Context• Poor rainfall• Low productivity of food grains• High Migration• High percentage of poor people(Dalit and Backward community)• Dry area(facing draught at regular interval)• High caste Conflicts/tensions
Context• Annual Rainfall more than 900mm but erraticity• High percentage of Mahadalit particularly Bhuiyan• Average holding of poor community 0.5 acres• Since 1956, 151000 acres land distributed among small and marginal communities.• It did not change socioeconomic condition of people,no investment on these lands from mainstreams.
Gaya at Glance• 1. Geographical Area-4.71lac hectare• a. No of blocks-24• b. No of villages-2925• 2. Annual Rainfall-944mm• 3. Net sown area -2.86 lac hec• 4. Fallow land-27654hec• 5. Forest land -77836 hec
SoilsS.No Type of soil Characteristics Admixture of sand & clay, predominantly sandy, found alongside the1 Sandy Loam river beds2 Loamy Soil Found near the hills and formed by rain washings from higher areas.3 Sandy Soil Locally known as balui found near the bank of the river4 Kewal Soil (Black) It is a mixture of clay and loam and is very productive, neutral in nature.5 Foothill Balthar Soil (Red) It is in between the plain and dissected plateau. It is acidic in nature.
soils• As we go from north to south the soil becomes coarsers/Sandy/light.Mostly alluvial but grains of alluvium get coarser as we move towards south.
Gaya• The northern blocks of Gaya are more plain and productive .Less infiltration of extremist.• The southern portion of the district is extension of Jharkhand and land is undulating(Nearly 40-45% area undulating).• 11 of the 24 blocks are infiltrated with extremists.
Nalanda• Western portion adjoining Gaya is similar to Gaya• The Eastern portion faces flood like situation• The rest portion are comparatively better off/developed agriculture with heavy clay soils• Community is politically active with priorities often misplaced,
Problems of people• Food security for 3-5 months only among small and marginal community due to very low productivity of major crops• Absence of extension services in villages• Forced migration
Interventions• Mainly in SRI method of crop cultivation Paddy and Wheat(Food-grain crops) to secure food-grains Rapeseed(Oilseed crops) and vegetables for cash and household consumption Sugar crops for cash and Sugarcane growers• Strengthening the existing ahar/outlets/drainage channels to combat erraticity of rainfall in order to strengthen SRI movement
Strategies of scaling up SRI Technical Resource Team SEW SEW SEW VO backed by VO backed by FC/VO backed by Gp of VRPs Gp of VRPs Gp of VRPs SHG families/ Marginal SHG families/ SHG families/ farmers Marginal Marginal farmers farmers
System of Root Intensification method of Wheat cultivation
Important steps• Hot-water treatment of wheat seeds• Treatment of seeds with Cow urine,Jaggery,Vermicompost• Germinated seed sowing• Wider spacing of 20cmx20cm• 2 seeds/hill• Weeding at 20,30 and 40 Days After Sowing
Learnings from SRI-Wheat• The average length of panicle under SRI is 15 cms as compared to 11 cms in normal wheat.• The average number of grains per panicle varies between 60-110 as compared to 18-48 under normal wheat.• The average number of effective tillers per hill varies between 15-25 as compared to 2-4.• Timely sowing and 4-5 irrigations are essential for high productivity.
Learnings--------• The seed rate under SRI-Wheat is 25 kg per hec as compared to 200kg/hec(traditional) and 100 kg/hec (recommended by universities) under standard POP of wheat.• The yield is 25-50% more even under stress condition.• The sowing of wheat under SRI-wheat manually requires more labours per kathha as compared to 1 under normal condition.
Cost of cultivation per quintal Particulars Quantity Rat Expenses(Rs) e Traditional SRI Rate Traditional SRI-seed 54-81Kg(68Kg) 10 Rs 20/Kg 1360 200Priming&treat 0 150DAP 27Kg 27Kg Rs 15/Kg 405 405Potash 27Kg 27Kg Rs 7/Kg 189 189Urea 55Kg 55Kg Rs 7/Kg 385 385Vermicompost 400kg Rs 5/kg 0 2000Irrigation 5 5 Rs 200/irrign 1000 1000weeding 0 mandays 8 mandays with 1 Rs 100/mandays 0 1900 weederCash expenditure per acre 3339 6229Production(Quintal) 8 18Net Income (after reducing expenditure) in RS 8661 20771Cost Per quintal grain Production 417.3 346.10
SRI Vidhi -dry-Weeder(Useful for SRI method of crop cultivation in rabi and summer seasons)
Learnings• 50 gms to 250 gms of seeds is sufficient for 1 hectare of rapeseed-mustard cultivation.• The spacing between plants is directly proportional to duration of crop varieties.• One kg of Rapeseed-Mustard has 270000-290000 seeds.
