What is Permaculture?
• Originated in Australia
in mid 1970s.
• Developed by Bill
Mollison and David
Holmgren around ideas
of stable agriculture.
• “Permaculture One”
published in 1978.
• Permaculture combines
three key aspects:
• 1. an ethical framework.
• 2. understandings of how
• 3. a design approach.
• This unique combina1on
is then used to support
the crea1on of
non‐pollu1ng and healthy
seQlements / systems.
Care of Earth
• Provision for all life systems
to con1nue and mul1ply
• Works with natural systems,
rather against them.
• Uses methods that have
minimal nega1ve impact on
the Earth’s natural
• Designing and crea1ng
healthy systems that meet
our needs without
damaging the planet.
Care of People
• Provision for people to
access those resources
necessary to their
• Ensuring the wellbeing of
both individuals and
• Individuals, we need to
look aYer themselves and
each other so that as a
community they can
• By governing our own needs, we can
set resources aside to further the
• Working to achieve a stable human
popula1on, using a number of key
• Recognise that:
• a. The Earth’s resources are limited.
b. These resources need to be
shared amongst many beings.
• Seek to divide these resources fairly
amongst people, animals and plants
alike, not forge]ng future
genera1ons who will need food,
water and shelter just as much as we
• ‘One planet living'.
What is Wormcompos1ng?
• Worm compos1ng involves the
bioxida1ve degrada1on of organic
wastes via the joint ac1on of earth
worms and microorganisms.
• A form of aerobic compos1ng that
involves the use of specialized worms
to help break down organic waste
• Also known as ‘vermicompos1ng’.
• Closely related to ‘vermiculture’ and
‘worm farming’ – although those
terms general imply a greater focus
on the growing of the worms
themselves, rather than on the waste
processing and compost produc1on
side of the equa1on.
• A cooler (mesophilic) type of compos1ng ‐ a
hot compos1ng stage not required
• Is a ‘con1nuous’ compos1ng process –
materials are generally added on an ongoing
basis, unlike the ‘batch compos1ng’
approach used for hot compos1ng
• Can be done on any scale – both indoors and
• Results in an incredible compost
(vermicompost / worm cas1ngs) with unique
plant growth promo1on proper1es – at liQle
goes a long way!
• Doesn’t require any turning of material – the
worms accomplish this themselves
• Can handle more moisture (again, worm
movement helps to keep things aerobic
• Mul1ple yields – compost and cas1ngs,
compost tea, leachate plant feed.
• Fast and easy way to make use of household
What kind of worms?
• Eisenia fe)da – the ‘Red Wiggler’ worm, also
known as Red Worms, Brandling Worms,
Manure Worms, and Tiger Worms (among
• This worm can vary widely in terms of
colora1on and size, which helps to
• Proliﬁc breeder, and will readily feed on a
wide range of organic waste materials
• Eat half their own body weight in waste each
• Eisenia hortensis –a larger rela1ve of Eisenia
fe)da and has similar preferences and
• Viewed by researchers as inferior to the Red
Worm in a lot of ways. It reportedly has a
much lower reproduc1ve rate.
• Most wormeries contain a combina1on of the
How are Permaculture principles
reﬂected in wormcompos1ng?
Where should I put my wormery?
• Worms don’t like it too
hot or too cold‐ keep
cool in summer and
warm in winter.
• Worms don’t like direct
• Worms don’t like to be
too wet or too dry
Any other considera1ons?
• Neutral PH
• Aerobic not anaerobic
What features does a wormery need?
• Ability to keep worms
• Ability to drain leachate
and preferably to save
• Air ﬂow.
What do worms like to eat?
• YES PLEASE
Vegetable Peelings (Potato Skins Take Ages to Rot Down)
Fruit / Peel
Coﬀee / Tea Bags
Flowers (if shop bought ‐ ensure no insec1cides are
Crushed Egg Shells
Cardboard / Paper
Pet Human Hair (this takes ages to rot down)
Pet Faeces (Rabbit / Gerbil Etc)
ANY COOKED FOOD CAN ATTRACT RATS
• NO THANKS
Spicy Foods (Curry etc)
Dairy Products (milk, yogurt, buQer)
Insec1cides / Pes1cides
Soaps / Cosme1c
Grass / Lawn Cu]ngs (If Larger Than a Couple of
Chicken Manure (Too High In Ammonia)
Dog or cat dirt