International Workshop On Paolo Farinella:

                The Scientist and the Man

                  Pisa 14-16 June, ...
PLAN
 1. Unfinished business

 2. Asteroid families and proper elements

 3. The Main Belt of Asteroids and its marginal gr...
1. Unfinished business
Nostalgia is OK, recognition of the previous contribution is essential. Newton: we
are dwarfs on the...
2. Asteroid families and proper elements
In the second half of the 80s, PF and his coworkers found that the current knowl-...
3. The Main Belt of Asteroids and its marginal groups
In 1987 a small workshop, organized by PF, was held in Pisa. One of ...
3. The Main Belt of Asteroids and its marginal groups
                                                         red=Tlyap<2...
4. The Hungaria group
                                  30


                                  28


                      ...
4. Why the Hungaria should become important?
In 2008 two events forced us to pay attention to the unfinished business with ...
4. The Hungaria population: completeness
                                                   Numbered and multiopposition a...
4. Why the Hungaria have been forgotten?
In a paper published in the proceedings of the Belgirate ACM (1993) the main
grou...
5. The Hungaria proper elements
                                  0.18



                                  0.16



      ...
5. Hungaria region surrounded by resonances
                                                                              ...
6. Dynamical families (histogram)

                     200




                     150




                     100




...
6. The Hungaria family: internal structure
                                        200


                                 ...
7. The Yarkovsky effect
Non-gravitational perturbations have been one of the most recurrent theme of PF
research: we begun...
7. The two types of Yarkovsky effect
There are two main effects: the seasonal Yarkovsky effect is a result of the average
...
7. Yarkovsky signature on the Hungaria family
                                            1.5




                        ...
8. The family membership problem
                                             1




                                      ...
8. The family membership problem
                                            1.8


                                       ...
9. Very Close Couples of Hungaria (3-D distance)
 no.   name        name                    d       δa p/a p          δe p...
9. Very Close Couples of Hungaria (5-D distance)
 n     name1         H1       name2         H2      dH     TCA 1 [yr]    ...
10. The theory on couples by PF
A hypothesis for the interpretation of asteroid couples, very close in proper ele-
ments, ...
11. What is the origin of very close couples?
For Hungaria, in the most interesting case of (88259) and 1999 VA117, we hav...
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N.30 milani asteroids-families-new-ideas-and-reuse-of-the-o

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Talk of the "International Workshop on Paolo Farinella (1953-2000): the Scientists, the man", Pisa, 14-16 June 2010

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N.30 milani asteroids-families-new-ideas-and-reuse-of-the-o

