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What works for some doesn’t necessarily work for everyone


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What works for some doesn’t necessarily work for everyone

  1. 1. Running Head: WHAT WORKS FOR SOME DOESN’T NECESSARILY 1 What Works For Some Doesn’t Necessarily Work For Everyone Elizabeth Wolf Lynn University
  2. 2. Running Head: WHAT WORKS FOR SOME DOESN’T NECESSARILY 2 “The psychiatric disorder and the drug or alcohol problem may have common causes, biological, psychological, or social. The drug or alcohol abuse itself may produce psychiatric symptoms, and people with psychiatric disorders may develop a substance abuse problem because the mental illness impairs their judgment, or because they try to treat themselves with alcohol and illicit drugs” (Dual Diagnosis, 2003). The question is why is it that 12-step meetings work for some people and not for others? What makes the difference in needing to attend and not? My hypothesis is that dual diagnosis patients with a primary diagnosis of a mental disorder who take their medications as prescribed, are accurately diagnosed, and receive cognitive behavioral therapy; the urge and thought to use dissipates because they don’t need to self medicate the chemical imbalances in their brain anymore and are receiving coping tools in therapy just like they would if they were attending meetings. For dual diagnosis patients whose primary diagnosis is substance abuse meetings are where they find fellowship and in the long run these patients might be able to stop taking their medications and still be able to stay sober and clean. “Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. It is considered a brain disease because drugs change the brain - they change its structure and how it works. These brain changes can be long lasting, and can lead to the harmful behaviors seen in people who abuse drugs” ("National institute on," 2010). There are many theoretical models to addiction the medical model, the bio-psycho-social model, psychodynamic model, social model, and moral model.
  3. 3. Running Head: WHAT WORKS FOR SOME DOESN’T NECESSARILY 3 “The disease model of addiction attempts to focus more on the biological causes of addiction and the addict is considered to be a sick individual in need of treatment. Biological explanations for addictive behavior have included genetic predisposition to addiction, especially alcohol addiction, problems with brain neurotransmitters including Dopamine and Serotonin as well as the carious regions of the brain. Although addiction may have biological links, it is certain that the use of addictive substances will definitely have physical ramifications and require treatment of a sick body, which has been diseased as a result of drug abuse.The bio-psycho-social model of addiction does consider addiction to be an illness, but also includes perspectives of psychological, cognitive, social, developmental, environmental and cultural nature related to substance addiction. Hence, this model recognizes the fact that substance addiction is more then a mere disease and that the use of drugs is induced as a result of factors existing in the society, the peer group, a cultural tendency for substance abuse and has genetic links. In this model of addiction, the degradation of the body as a result of substance abuse causes disease which has to be treated along with the addiction” (Article Editor, 2010). Dual diagnosis is substance abuse addiction combined with a mental disorder that is on axis I; adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, cognitive disorders, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, factitious disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders, sleep disorders, and somatoform disorders. This excludes personality disorders and
  4. 4. Running Head: WHAT WORKS FOR SOME DOESN’T NECESSARILY 4 intellectual disabilities, which are classified on axis II. “Self-medication for a psychiatric disorder leads to substance abuse” (Dual Diagnosis, 2003). How do you tell which one is cause and effect? “Psychiatric disorders generally precede drug abuse and dependence” (Dual Diagnosis, 2003). According to the The American Journal on Addictionspeople suffering from a dual diagnosis 12-step involvement may causes serious issues because they may be told that they are not clean and sober because they take medications and they may feel they have little in common with the group. The key to dual diagnosis patients is though to treat both the addiction and the mental illness, you cannot treat one and not the other no matter what methodology you use, 12-step or non 12-step based, you must address both issues for the patient to succeed and get well. Every individual has certain methods that work best for them, so tailor treatments to work for the patient, one size doesn’t fit all!
  5. 5. Running Head: WHAT WORKS FOR SOME DOESN’T NECESSARILY 5 References Article Editor. (2010, August 09). Disease model of addiction versus biopsychosocial model of addiction. . Retrieved from model- Bogenschutz, M. P., Geppert, C. A., & George, J. (2006). The Role of Twelve- Step Approaches in Dual Diagnosis Treatment and Recovery. American Journal On Addictions, 15(1), 50-60. doi:10.1080/10550490500419060 Dual diagnosis:Part I. (2003). Harvard Mental Health Letter, 20(2), 1. National institute on drug abuse.(2010, August). Retrieved from Timko, C. (2005, December ). Dual diagnosis treatment in the psychiatric and substance abuse systems. Retrieved from xon_moos_treatment_for_dual_diagnosis_patients.pdf