Learning disabilities


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a short description of learning disabilities!

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Learning disabilities

  1. 1. Learning Disabilities<br />By: Liz Eline, Sarah Buchheit, Hannah Stevelingston<br />
  2. 2. What is a learning disability? <br />A disability in which there is a discrepancy between a person’s ability and academic achievement; individual possesses average intelligence.<br />
  3. 3. Primary Characteristics: <br />Deficits in academic performance and cannot exist without impairment in academic achievement. <br />Seven Categories of School Performance:<br />1.) Reading <br />2.) Mathematics<br />3.) Written Language<br />4.) Spoken Language<br />5.) Memory<br />6.) Metacognition<br />7.) Attributions<br />
  4. 4. Reading<br />• Well over half of all students identified as learning disabled exhibit problems with reading. <br />•Students who have difficulty reading may be dyslexic and have a lack of understanding of the rules that govern the correspondence between specific sounds and certain letters that make up words. <br />• Dyslexia: a type of reading disorder in which the student fails to recognize and comprehend written words <br />
  5. 5. CLIP FROM GEORGE LOPEZ!!!!!!!!!!!<br />
  6. 6. Mathematics<br />•One out of every four students with learning disabilities receives help with mathematics.<br />Examples: computational skills, words problems, spatial relationships, writing numbers/copying shapes, telling time, understanding fractions/decimals, or measuring.<br />•Problems that begin in elementary school generally continue through high school and they have troubling consequences in adulthood. <br />
  7. 7. Written Language:<br />•Includes: spelling, handwriting, and composition<br />•Researchers speculate that a link exists between these areas of deficiency and a person’s reading ability because both may rise from a lack of phonological awareness.<br />•Spelling is the most difficult task for these students. Some may add or omit letters from a word. <br />
  8. 8. Spoken Language<br />•Issue with pragmatics: the functional use of language in social settings. <br />•Problems with appropriate word choice, understanding complex sentence structure, and responding to questions are entailed in this category of learning disabilities.<br />Specific mechanical deficient include: <br />Syntax-how words are organized into sentences <br />Semantics- word meanings<br />Phonology- sound formation and blending of sounds to form words<br />
  9. 9. Memory<br />•Deals with the phrase: “in one ear and out the other” because students have trouble remembering academic and non-academic information.<br />•People with learning disabilities have trouble with short term memory and working memory.<br />•Short term memory: Tasks that typically involve the recall and correct order of either orally or visually presented information shortly after hearing or seeing the item several times<br />•Working memory: requires that an individual retain information while simultaneously engaging in another cognitive activity. <br />
  10. 10. Metacognition<br />•Students who have disabilities often lack an awareness of their own thinking process. <br />•The reading problems of students with learning disabilities may be due to deficiencies in metacognition:<br />Clarifying the purposes of reading: pupils do not adjust their reading styles to accommodate the difficulty of the text.<br />Focusing attention on important goals: children with reading problems experience difficulty in selecting the main ideas of a paragraph<br />Monoroting<br />