  1. 1. International Workshop On Paolo Farinella: The Scientist and the Man Pisa 14-16 June, 2010 Asteroid families, new ideas and reuse of old ones: the unfinished business with the Hungaria Andrea Milani Comparetti ` Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Pisa Reporting work in collaboration with: z ´ ´ Zoran Kneˇ evic, Bojan Novakovic and Alberto Cellino 1
  2. 2. PLAN 1. Unfinished business 2. Asteroid families and proper elements 3. The Main Belt of Asteroids and its marginal groups 4. The Hungaria, why they are important and why they were forgotten 5. Proper elements and dynamical structure of the Hungaria region 6. The Hungaria group and the Hungaria Family 7. Yarkovsky effect in the Hungaria family 8. The family membership problem 9. The Hungaria couples 10. The PF theory of couples rediscovered 11. What is the origin of the asteroid couples? 2
  3. 3. 1. Unfinished business Nostalgia is OK, recognition of the previous contribution is essential. Newton: we are dwarfs on the shoulders of giants. Without acknowledging what we have got from the past, we may be unable to understand what we are doing in our current research. The problem is that we should not give for granted that the present is better than the past. Are we keeping up with the past? Are we seeing beyond the horizon for the giant? Referring this argument specifically to the legacy of Paolo Farinella, do we still have to complete some of the research programs which where proposed in his time, with his prominent contribution? This talk is dedicated to examples of unfinished business with some of Paolo’s fundamental ideas, in particular the ones on asteroid families, non-gravitational perturbations and binaries. 3
  4. 4. 2. Asteroid families and proper elements In the second half of the 80s, PF and his coworkers found that the current knowl- edge on asteroid families was soft science. The main reason for this was insuffi- cient data, both in quantity and in quality; another reason was in the too subjective methods of analysis. Asteroid families are statistical entities; if the number of family members is small, the conclusions are weak (either little content or low reliability). Thus the number of objects in the data catalog is a critical parameter. Two sets of data have to be combined: dynamical classification (some form of orbit similarity with the property of lasting over a very long time, 107 ∼ 108 years) and spectral classification (in the space of color parameters, related to the mineralogy). You need a large set of asteroids for which you have both information available, and then there is a problem in the quality of the data. Proper elements are quasi-integrals of motion, that is quantities stable over very long (not infinite) times. In the late 80s they were of uneven and not well doc- umented accuracy, and computed with a cumbersome method. The work of J. Williams had advanced this field a great deal, but was not yet up to what was needed. The taxonomic classes were ways to represent similarity of spectra and thus presumably of composition, but data were even less numerous and less accu- rate than for the dynamics, with controversies among the different authors. 4
  5. 5. 3. The Main Belt of Asteroids and its marginal groups In 1987 a small workshop, organized by PF, was held in Pisa. One of the results was to establish the collaboration between Z. Kneˇ evi´ and myself to produce an z c accurate algorithm for analytic proper elements, which could be computed for all the asteroids with a good orbit. Others were involved in this, in particular the Namur group, but also Schubart and others in Latin America. As soon as proper elements catalogs with better understood quality control and with 5 000 ∼ 6 000 asteroids were available, dynamical classification into families, obtained with an objective mathematical taxonomy method, started making sense ` in the asteroid main belt (for moderate eccentricities and inclinations) (Zappala et al. 1994). The spectral classifications, although available only for smaller samples, did not show anymore statistically significant contradictions. Collisional evolution theories could use the proposed families as starting points. This was a success, but was the job finished? NO! There are many groups of asteroids outside the area covered by the 1994 work. They were considered in later work, including Hildas (Schubart 1982), Trojans (Milani 1992-1993, later Beauge ´ and Roig), high inclination MBA (Lemaitre and Morbidelli), other resonant groups (Moons and Morbidelli). Invariably, a good catalog of proper elements led to the identification of asteroid families and was the starting point for the understanding of the dynamical and collisional evolution of these regions. 5
  6. 6. 3. The Main Belt of Asteroids and its marginal groups red=Tlyap<20,000; green=rms(e,sinI)>0.003 40 35 30 Proper inclination (DEG) 25 20 15 10 5 0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 Proper semimajor axis (AU) Red = positive Lyapounov exponents (due to mean motion resonances). Green = reduced stability proper elemets (due to secular resonances). Proper elements catalog from the AstDyS site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys); Trojan proper elements are not on the same plane. What is missing in this figure? 6
