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  1. 1. Is construction work will be in the model of revenue?Background: In Gaya there is a system of Ahar and Pyne, Ahar means the storage of water for the Rabiseason in which they will irrigate by taking the water from the ahar, and Pyne is the canal through whichthe water flows into the field. There was a dam which was built in Jamunai river which is perennial riverduring the Zamindari System in 18th Decades in Sherghati by Walli Mohamad of Nishkha village, so as tostock the water at the dam and divert the water into the pyne which is about 6.5 km from the dam(head is Bela and tail is Nishkha village) and irrigation being made but due to high rainfall dam being cutoff from the main stream of the river during 1940-1950 decades and makes the poor people unable tofetch the water of the river which was the only resource of irrigation, but they make the kutch dam byputting the mud and stones 4 times but every time it breaks and farmers also approach to the gov/semi-gov/MLA/MP but no one took the notice to this matter and found itself helpless and they depend onlyon Pumpset/Diesel Engine to take the ground water and irrigate the land, causing duplication of thewater table and which causes high investment and laborious (see annexure:1).After knowing this situation IGS have come up with a DBI project which is funded by SDTT, in this projectwe have made the social structure in 3 tiers (Pani-SHG’s, Krishak Sabha, Federation) in the loan basis inwhich the dam being made in the loan and this loan will be taken back by villagers themselves and formthe corpus in the federation. By this money collected by them can be used in any other developmentalwork in this area such as purchase of tractor, making of schools, making ware house, maintenance of thedam, and pyne cleaning.Our Project area is in Sherghati, Southern block of Gaya in which there are 9 villages, 4 panchayat, 2Blocks with 324 farmers having irrigated area 402 Acare.Objectives: 1. Conservation, regeneration and judicious use and management of all natural resources 2. Creation of employment opportunity to prevent seasonal migration. 3. Help small and marginal farmers benefited by the project to adopt new packages of practices such as System of Rice Intensification (SRI), and market led cropping pattern so as to enhance household income substantially. 4. Set up grassroots level institutions and Federation for proper management of water and natural resources and deal with them. 5. Set up an equitable water distribution system and profit sharing mechanism for all people in the village.Demographic: As we all know that Gaya is the southern district of Bihar and comes under the dry zone(see annexure: 2) there is greater demand of watershed to collect the rainwater during the rainy seasonand irrigate during the Rabi Season, Zaid Season.Some information about the Gaya District: (see annexure: 3)Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 1
  2. 2. a. Population 3, 473, 428 b. Sex-Ration 938 c. BPL HH 3,60,848 d. Normal Rainfall 1086 mm e. Percentage of cultivable land to total geographical land 2006-07 59.81 f. Percentage of area under commercial crops to gross cropped area 2006-07 3.33 g. Percentage of net area sown to geographical area 2006-07 41.44 Process Undertaken: Social Structure PANI MAHASANGH Krishak Sabha Krishak Sabha Krishak Sabha at Krishak Sabha formed in all 9 at village level village level at village level villages SHGs of water users formed in all 9 PANI PANI SAMOH PANI SAMOH villages and all loan SAMOH PANI SAMOHPANI SAMOH proceedings will be PANI SAMOH followed with SHG groups only. In the lower tier Pani SHG’sbeing formed his main purpose to start savings and contribute the social and any problem in the area through meetings. In each SHG’s loan being disburse according to their land holding which can be irrigated by pyne. (See annexure: 4) Krishak Sabha: In this 2nd tier their responsibilities in collection of 10% amount in their gram sabha and then into the federation account, and helps in distribution of water and enhancing the activities related to dam such as making makhana or fisheries in their area, purchase of the materials such as cement, boulder etc during the construction work. Pani Mahasabha: This is the higher most tiers its main purpose is to see that all the works assigned to the gram sabha is doing or not, generating the fund, conflict between any matters in our project area in distribution of water, checking the quality of work Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 2
