Section B - The Exam
You need to be prepared to write an essay in the exam which could
be based on any of the following questions:
• How have online media developed?
• What has been the impact of the Internet on media production?
• How is consumer behaviour and audience response transformed by
online media, in relation to the past?
• To what extent has convergence transformed the media?
This presentation is designed to give examples that you can use to
support your exam answer.
Section B - The Exam
Your exam response should include a consideration of:
You need to acknowledge the development of media in relation to the past.
Most of your discussion should focus on current
issues within the topic area.
You must demonstrate personal engagement with debates about the
future of the media forms / issues that the topic relates to.
• In 1995 they did not have a website/web
presence but were starting to think that they
• Main business was print media (circulation over 400,000
for a daily).
• Largely one way communication from large
media institution to mass audience.
• Can you think of theory that could relate to this?
Development of online services
types of media do
Can you think
Online news but
also fashion retail,
The Guardian Newspaper Circulation figures
The Guardian Website:
• 2011 - 36 million unique users per month (unique user = at
least 2 visits to website per month)
• 2014 – Over 40 million unique visitors per month globally,
11.5 million in the UK (is now 5th biggest newspaper site in the
• No.1 in the world for user interaction (highest ratio of
Developments in production
• In 2011 Print and online sections of The Guardian were
completely integrated – if you are a Guardian journalist your
work could be for either or both. All in same offices now.
(Two years ago they were separate sections of the company).
• Same software used to publish to print or web.
• In the last 10 years the development in online journalism has
been driven by technology and how people are using it.
Developments in production
• All journalists are now trained in-house on video
• The Guardian have taken on an editor specifically for
• Aggregation is a big deal – bringing together most
relevant links/stories from different sources.
• The Guardian use search engine optimisation and all the
methods of making sure their news story links come up
at the top (above all other news providers) when you
search on Google [test this with topical story keywords]
• 2011 - Adverts that play at the beginning of Guardian video
content was an important revenue stream. In 2011 the
business had to be subsidised by other publications owned by
the Trust – e.g. Autotrader).
• 2014 – The Guardian is expected to report an increase in
digital revenues of more than a quarter to almost £70m in the
Deemed to be owing to a rise in online advertising and
recruitment and a rise in online apps and mobile websites, as
well as the continuing popularity of dating site Guardian
• Blogging (first blog in 2000) – when feedback comments came
in it was a new phenomena for journalists who traditionally
had a 1 way relationship with readers. Guardian Blogs
• Live blogging (first came into being in 2009). Usually for
shorter events e.g. Cricket but during Egypt story earlier in
2011 they had journalists providing live blogging for about
Use of social media
• Journalists encouraged to have a social media
• Mubarack story received 11,000 shares on Facebook
in one day (the day he was announcing whether or
not he would step down). Guardian Facebook page
• Articles, etc. have links to all major social networking
sites to encourage quick sharing.
Using social networks to gather
information and find sources
• Journalists use social media sites/feeds when researching to get a
sense of the ‘social media conversation’. ‘we are all Khalid Said’
• During the protests in Egypt, Facebook was used by many different
individuals and groups: army, opposition, NGOs, members of the
public. Relates to Clay Shirkey’s ideas as well as Evgeny Morozov…
• The Guardian set up a dedicated phone-line for people, with
experiences or news stories to tell, to leave audio recordings. Tel.
number was distributed/advertised on Facebook, Twitter, etc. They
used online tools that already existed – Audioboo.fm Audioboo
• User-generated content. Citizen journalism?
• Through social media The Guardian are inviting user comments and
interaction in order to reach and engage with an audience.
• The guardian have particularly dedicated and regular users of their
specialised pages – e.g. Culture page users visit more regularly, they
are more regular contributers and they talk to each other. Comments
on film story
• The Guardian encourage users by ‘rewarding’ them with more
ability to share, interact and be part of the content. The Guardian
staff react to and respond to interesting comments by users. 'Your
Photos' in Culture section
• Guardian Witness is a service
worth exploring to consider
citizen journalism in a different way.
Is this interactivity why website hits are going up and newspaper
circulation figures are gradually declining?
Does this suggest we are
moving towards the shared
allotments that Gauntlett
theorised? ..to what extent
though as we are still using
an established organisation
to provide most of the
content and aggregate it
for us in the case of The
• All journalists to have devices (mobile phone cameras possibly) that
can take and send video to a weblink that they can access within
minutes at the Guardian offices.
• Different app subscription offers. More subscription services and
incentives perhaps? Consider what they are doing and could be
doing to make their products and services ‘better than free’ as
Kevin Kelly would put it.
• More convergence with other media/media services? Clay Shirky
would suggest this is what is happening – i.e. different media
coming closer together. See my blog for Shirky summary
• Interesting Shirky article on newspapers - is long but worth skim
In response, staff from the Guardian recorded a cover of a
Radiohead track. Link to it here!
They made it available for live streaming but not for
download as this is where there would have been a lot of
copyright issues and high costs involved.
If you can relate this to media theory you are brilliant!
Radiohead launched a newspaper for
a day on 28th March 2011 to coincide
with album release. Universal Sigh