ARTID111 Etruscan Art

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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD with modifications by Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • ARTID111 Etruscan Art

    1. 1. <ul><li>ART ID 111 | Study of Ancient Arts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NYIT Center for Teaching and Learning with Technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With modifications by Arch. Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP </li></ul></ul></ul>Italy before the Romans: Etruscan Art
    2. 2. <ul><li>ETRUSCAN CIVILIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. </li></ul><ul><li>The ancient Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms Tuscany, which refers to their heartland, and Etruria, which can refer to their wider region. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>ETRUSCAN CIVILIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>The Etruscan civilization flourished in the region of modern Tuscany in Italy for approximately 900 years, from ca. 1000 to ca. 100 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture. The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by the Greek. </li></ul><ul><li>It was finally overwhelmed by the Romans, who absorbed many of its features. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>ETRUSCAN ORIGINS </li></ul><ul><li>The origin of the Etruscan people is not clear at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Their language, although written in a Greek-derived script and extant in inscriptions that are still in large part obscure, is unrelated to the Indo-European linguistic family. </li></ul><ul><li>It is likely they were the result of a gradual fusion of native and immigrant populations. The mixing of peoples occurred between the end of the Bronze Age and the so-called Villanovan era. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Early Etruscan Art
    6. 6. <ul><li>THE CITIES OF ETRURIA </li></ul><ul><li>During the eighth and seventh centuries BCE, the Etruscans, as highly skilled seafarers, enriched themselves through trade abroad. The territories controlled by the Etruscans coexisted, but never came together to form a true Etruscan nation or kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Etruscan art, like Greek art, and equivalent to it many respects, is divided initially into an Orientalizing period followed by an Archaic period that lasted until the fifth century BCE. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>ORIENTALIZING ART </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan wealth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron, tin, copper, and silver were all successfully mined in Etruria. This great mineral wealth transformed Etruscan society during the seventh century BCE. Etruscan aristocrats quickly developed a taste for luxury objects incorporating Eastern motifs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gold jewelry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most spectacular objects from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb is golden fibula made in the Italic tradition, with five lions in the Orientalizing style. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Fibula with Orientalizing lions from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Cerveteri, Italy ca. 650-64:0 BCE. Gold, approx. 1' 1/2&quot; high. http://etruskowie.blogspot.com/2010/09/etruska-bizuteria.html
    9. 10. Fibula with Orientalizing lions from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Cerveteri, Italy ca. 650-64:0 BCE. Gold, approx. 1' 1/2&quot; high. http://etruskowie.blogspot.com/2010/09/etruska-bizuteria.html
    10. 11. Fibula
    11. 12. Etruscan jewelry set
    12. 13. <ul><li>Archaic Art and Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan Temples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Etruscan temples were gable-roofed buildings built of wood and sun-dried brick that stood on a high podium with entrance stairs on the front side only. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A deep porch with widely-spaced Etruscan (Tuscan) columns occupied the front half of the podium, and a walled enclosure with up to three internal chambers occupied the other half. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior decorations made of terracotta included life-size statues placed on the peak of the roof. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. Models of Etruscan temples as described by Vitruvius ca. 6th century B.C.E. http://www.fransite.net/Klassiek/Romeins/kunst/slides/Model%20of%20a%20typical%20Etruscan%20temple%20of%20the%20sixth%20century%20BCE,%20as%20described%20by%20Vitruvius.html
    14. 16. Models of Etruscan temples as described by Vitruvius ca. 6th century B.C.E.
    15. 17. Apulu (Apollo) from the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Italy ca. 510-500 B.C.E. painted terracotta 71 in. high http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQZdZycFDa_Zaf_l6eGsS5X-JSeNOREwQ5Jvr08V8yviQYCLCMi One example of a rooftop statue is the life-size image of Apulu from a temple in the Portonaccio sanctuary at Veii.
    16. 18. Apulu (Apollo) from the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Italy ca. 510-500 B.C.E. painted terracotta 71 in. high http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQZdZycFDa_Zaf_l6eGsS5X-JSeNOREwQ5Jvr08V8yviQYCLCMi
    17. 19. <ul><li>Archaic Art and Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses for the dead: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etruscan tombs in the form of mounds with internal rock-cut chambers were arranged in organized cemeteries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chambers were carved to resemble the interiors of domestic houses and may also be decorated with painted stucco reliefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other underground, rock-cut tombs were painted with scenes of banqueting and outdoor scenes set in a natural environment. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 21. Banditaccia necropolis from Cerveteri, Italy 7th to 2nd centuries B.C.E.
