Forlang seminar motivation lecture


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  • That’s not to say that all such issues are simply a matter of motivation but that a learner who enjoys the language learning experience, is interested in what they are doing, has some degree of choice over what they are doing, wants to succeed and indeed experiences success, is more likely to be a motivated learner and one where the task of the teacher will be that much simpler or more straightforward. Unfortunately things are quite as simple as that and there is a whole host of factors which can affect the way in which the learner responds to and operates within the formal learning environment, that environment for which we as teachers are responsible, and that’s what we are going to consider today.
  •| Will principally be looking at making the most of online authentic resources (by authentic I mean mainly those things which have not been produced specifically for foreign language learners – see egs on this slide – delegates may well be able to think of many others. Essentially boil down to different types of text, image (sometimes combined with text) audio (combined sometimes with one or other of the other two. Will look at some different ways of exploiting these, but only have 40 minutes! Firstly will briefly consider why we should use authentic resources
  • Forlang seminar motivation lecture

    1. 1. Liz Fotheringham [email_address] Strategies for Motivation Forlang 2011
    2. 2. The challenge
    3. 3. <ul><li>Bored </li></ul><ul><li>Tired </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t concentrate </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences little success </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem and confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Inactive </li></ul><ul><li>Does not participate in a constructive way </li></ul><ul><li>Moody………… </li></ul>The un- or demotivated learner
    4. 4. Consequences……..
    5. 5. <ul><li>Enjoys the language learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Is interested in what he/she is learning </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences success </li></ul><ul><li>Has a goal </li></ul>Some characteristics of a motivated learner
    6. 6. Motivation in second language learning is a complex phenomenon. It has been defined in terms of two factors: <ul><li>On the one hand learners’ communicative needs </li></ul><ul><li>And, on the other, their attitudes towards the second language community </li></ul>Lightbown, Patsy/Spada, Nina . 2006 How languages are Learned (3 rd Ed) Oxford: Oxford University Press Motivation is… the driving force that makes us do the things we do. Chambers, Gary (Ed ). 2001 Reflections on motivation . London: CILT What is motivation…….
    7. 7. Motivation is …. the dynamically changing cumulative arousal in a person that initiates, directs, coordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor processes whereby initial wishes and desires are selected, prioritised, operationalised and (successfully or unsuccessfully) acted out. Dörnyei and Otto (1998) (cited in Chambers, Gary (Ed ). 2001 Reflections on motivation . London: CILT) What is motivation…….
    8. 8. … . Some thoughts on motivation…
    9. 9. 燕 <ul><li>Bird from the NORTH 北 </li></ul><ul><li>Flying across the waters (dots) </li></ul><ul><li>With a stalk ( ) of grass ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>In its mouth 口 </li></ul>yàn The swallow is remembered as a… The impact of TL culture on motivation
    10. 10. Motivated learners? I hated the school topic because I did not find it interesting and I will probably never need it again. I didn’t like the pencil case items because it wasn’t interesting or very relevant to me. I didn’t like doing the time because I had already done it at primary school. I prefer working outside the text book because you have more freedom so it is fun I liked the work on Euro 2008. We got really creative and made posters. I enjoyed doing the work on the Olympics the most. I loved putting my French skills to the test and learning about the mascots. It made me realise how much French I knew.
    11. 11. Factors affecting motivation
    12. 12. Factors affecting motivation – having a goal <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future goals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifications? </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Factors affecting motivation - content <ul><li>Relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul>
    14. 14. Factors affecting motivation – choice of resources
    15. 15. Factors affecting motivation – transition Takes account of prior learning experience?
    16. 16. Factors affecting motivation – the CLIL approach
    17. 17. 四 八 Sculpture Music and dance Superstition Festivals Colours Sports and games Gestures Food Language Art and calligraphy Architecture Religion and philosophy Factors affecting motivation – exposure to TL culture
    18. 18. Menus tickets Posters Programmes Adverts Newspapers and magazines Literature Poetry Brochures pamphlets catalogues Internet articles cartoons Statistics charts Songs Movies Timetables Podcasts Photographs Instructions receipts Videos blogs emails radio broadcast discussion forums recipes jokes films Quizzes Surveys Interview Speeches Reports TV programmes Puzzles Factors affecting motivation – exposure to TL culture
    19. 19. Factors affecting motivation – direct experience of TL country 'I think this trip is an amazing opportunity and gives a great insight and understanding to Chinese culture. I enjoyed every second of the trip and the staff and volunteer students have been exceptionally welcoming and giving in every way humanly possible. When I leave China, I leave knowing that I am always welcome.'
    20. 20. Stimulating motivation – opportunities for contact with TL country/exposure to TL culture <ul><li>Teleconferencing through tools such as Skype </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with foreign language assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Themed days </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrations and festivals </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with local speakers of TL </li></ul><ul><li>Links and projects (cross-curricular?) with partner schools </li></ul>
    21. 21. Factors affecting motivation - The classroom environment <ul><ul><li>What is the involvement of the learner? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do they feel about their learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much choice do they get? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How challenging is what they do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they get appropriate feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the role of assessment? </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Context/content Boring, dull Interesting and meaningful Low level (easy) High level (difficult) The classroom environment – promoting a sense of achievement
    23. 23. <ul><li>Indentifying patterns in language and making connections </li></ul><ul><li>Memorisation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Using knowledge of L1 or another language </li></ul><ul><li>Using reference materials e.g. dictionary skills </li></ul><ul><li>Taking notes </li></ul><ul><li>Reading out aloud e.g. knowledge of phonics </li></ul><ul><li>Working out meaning by using previous knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating and improving on their performance </li></ul>Helping learners to help themselves - equipping learners with the strategies to be successful language learners Some Examples Increased learner autonomy Increased intrinsic motivation
    24. 24. Helping learners to help themselves - equipping learners with the strategies to be successful language learners Now, however, in the age of learner-centredness in education and of learner autonomy in particular, in may be that the teachers’ own agenda needs to change. After all, the appropriate question no longer seems to be how can we motivate our learners ? But how can we help learners to motivate themselves? Ema Ushioda quoted by Dörnyei: Motivational Strategies in the classroom, CUP 2001
    25. 25. The role of the teacher in stimulating and maintaining motivation <ul><li>Conveys enthusiasm for language and learning it to learners </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a supportive, collaborative learning environment (importance of good relationships) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains a good learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys positive attitudes towards the TL country (countries) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Creating the right classroom environment – role of the teacher…. <ul><ul><li>Gets to know the learner as an individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces anxiety of the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boosts self esteem and confidence of learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets standards for behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures the learner experiences success </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Constructive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage self and peer assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Clear learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent assessment criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate success </li></ul>Maintaining motivation – effective feedback and assessment
    28. 28. Rewards Extrinsic rewards need to be handled carefully and always with the long term goal of developing intrinsic motivation, i.e. moving from motivating learners to helping learners to motivate themselves. Lamb, Terry 2001 Reflections on motivation . London: CILT
    29. 29. Maintaining motivation – active learning
    30. 30. Variety – a key to maintaining motivation
    31. 31. Helping learners to help themselves –using ICT to maintain motivation by stimulating creativity
    32. 32. Maintaining motivation - using ICT to stimulate creativity and support learner autonomy
    33. 33. Maintaining motivation - when the going gets tough….
    34. 34. And finally……. Liz Fotheringham [email_address]