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Society Gov

Origins of Society and Government

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Society Gov

  1. 1. Origins of Society and Government
  2. 2. “ Life was nasty, brutish and short” - Thomas Hobbes 2.5 Million to 100,000 BC….
  3. 3. No Society No Government No Culture Homo Habilis Neanderthal Homo Sapiens (Modern Human) The Paleolithic age of early Hominids, Near Humans and Archaic Humans
  4. 4. <ul><li>Tiny family bands of hunter-gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership spontaneous and temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Tools of sharpened stone, bone or horn </li></ul><ul><li>1 st evidence of intentional burial 120,000 BC by Neanderthals </li></ul><ul><li>Little cultural evolution </li></ul><ul><li>World population very low </li></ul>
  5. 5. 100,000 to 20,000 BC Neanderthals die out, Modern Humans dominate circa 30,000 BC FIRST SIMPLE SOCIETIES FORM CULTURAL EVOLUTION BEGINS <ul><li>Hunter gather bands grow into Clans </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Labor – sophisticated tools, better diet </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-permanent “territory” </li></ul><ul><li>Organized violence – evidence of executions, human sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>The birth of Art and possibly Music </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cave Paintings appear 32,000 BC Sign of religious ideas Jewelry Mining of red ochre Possible evidence of trade
  7. 7. “ The Big Man” – Earliest start of Government Most influential, feared or respected warrior or elder <ul><li>Informal authority </li></ul><ul><li>War leader or organizer of hunts </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrates disputes </li></ul>
  8. 8. 15,000 to 3000 BC Complex Societies Form
  9. 9. THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION <ul><li>Single most important event in human history </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of wild grains allows population explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerates human settlement into villages, towns and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Civilizations coalesce along major rivers – Nile, Tigris & Euphrates, Indus and Yalu </li></ul><ul><li>Complex society causes an explosion of Cultural Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery – 10,000 BC Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Brick Walls – 8000 BC Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of cattle 8000 BC Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Metal tools 6000 BC Iraq </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Rise of the Tribe Clans of hundreds grew into Tribes of tens of thousands Chiefdoms – Chiefs as supreme leaders in war – later become “sacred” as well Tribes based on kinship networks, plus “adoption” Tribesmen become raiders of settled, farming, peoples. Invaders and looters. The tribe is the most durable social organization ever invented – and one of the most dangerous A culture based on blood ties, family honor, personal bravery and customary traditions Before the Industrial Revolution and gunpowder, only the most powerful empires were able to crush the barbarian tribes – and then only for a time
  11. 11. MONARCHY Rise of Kingdoms circa 6000 -3000 BC Egypt, Sumeria, Babylon Grew from the first true cities – Ur Monarchs were God-Kings Advent of writing with picture symbols Then an alphabet Strict caste system and slavery Complex, polytheistic religion Wars are now fought by armies Knowledge preserved and passed on Historical period begins