  3. 3. We have generate some social dynamics and some responsibilities in the aspect to work in our projectarea in this now we know about the flow of money and how and where it goes: Indian Grameen Services, Basix SDTT(Work in technical aspects and field support in the area) (Funder) Sarva Seva Samiti (Work in the social mobilizations) Pani SHG in One Krishak Pani Mahasabha in every Village Sabha in every project area Village Rest 90 % will be deposited in the account 10 % after 3 years by irrigating their land contribution(Before construction of the dam) Mahasabha account in (Develop as a corpus) Bank of India, Gaya Mahasangh registered under the Trust Deed work as independentIndian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 3
  4. 4. Before Situation: When IGS team started to work out in the area and form all the social aspects we havefeel to capture some data in respect of how many money invested in diesel among our project area andalso locate the cost benefit analysis after the construction of the dam. So as the baseline survey inrespect of further eye opening and helpful in future strategy.Fig: 1 Shows the Diesel money invested (in Rs) among the 9 villages among all the 3 seasons in previousyear 498300 223300 259776 297924 Punadih 864622 1067022 Mubarakpur 1028456 Garib Chak 852104 Mehedipur Vishnu Bigha Nishkha 3462712 Shri Chak Sahanu BelaFig: 2 Shows the no of farmers engaged in our catchment area in 9 villages in % Punadih No of Farmers 5% Bela Mubarakpur Sahanu 7% 3% Garib Chak 8% 4% Mehedipur 19% Shri Chak 18% Nishkha Vishnu Bigha 28% 8%As the head to tail villages are as follows: Bela Garibchak Mehedipur SahnuSrichak Mubarakpur Punadih Vishun Bigha NishkhaIndian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 4
  5. 5. Fig: 3 Shows the land to be irrigated in Kharif, Rabi and Zaid (in Kattha) 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 Kharif Irrigated 2000 1500 Rabi Irrigated 1000 Zaid Irrigated 500 0Table no: 1 shows the capacity of Ahar in the respective villagesS.No Name of the Village Name of the Ahar Irrigated Capacity1 Bela No2 Garibchak No3 Mehedipur No4 Sahnu Bulbuli 25 Bigha5 Srichak No6 Mubarakpur Bhaisa7 Punadih No8 Vishnu Bigha No9 Nishkha Ahari, Tetar, Nathua, Juhia/Chotka Nathua, 40,120,65,40,30,10 Hadhadwa, Belmarwa Bigha RespectivelyAfter making the social structure and the motivation among the villagers by doing the Nukar Natak, CGT(comprehensive group training) in the SHG’s, Krishak Sabha meetings, loan documents being filled,plotting being done of each and every field, federation meetings about facts and figure and strategy,and cropping pattern in the project area.Table no: 2 Shows the farmers 10% contribution as the first installment which has been submitted inBank Village No of Total Total Land 10% S.No Name SHG Member (Kattha) Total Loan Contribution Update 1 Bela 2 27 605 134915 13491.5 0 2 Mehedipur 5 62 1232 274736 27473.6 25655 3 Garibchak 1 15 66.5 14829.5 1482.95 1487Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 5
  6. 6. 4 Punadih 1 14 385 85855 8585.5 8582 5 Nishkha 6 75 3987 889101 88910.1 61053 6 Vishnu Bigha 3 36 1609 358807 35880.7 24018 7 Shri Chak 5 60 1425 317775 31777.5 23146 8 Sahanu 2 25 1162 259126 25912.6 16445 9 Mubarakpur 1 10 259 57757 5775.7 5771Fig: 4 Shows the deviation in the collection of 10 % contribution Comaprison between Actual 10% Contribution to Update Contribution 86000 88910.1 81000 76000 71000 66000 61000 61053 56000 in rupees 51000 46000 41000 36000 35880.7 Actual 10% Contribution 31000 31777.5 26000 27473.6 21000 25655 24018 23146 25912.6 Update Contribution 16000 16445 11000 13491.5 6000 8582 8585.5 5771 5775.7 1000 1487 1482.95There were the major challenges in this project: 1. Concept sharing about the renovation of the dam in the earlier days, no one was convinced that dam will be renovated by this loan model 2. Taking 10% contribution from the farmers, when material such as Cement, Sand, Boulder were not stock 3. Some greedy persons in the federation do not want to make the dam, they only want the cut from the fund as the signatory was from the federation 4. There was obstruction from the U/S as water will be logged in lower area and they do not want to build the dam 5. Due to Panchayat election in Bihar, purchasing of boulder, cement, stone chips was delayed, (see the annexure: 5)Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 6
