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the consonant system

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  1. 1. <ul><li>By: Elizabeth Rodriguez B. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Phonemes: </li></ul><ul><li>Sound differences that distinguish words. </li></ul><ul><li>/ǝ/  el e ph a nt </li></ul><ul><li>/⋀/  b u g </li></ul><ul><li>/ ð /  th at </li></ul><ul><li>/ η /  si ng </li></ul><ul><li>Allophones: </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds that are perceptly different but do not distinguish words. </li></ul><ul><li>P h  The allophone in initial position, which is often heavily as aspirated or accompanied by rush of air, as in pat. </li></ul><ul><li>P  The allophone of /p/ following an initial /s/, which is not aspirated, as in spin </li></ul><ul><li>P o  The allophone of /p/ in final position, in which the lips remain closed and the /p/ is unreleased, as in cup </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Linguists and teachers often use a set of special symbols commonly referred to as a phonemic alphabet. </li></ul><ul><li>Cat -- /k/ </li></ul><ul><li>City -- /s/ </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean -- /∫/ </li></ul><ul><li>Cello -- /t ∫ / </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Voiceless sounds: </li></ul><ul><li>The vocal cords are at rest ans the air goes out freely without causing vibration. </li></ul><ul><li>/f/ female geographic laugh </li></ul><ul><li>/p/ pace support mop </li></ul><ul><li>/t/ tin atomic riot </li></ul><ul><li>/k/ kidney mechanic seek </li></ul><ul><li>// thank ether bath </li></ul><ul><li>/s/ seafood rice maps </li></ul><ul><li>/∫/ shame ashes wash </li></ul><ul><li>/t ∫/ cherry matching catch </li></ul>The vocal cords are closed so the colum of air is blocked. In this position of the vocal cords the glottal /h/ is pronounced. /H/ hut, hypocrisy, hide, hippo, hint seahorse, tallahasse, behavior, misbehave, cohesion 1. VOICING 6 7
  5. 6. <ul><li>Voiced sounds: </li></ul><ul><li>The vocal cords are then, touch each and the airs goes out causing them to vibrate. </li></ul><ul><li>/b/ bury ribbon mob </li></ul><ul><li>/d/ dig Adam morbid </li></ul><ul><li>/g/ goat disgusting smog </li></ul><ul><li>/v/ vile rival brave </li></ul><ul><li>/z/ zipper raise peas </li></ul><ul><li>/ʒ/ leisure beige </li></ul><ul><li>/d ʒ / jail major garage </li></ul><ul><li>/ð/ thy either bathe </li></ul>8
  6. 7. <ul><li>NASAL ARTICULATION </li></ul><ul><li>ORAL ARTICULATION </li></ul>2. THE POSITION OF THE VELUM /m/ main, demand, seem /n/ nest, deny, sin /ŋ/ singer, bang /p, t, k, b, d, g, s, z, f, v, ∫, , ð, t ∫ , d ʒ/ 9 10
  7. 8. 3. PLACE OR POINT OF ARTICULATION Place of articulation Examples Bilabial using closing movement of both lips. /p, b, m/ as in pain, describe, main (11, 12,13) Alveolar produced with the tongue tip on or near the tooth ridge / d, t, n, l/ as in to, do, so, zoo, new, and light (14,15,16) Labio – dental using the lower lip and the upper teeth. /f, v/ as in rifle, value (18,19) Dental the tongue tip i sused either between the teeth or close to the upper teeth. /ð , ɵ/ as in thick, then (20,21) Palato-alveolar the blade (or tip) of tongue is used just behind the alveolar ridge /s, z/ as in seal, zeal (22, 23) Palatal the front of the tongue is raised close to the palate /∫, t∫, ʒ, dʒ /as in chow, Jim,show, beige. (24, 25,26,27 ) Retroflex the trip of the tongue curls back to touch or nearmy the hard plate /r/ as in rye (28) Velar the back of the tongue is used againts the soft palate /k, g, ŋ/ as in kite, go, and bang (29,30,31)
  8. 9. 4. MANNER OF ARTICULATION Manner of articulation Voiceless Voiced Stop when the airstream is blocked or stopped completely before its realease, we refere to the resulting explosion of sound as stop (or plosive) /p,t,k/ /b,d,g/ (2.29, 2.30,2.31) Fricative when two vocal organs come close enough together for the movement of air between them to be heard /f/, /ɵ/,/s/,/∫/ (2.33,34,35,36,37) /v/,/ð/,/z/, /ʒ/ Affricate in two instances, sounds are a combination of a stop and final a fricative. These two sounds, knows as a affricates. /t∫/ (2.32) /dʒ/ Nasal Another set of sounds is produced when air passes through the nasal cavity, thi soccurs when the oral passage is closed and the velum moves forward to free th enasal cavity. /m/, /n/, /ŋ/ (2.38,39,40) Lateral or Liquid ia partial closure is made by the blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge. Air is able to flow around the sides of the tounge /l/ (2.41) Approximant vocal organs come near to each other, but not so close as to cause audible friction, (2.42,43,44) /r/,/w/
  9. 10. <ul><li>Arias. Luz D. (2009) Manual of English Pronuntiation. Universidad Pedagógica Nacional </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald. Kelly. (2000) How to teach pronuntiation. Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Pronuntiation. Cambriage </li></ul>