Cost of cultivation per quintal Particulars Quantity Ra Expenses(Rs) te Traditional SRI Rate Traditional SRI-seed 5.5Kg 0.25Kg Rs 80/Kg 440 20Priming&treat 0 5DAP 27Kg 27Kg Rs 15/Kg 405 405Potash 27Kg 27Kg Rs 7/Kg 189 189Urea 55Kg 55Kg Rs 7/Kg 385 385Vermicompo 400kg Rs 5/kg 0 2000stIrrigation 3 5 Rs 200/irrign 600 1000Weeding 0 3 Rs 100/mandays 0 3000Cash expenditure per acre 2019 7004Production(Quintal) 4 11Total Income after reducing expenditure(Rs) 9981 25900Cost Per quintal grain Production(Rs) 504.75 637( Additional income under SRI method is Rs 19015/ per acre while net income per acre is Rs 25996/
Piloting of SRI-Sugarcane A farmer couple in Matihani village in GayaSugarcane eye extractor district holding seedlings of SRI-Sugarcane
Seedlings of SRI-Sugarcane raised in plastic trays
Tillering from Single node/single seedlingsA small single plant of Plant after 50-60 days ofSugarcane at 15 days transplanting under SRI method
Crop stage after 4 months oftransplanting SRI-Sugarcane
Learnings(ongoing)• Seedlings of 8-12 days old perform better• In dry season transplanting after rainfall starts has better gowth• When canesetting starts dry leaves should be removed regularly.• Cocopit/Neopit alongwith vermicompost facilitates root growth• Planting material is reduced by 80%
Learnings• Shallow transplanting of seedlings(settlings) should be followed with light irrigation.• It facilitates inter cropping.The intercrops should not be of more than 100 days.
Difference between SRI and Traditional methodS.No Particulars SRI traditional1 seed Sprouted eye of Cane set of 12-18 sugarcane inches having 3 eyes2 Seed rate 5000-5950 sprouted 16000 eyes(32 qt) eyes(4qt)3 Nursery Plastic Tray NA4 Transplanting Yes NO5 Spacing 4-5 ft row to row and 1.5-2 ftX1.5-2 ft 2 ft plant to plant6 Tillering 15-25 4-87 Matured caneset 10-15 4-58 Availability of air and light sufficient low9 Opportunity for intercropping high negligible10 yield high low
Cost of Production per quintal particulars Quantity Rate Expenses(Rs) Traditional SRI Rate Traditional SRI-seed 32qt 4qt 500/qn 16000 2000Priming&treat+Tray 0 3600DAP 54Kg 54Kg Rs 15/Kg 810 810Potash 27Kg 81 Kg Rs 7/Kg 189 567Urea 270Kg 270Kg Rs 7/Kg 1890 1890Vermicompost 400kg Rs 5/kg 0 2000Irrigation 13+precipitation 37(including Rs 200/irrign 2600 7400 precipitation)weeding 30 mandays 30 mandays with 1 Rs 100/mandays 3000 4100 weederCash expenditure per acre 24479 22367Production(Quintal) 200 600Total Income after reducing expenditure 15521 97633Cost Per quintal of caneset Production 122.40 37.30 Additional income under SRI method is Rs 82,112 / per acre
Learnings from SRI-Vegetables• The increase in branching in tomato,Chill and brinjal is significantly higher than that of normal practices.• The spacing for building of rhizosphere depends upon nature of vegetables.• The yields have been found higher since three years.
Major stakeholders behind SRI method• Village Resource Persons• BRLPS,patna• SDTT, Mumbai• Agriculture Technology Management Agency(ATMA)• Department of Agriculture• District Administration• Landless share croppers/Marginal farmers• DRD, Patna• Project workers and other partner organisations