  7. 7. 6. Crushers mills being seized 7. The union of labours was very much strong 8. The budget of the dam made in 2009, but construction of dam started in 2011, in these 2 years there was huge price hike in the materials as well as in labour (see annexure:6) 9. The U/S damaged due to high rainfall making the dam very much difficult 10. Legal Case come in the field by the D/S Village such as KurmamaDuring the construction of the dam these were the major challenges which have been short out duringthe course of work in the area. These has been solved through the social mobilization and making thegroup strong by enhancing their inner interest and solving by themselves, anyhow these challenges givesthe major strategy to be followed for further implementation in the area concerned.Group Work: In this project purchasing committee purchase the material such as cement, sand, boulder,stone chips, there was the construction of the shed nearby area of construction, in which the villagersand helpers stay during the night.Major Learning’s from this Project: People’s participation in the construction process is very much critical Capacity of the villagers in pulling the water into the pyne, understanding about their traditional method of irrigation Budget of the construction part should be properly managed. Whenever there was cutoff in the U/S, major learning was done in solving and taking the contributions. Two to three nursery beds are made of different seeds variety of different duration accordingly seeing the monsoon. Learning about the construction process of dam. Walli Bandh Mutual Benefit Trust being registered in Trust Deed No: 1413, Token No: 15997, Sl.No: 15947 on 11.10.11. (see annexure: 7) In this construction work employment of 3485 man days labour During the pyne cleaning 300 man days labour (contribution from the community) During the cutoff of the Upper stream, 200 man days of labour (contribution from the community)Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 7
  8. 8. Future Strategy: Trust future strategy is to involve other tail villages for the irrigation purpose in Kharif season, Another important aspect is in fisheries in Ahar, and sells them in the market They require the technical support in Agriculture From this Corpus money they can maintain dam, clean the pyne, and make the ware -house for storage of the grainsNow the main question again strike in the mind is loan model is a sustainable tool for the developmentof villagers?Main saving of the villagers is diesel and labour in irrigation of the field, but taking loan to make anassets, loan is taking in group for group activity is major change in the village, and they realized that theyhave own the dam and they have also the corpus for their future work. They are now relaxed fromdiesel and also from the labour to irrigate the land as by the natural flow through the diversion of theriver Jamunai through the pyne is majour thing, old generation know about the dam which was built 7 to8 times kaccha and they irrigate their field but anyhow they do not even realized that by making themodel such as loan they can irrigate the land, and recharge the land.As the loan sheet being share among the pani SHG’s and krishak sabha and the federation also in whichthe break up given for the 3 years. In which each and every farmers has sown the land to be irrigated,loan sheet is made by the total construction cost/total land irrigated it comes around 223 Rs/Kattha,here in Gaya 1 Kattha= 160 m2 i.e., 1.40 Rs/m2. In laon sheet 8% flat rate of interest is also incorporated.There are also certain rule that whenever they will irrigate more land as sown in the loan sheet thenthey will hire 400 Rs/Kattha i.e., 2.5 Rs/Kathha, which is double of the original. For the transparency inthe rule and regulation we have made the wall painting. Technical Details are given in annexure 8.As the question still remains the same loan model!The one and only solution that have been seen that how far the institutions remain hold in their ownfeet they will survive and this loan model will get the result. For this there is the time period required formaking the institutions at the ground root work and in concept seeding, after that we can start the workby the help of the villagers and do some homework to spark their inner ideas, and flow in the rightdirection only required is passions and impact will automatically come (dream come true for thevillagers that they can irrigate their land through natural flow of water, now they are adopting the cropsuch as paddy, maize, potato, wheat, moong, vegetables in their area, fisheries are also done in Ahar)Table No: 3 Shows the water level after the construction of the dam, village wise as on 14.11.11S.No Village Name Panchayat Name Block Water Level (Foot)1 Bela Bela Sherghati 152 Garibchak Kachori Sherghati 73 Mehedipur Bela Sherghati 74 Sahnu Mor Mardana Bhodgaya 10Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 8