  7. 7. 4. The Hungaria group 30 28 26 24 inclination (deg) 22 20 18 16 14 12 1.8 1.82 1.84 1.86 1.88 1.9 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.98 2 semimajor axis (AU) The distribution of the Hungaria region asteroids in semimajor axis and inclination. The inclination is large, but also with a large spread. This group is surrounded by a large, almost empty gap separating from the main belt. On the left this is due to Mars perturbations, on the right there must be unstable perturbations from Mars (2/1 resonance), Jupiter and Saturn (g = g6 secular resonance). 7
  8. 8. 4. Why the Hungaria should become important? In 2008 two events forced us to pay attention to the unfinished business with the Hungaria. R. Matson, in a MPML message of January 9, 2008 with subject Asteroid pairs: extremely close pair found gave a list of striking cases, prominently two couples of Hungaria. At about the same time, while working to the Pan-STARRS asteroid survey sub- project, I realized one unintended consequence of the PS survey was to make the Hungaria the best known population of small bodies of the Solar System. Unlike the Near Earth Asteroids, Hungaria are observable at each opposition. The current orbit catalog of Hungaria corresponds to observations done up to an ap- parent magnitude ∼ 19.5; observations are sparse because Hungaria can be at an ecliptic latitude up to 45 ∼ 50◦. With the current limiting magnitude of PS1 (∼ 22.5), and the survey area extending to the North pole, the completeness of the Hungaria population should be down to 200 ∼ 250 m diameter. 8
  9. 9. 4. The Hungaria population: completeness Numbered and multiopposition asteroids 1200 1000 800 Number of Hungaria 600 400 200 0 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Absolute magnitude The absolute magnitude (≃ size) distribution of the Hungaria known population (numbered and multiopposition orbits only). The search for Hungaria is complete up to a magnitude ≃ 16.5, corresponding to ≃ 900 m of diameter, assuming the albedo estimated for (434) Hungaria by radar (0.38) is applicable to all. 9
  10. 10. 4. Why the Hungaria have been forgotten? In a paper published in the proceedings of the Belgirate ACM (1993) the main groups computing proper elements agreed on a partition of zones of influence, e.g., analytical proper elements (by Kneˇ evi´ and Milani) should be used for proper z c I < 15◦, semianalytic ones (by Lemaitre and Morbidelli) should be used for proper I > 17◦, each type where they are more stable. However, this agreement apparently forgot the Hungaria; with the methods avail- able at that time, K&M could not compute proper elements. Thus the software of both groups apparently selected for proper elements computations only asteroids with a > 2 AU. In the meantime, after the death of PF, Kneˇ evi´ and myself switched to the com- z c putation of proper elements by a synthetic method, for which there is no limit in the inclination, thus the Hungaria (with moderate e) would have been perfectly suit- able, but we simply forgot to extend the catalog to this region. In 2008 B. Novakovi´ c promptly computed synthetic proper elements for 4 424 Hungaria. 10
  11. 11. 5. The Hungaria proper elements 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 Proper eccentricity 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 Proper semimajor axis (AU) The Hungaria asteroids projected on the proper semimajor axis/proper eccentric- ity plane. The green points indicate instability in proper e and/or I , due to secular resonances; the red points positive Lyapounov exponents. The green line corre- sponding to a p (1 − e p) = 1.65 AU, the current aphelion distance of Mars. 11
  12. 12. 5. Hungaria region surrounded by resonances Dynamical boundaries 0.5 0 0 0 0 1 1 g−g5 1 1 2 2 2 2 0.45 s−s4 0.4 Proper sine of inclination 0.35 2 0.3 0.25 g−g3 1 g−g4 2 0.2 s−s6 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 Proper semimajor axis (AU) The Hungaria asteroids projected on the proper semimajor axis/proper sine of in- clination plane. Contour lines (labels in arcsec/y) are drawn for the small divisors associated to the secular resonances g − g6 and g − g5, and contour lines for the values −0.5, 0, +0.5 arcsec/y for the weaker resonances g − g3, g − g4 and s − s4. 12
  13. 13. 6. Dynamical families (histogram) 200 150 100 50 0 0 1000 2000 3000 ` The stalactite diagram (following Zappala et al. 1994) for the Hungaria family has been computed by A. Cellino. There is no evidence for more than one large family. The boundary is not known, for lack of statistical control on the background, but not all the Hungaria belong to the family. There might be much smaller subfamilies. 13
  14. 14. 6. The Hungaria family: internal structure 200 180 160 140 Number of H>15.8 Hungaria 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 Proper semimajor axis (AU) Histogram of the proper semimajor axis a p of the Hungaria asteroids. The vertical line marks the a p value for (434) Hungaria. The asimmetry is much larger than what would be justified by observational selection effects. 14
