million 126,000 Dead 234,000 Wounded A modern military force by 1918 with advanced logistics, tanks, bombers and artillery. St. Mihiel Argonne Chateau-Thierry Cantigny
" Lafayette...We are here!" General Pershing arrives in France General John "Black Jack" Pershing, Commander AEF “ He [ Pershing] was a strict disciplinarian” - Gen. George C. Marshall PM Clemenceau PM Lloyd George Supreme Commander Foch Pershing faced down enormous pressure from Allied Leaders Insisted on separate American command Difficulties because U.S. troops were “green” and inexperienced " General of the Armies "
The Fourteen Points Wilson shocks European leaders with visionary plan for a democratic “Peace Without Victory” Immensely popular with Europeans….but not their leaders. No Secret diplomacy Freedom of the sea National self-determination Reduction of armaments Free Trade Rights of colonized peoples A Just peace League of Nations “ Even God Almighty only has ten.” Clemenceau
The Home Front The Sedition Act of 1918 Baruch - War Industries Board Hoover - Food Relief Creel -Committee of Public Information
Germany Collapses "The Army does not have 24 hours..." General Erich Ludendorf, Quartermaster-General of the Imperial German Army Prince Max Kaiser Wilhelm II forced to flee Spartacist Revolt -Communist revolution in Berlin and Bavaria Chancellor Ebert declares Germany a REPUBLIC November 11 1918 I’m a loser Quick…let’s crush the Commies !
THE BIG FOUR at Versailles George - “Hang the Kaiser” Clemenceau - “Destroy Germany” Orlando - “Isn’t anyone listening to me???” Wilson - “League of Nations!” Wilson proved an inept and isolated negotiator
A HARSH PEACE Versailles Treaty Required: Loss of German territory Loss of all German colonies Army limited to 100,000 men No Air Force, tanks, submarines etc. $ 32 Billion Reparations No membership in League Demilitarize borders Germany admits guilt for WWI
Wilson vs. The U.S. Senate Too stubborn to compromise, an exhausted President Wilson suffers a major stroke Lodge Ailing President Wilson
The failure of Versailles sets terrible forces in motion