  9. 9. 5 Srichak Mor Mardana Bhodgaya 126 Mubarakpur Jhikatia Bhodgaya 157 Punadih Jhikatia Bhodgaya 158 Vishnu Bigha Jhikatia Bhodgaya 209 Nishkha Jhikatia Bhodgaya 15Pic 5: Shows the water level of one well in Nishha Village:The construction work started in April-2011 and ends at July-2011; Project is being sanctioned fromApril-2010 to Dec-2011. By this construction they have irrigate 2 times in their field which they havegrown paddy. Now they have also appointed one water man to see that no one could cut the dam atU/S and distribution of water is done as per their requirement. They have also eager to give 10% of the90% loan this year and submit in the bank, and the remains amount i.e., 80% will be deposited in 2years, this shows that farmers are willing and have complete faith in the Mahasangh Trust to deposit themoney and irrigate the land, and this money will again be used in their future work, so piloting this loanmodel is only half success and in the future it will be fully succeed, only precaution is to take whilemaking the institutions do some hard gross root work, and be transparent and always spark their will,water is the essential for all.Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 9
  10. 10. Picture Gallery: A. Before construction of dam:- B. In Middle of Construction:-Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 10
  11. 11. C. After the Construction of Dam:- D. Pyne Cleaning by Farmers:-Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 11
  12. 12. E. Pulling the water in the pyne in village Mubarakpur:- F. U/S cut off:-Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 12
  13. 13. G. Cut off being maintained by farmers:- H. U/S side picture:-Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 13
  14. 14. I. Water flowing in the pyne and being irrigated in the paddy field:- J. Overflowing of water from the culvert:-Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 14
  15. 15. K. Nukar Natak photograph L. Wall PaintingIndian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 15
  16. 16. M. Final Ahar Being filled Annexure: 1 Total Total Total TotalVillage No of Kharif Rabi Zaid Hour in Hour in Hour in Total Diesel LandName Farmers Irrigated Irrigated Irrigated Kharif Rabi Zaid Discharge Money (Kattha)Punadih 15 553 523 0 2943 2132 0 50750000 223300 1076Mubarakpur 10 279 279 0 3672 2232 0 59040000 259776 558Garib Chak 11 388 368 60 3574 2967 230 67710000 297924 816Mehedipur 58 1360 1360 0 13123 11127.5 0 242505000 1067022 2720VishnuBigha 24 1052 1082 50 10554 8232 580 193660000 852104 2184Nishkha 87 4687 4587 0 39982.5 38715.5 0 786980000 3462712 9274Shri Chak 56 1452 1452 0 12009 11365 0 233740000 1028456 2904Sahanu 26 1589 1589 0 11494.5 8156 0 196505000 864622 3178Bela 22 830 830 0 6400 4925 0 113250000 498300 1660Total 309 12190 12070 110 103752 89852 810 1944140000 8554216 24370 Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 16
  17. 17. Annexure: 2 Flood and Drought Prone Districts in Bihar Upper Color= Flood effected district Middle Color= Water logged district Lower Color= Dry Zone district (Gaya)Annexure: 3 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IN GAYA DISTRICT Table: 1- Population Distribution STATEMENT SHOWING POPULATION DETAILS All Number Percent Total 3,473,428 100.00 Male 1,792,163 51.60 Female 1,681,265 48.40 Sex Ratio 938.12 Scheduled Caste Total (to All) 1,029,675 29.64Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 17
  18. 18. Male 529,230 51.40 Female 500,445 48.60 Sex Ratio 946.00 Scheduled Tribe (to All) Total 2,945 0.08 Male 1,526 51.82 Female 1,419 48.18 Sex Ratio 929.88 0 to 6 Years (to All) Total 687,369 19.79 Male 349,186 50.80 Female 338,183 49.20 Sex Ratio 968.49DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS: GAYA DISTRICT Table: 2- Demographic DetailsBPL Population ( HH) 360848Sex Ratio Females per 1000 (0 – 6 years) malesDECADAL GROWTH RATE OF 30.3POPULATION 2001Population Density (person per sq km)Number of Household Total Rural UrbanHousehold SizeType of house (%) Pucca KuchhaPer Capita IncomeTotal workers (number) 77915Main workers (number) 77.84No of HH below poverty line 360848PERCENTAGE OF WORKERS ENGAGED 3.72IN HH INDUSTRY TO TOTAL WORKERS2001Total workers to total population (%) 36.80Cultivators to total workers (%)Agriculture laborers to total workers (%) 1.90Workers in HH industries to total workers (%) 3.72Main workers to total population (%) 77.84PERCENTAGE OF AREA UNDER FORESTS 15.76TO TOTAL GEOGRAPHICAL AREA 2006-07Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 18