    19. 22. Banditaccia necropolis from Cerveteri, Italy 7th to 2nd centuries B.C.E. The Necropolis of Banditaccia was designed as if it were to be inhabited by living beings. From the principal thoroughfare of &quot;Via degli Inferi&quot;, there are a number of secondary roads lined with dozens of circular burial mounds, dug in to the tuff. The interiors of the tombs are similar to those of an Etruscan house. The Tomba dei Rilievi (Tomb of the Reliefs, 3rd century BC) is by far the most decorative, its walls painted with images of domestic animals and various utensils for every day use. http://a1.l3-images.myspacecdn.com/images01/101/a9d9e7611a2e4e601ed5221ea812ef9b/l.jpg
    20. 23. Tumulus from Cerveteri, Italy 7th to 2nd centuries B.C.E.
    21. 24. Tumulus from Cerveteri, Italy 7th to 2nd centuries B.C.E. http://eternallycool.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/tomb-entrance-w-figures.jpg
    22. 25. Interior Tomb of the Reliefs (Tomba dei Rilievi) Cerveteri, Italy | 3rd century B.C.E.
    23. 26. Interior Tomb of the Reliefs (Tomba dei Rilievi) Cerveteri, Italy | 3rd century B.C.E.
    24. 27. Sarcophagus with reclining couple from Cerveteri, Italy ca. 520 B.C.E. | painted terracotta | 45 1/2 in. high
    25. 28. Sarcophagus with reclining couple from Cerveteri, Italy ca. 520 B.C.E. | painted terracotta | 45 1/2 in. high
    26. 30. <ul><ul><li>Tarquinia's painted tombs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large underground burial chambers hewn out of the natural rock were also the norm at Tarquinia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But the tumuli do not cover the Tarquinian tombs, and the interiors do not have carvings imitating the appearance of Etruscan houses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some cases paintings decorate the tomb chamber walls. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 31. Detail of mural paintings in the Tomb of Triclinium| Tarquinia, Italy | ca. 530-52:0 BCE.
    28. 32. Detail of mural paintings in the Tomb of Hunting and Fishing | Tarquinia, Italy | ca. 530-52:0 BCE.
    29. 33. Late Etruscan Art Later Etruscan art is notable for bronze sculptures, carved stone sarcophagi, and the use of the arch in gateway architecture.
    30. 35. Chimera of Arezzo from the Arezzo, Italy 1st half of 4th century B.C.E. bronze 31 1/2 in. high Chimera (Greek mythology) is a fire-breathing female monster with a lion's head and a goat's body and a serpent's tail.
    31. 36. Chimera of Arezzo from the Arezzo, Italy 1st half of 4th century B.C.E. | bronze | 31 1/2 in. high
    32. 38. contested Capitoline Wolf (Remus & Romulus added) from Rome, Italy ca. 500-480 B.C.E. bronze 31 1/2 in. high
    33. 40. NOVIOS PLAUTIOS Ficoroni Cista from Palestrina, Italy late fourth century BCE. Bronze approx. 2' 6&quot; high. The Ficoroni Cista was found in an Etruscan woman's tomb in Palestrina, the center of Etruscan bronze industry. The fact that his piece was made by Novios Plautios, a Roman artist, signifies the growing importance of Rome as an Italian cultural and political center. http://www.emforster.info/pages/malcolnia2a.htm
    34. 41. http://www.emforster.info/pages/malcolnia2a.htm
    35. 43. Porta Marzia (Gate of Mars) Perugia, Italy 2nd century B.C.E.
    36. 44. http://www.museumsyndicate.com/images/4/36649.jpg http://www.museumsyndicate.com/images/4/36649.jpg
    37. 46. Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena from Tarquinia, Italy Early second century BCE. Tufa | approx. 6' 6&quot; long. http://www.museumsyndicate.com/images/4/36661.jpg In Hellenistic Etruria, the descendants of the magnificent Archaic terracotta sarcophagus from Cerveteri were made of local stone.
    38. 47. http://www.museumsyndicate.com/images/4/36661.jpg
    39. 48. http://www.museumsyndicate.com/images/4/36661.jpg
    40. 49. Glossary <ul><li>chimera A monster of Greek invention with the head and body of a lion and the tail of a serpent. A second head, that of a goat, grows out of one side of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>cista (pl. cistae) An Etruscan cylindrical container made of sheet bronze with cast handles and feet, often with elaborately engraved bodies, used for women’s toilet articles. </li></ul><ul><li>Fibula A decorative pin, usually used to fasten garments. </li></ul>
    41. 50. Glossary <ul><li>necropolis Greek, “city of the dead”; a large burial area or cemetery. </li></ul><ul><li>Novios Plautios Creator of the Ficoroni Cista, the Etruscan bronze cista depicting an episode from the Greek story of the expedition of the Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece. </li></ul><ul><li>pectoral An ornament worn on the chest. </li></ul><ul><li>pilaster A flat, rectangular, vertical member projecting from a wall of which it forms a part. It usually has a base and a capital and is often fluted. </li></ul>
    42. 51. Glossary <ul><li>repoussé Formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back, leaving the impression on the face. The metal is hammered into a hollow mold of wood or some other pliable material and finished with a graver. </li></ul><ul><li>terracotta Hard-baked clay, used for sculpture and as a building material. It may be glazed or painted. </li></ul><ul><li>Tuscan column The standard type of Etruscan column. Resembles ancient Greek Doric columns, but is made of wood, is unfluted, and has a base. </li></ul>
    43. 52. Sources <ul><li>http://www.wadsworth.com/art_d/templates/student_resources/0155050907_kleiner/studyguide/ch09/ch09_1.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://websites.swlearning.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=0155050907&discipline_number=436 </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etruscan_civilization </li></ul><ul><li>http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaynine.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Art Through the Ages, 12th/11th ed., Gardner </li></ul>

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