  19. 19. Non workers to total population (%)Percentage of villages Having Drinking Water 92.83Facility 2001Number of villages having safe drinking waterfacilitiesNumber of electrified villagesPercentage Of Villages Having Primary 58.47Schools Facility 2001Pupil teacher ratio (upper primary schools) 49.472007 – 08Number of villages having secondary/sr.Secondary schoolsEnrolment of students in primary schools 2007 838889– 08Pupil teacher ratio (primary schools) 2007 57.09Out of school children (6 – 14 years) 2008 4.90Number of villages having any health care 9.63facilitiesNumber of Health Sub CentreNumber of Additional Primary Health CentreNumber of Primary Health CentreNumber of Sub-divisional hospitalNo of hospitals/ dispensaries per lakh 1.79population 2007 – 08No of beds in hospitals/ dispensaries per lakh 32.99population 2007 – 08Percentage of children having complete 31.80immunization 2007 – 08Percentage of women having safe delivery 27.302007 – 08Number of post offices per lakh population 72006-07Number of villages having Paved approachroadNumber of villages having mud approach roadAverage size of operational holdingNormal Rain Fall 1086.00Actual rain Fall 1025.80Percentage of cultivable land to total 59.81geographical area 2006-07Percentage of area under commercial crops to 3.33gross cropped area 2006-07Percentage of net area sown to geographical 41.44Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 19
  20. 20. area 2006-07 Cropping intensity Percentage of gross irrigated area to gross area sown 2006-07 Percentage of net irrigated area to net area 83.99 sown 2006 – 07 Consumption of fertilizer in kg/hectare of gross 0.33 area sown 2006-07 Average yield of food grains 2006-07 (kg/ha) 1975 Percentage of area under bhadai crops 5.90 Percentage of area under agahani crops 38.47 Percentage of area under garma crops 2.37 Percentage of area under rabi crops 53.25 Percentage of villages having paved approach 24.63 road 2001 Length of highways and mdrs per thousand sq 121.19 km in area (km) 31st march 2005 Length of rural roads per lakh population (km) 28.88 2004-05 Length of rural roads per thousand sq km in 204.60 area (km) 2004 – 05 Number of branches of scheduled commercial 185 banks 2008 – 09 Credit deposit ratio 2008 28.67 Density of livestock per sq km 2003 185 Density of poultry per sq km 2003 Average livestock population served per 24165 veterinary hospital/dispensary 2003 District wise fish production 2007 – 08 3900 Share of districts in total milk production 2007 3.20 – 08 Annexure 4: Total Land Total 10%S.No Village Name No of SHG Total Member (Kattha) Loan Loan Update 1 Bela 2 27 605 134915 13491.5 0 2 Mehedipur 5 62 1232 274736 27473.6 20664 3 Garibchak 1 15 66.5 14829.5 1482.95 1487 4 Punadih 1 14 385 85855 8585.5 8582 5 Nishkha 6 75 3987 889101 88910.1 61053 6 Vishnu Bigha 3 36 1609 358807 35880.7 24018 7 Shri Chak 5 60 1425 317775 31777.5 23146 Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 20
  21. 21. 8 Sahanu 2 25 1162 259126 25912.6 164459 Mubarakpur 1 10 259 57757 5775.7 5771 Total 26 324 10730.5 2392901.5 239290.2 161166 Annexure 5: Name of the Mountain which have been searched since 2.5.11 to 14.5.11 S.No Name of Mountain Address Price (in Rs) Per CFT 1 Korma Near Jamunai 2000 2 Karjara Near Manpur 1900 3 Aru Near Gaya-Wajirganj Road 2000 4 Bandhua Near Gaya-Fathepur Road 2100 5 Sihauli Near Gaya-Amas Road 2000 6 Manda Near Gaya-Gurua Road 1700 7 Mirjapur Near Manpur 2425 8 Kewali Near Kujapi, Gaya Town Block 2200 9 Rafiganj Mountain Near Rafiganj 1825 10 Kulmama Near Chirki, Gaya-Sherghati Road 1700 11 Chaparda Near A.N.Medical College 1800 12 Delho Near Bankebazar 1800 13 Chalho Near Gaya Station 2000 14 Gariyak Near Rajgir 2100 15 Giri Near Manpur 2000 Annexure 6: Price Hike Comaprison Between the 2009 and 2011 Price 2011 2009 Masson 266200 135520 Labour 501860 305480 Metal 92400 76016 Boulder 729000 514080 Cement 750000 550000 Sand 68200 49600 Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 21
  22. 22. Annexure 7: Trust Deed FormedAnnexure 8:Technical Details • Catchment Area 8000 Ha • Rainfall : 1000mm • River Name Jamunai (perineal River) • Length of maximum length of travel from remotest point (L) 16000 meter • Difference in head between remotest point and the point of disposal (H) 24 meter • Peak Discharge (Q) 194.814 m3/Sec • Cost of the Dam is Rs 23,52,998Indian Grameen Services, Case Study Page 22