  15. 15. 7. The Yarkovsky effect Non-gravitational perturbations have been one of the most recurrent theme of PF research: we begun together with the LAGEOS mistery drag (see slides), then with a gneral theory for artifical satellites. In this context the Yarkovsky effect was redisocvered by Rubincam in the 80s. One of the innovative ideas was to show that non-gravitational perturbations, espe- cially Yarkovsky, can be relevant for the long term evolution of asteroid dynamics, as a transport mechanism modifying, over very long times, the dynamical structure of all the asteroid populations. I will just remind that the Yarkovsky effect is due to anisotropic thermal emission from a body with non-uniform surface temperature. This is a result of the way the energy from sunlight is absorbed by the surface and conducted inside the body. 15
  16. 16. 7. The two types of Yarkovsky effect There are two main effects: the seasonal Yarkovsky effect is a result of the average illumination of different parts of the surface, with stronger emission of thermal radi- ation from the summer emisphere with respect to the winter emisphere; the secular effect on semimajor axis can only be positive, that is the asteroid is pushed away from the Sun. The diurnal Yarkovsky effect results from the delayed effect of illumination on sur- face temperature, like in the terrestrial experience of afternoons being hotter than mornings. Thus the secular effect in semimajor axis is positive for a spin aligned with the orbital angoular momentum, or anyway with obliquity < 90◦, negative for retrograde rotation. The seasonal efect is significantly less important, typically one order of magnitude smaller. The size of this effect depends upon: the inverse square distance from the Sun, from the inverse of the density and the inverse of the diameter; there is also some dependence upon thermal properties like conductivity. Thus what is the collective behaviour under Yarkovsky effect of asteroids of the same family? Even if density, albedo and conductivity are the same for all, the rate of change of semimajor axis with time is a function of the inverse size and the cosine of the obliquity of the spin axis, with values from −1 to +1. 16
  17. 17. 7. Yarkovsky signature on the Hungaria family 1.5 1 Inverse of Diameter (1/km) 0.5 2035 1103 3447 434 0 −1500 −1000 −500 0 500 dV due to a− a(434) (m/s) The distance in velocity space between the group asteroids and (434) Hungaria vs. the inverse of the diameter in km, estimated assuming same albedo as (434) for all. Note that for some non-family asteroids, known to be of different spectral type, the diameter can be much larger than this estimate. Conclusion: many Hungaria asteroids, especially the largest ones, do not belong to the Hungaria family. 17
  18. 18. 8. The family membership problem 1 0.5 Second principal component 0 −0.5 −1 −1.5 −0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 First principal component Principal components of the Sloan color photometry; only the data for the 338 Hungaria in the SDSS catalog are shown. Without using any color taxonomy, we have split in two groups, one compatible with the spectral properties of (434) Hungaria (green dots, on the left) and one clearly incompatible (red crosses, on the right), defined simply by PC1 > 0.5. 18
  19. 19. 8. The family membership problem 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 Inverse of Diameter (1/km) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 −1400 −1200 −1000 −800 −600 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 dV due to a− a(434) (m/s) The same projection on the plane: relative velocity (by difference in proper semiajor axis) vs. inverse of diameter, only for the 338 Hungaria with good SSDS color data. Green circles: background asteroids because of the dimeter/semimajor axis, red crosses: because of the color data (some for both reasons). Black dots inside the red V-shape could be family members, although there could be interlopers. 19
  20. 20. 9. Very Close Couples of Hungaria (3-D distance) no. name name d δa p/a p δe p δ sin I p 1 88259 1999VA117 0.0000144 +0.0000113 -0.0000007 +0.0000011 2 63440 2004TV14 0.0000313 +0.0000013 +0.0000129 +0.0000088 3 92336 143662 0.0001183 +0.0000839 +0.0000185 -0.0000203 4 23998 2001BV47 0.0001501 +0.0001190 +0.0000005 -0.0000099 5 160270 2005UP6 0.0001959 +0.0000833 +0.0000590 -0.0000583 6 84203 2000SS4 0.0002075 +0.0000881 -0.0000122 +0.0000871 7 133936 2006QS137 0.0002316 +0.0000740 -0.0001048 -0.0000169 8 2002SF64 2007AQ6 0.0002446 -0.0001329 +0.0000879 -0.0000182 9 173389 2002KW8 0.0003029 +0.0001382 +0.0001146 +0.0000483 10 27298 58107 0.0003204 -0.0001992 +0.0000071 -0.0001006 11 115216 166913 0.0003301 +0.0002278 +0.0000668 -0.0000501 12 45878 2001CH35 0.0003482 -0.0002590 +0.0000591 -0.0000250 13 25884 48527 0.0004012 +0.0000761 -0.0001089 +0.0001616 The smallest distances, in the 3-dimensional spaces of proper elements, among Hungaria; the distance d roughly corresponds to a relative velocity, which ranges between 30 cm/s and 8 m/s in this table. 20
  21. 21. 9. Very Close Couples of Hungaria (5-D distance) n name1 H1 name2 H2 dH TCA 1 [yr] TCA 2 [yr] 1 88259 14.82 1999VA117 16.99 2.17 -32000 -32588±687 2 63440 14.89 2004TV14 17.25 2.34 too many 3 92336 15.29 143662 16.40 1.11 -348850 -348964±446 4 23998 15.29 2001BV47 16.47 1.18 -406250 -406565±887 5 160270 16.44 2005UP6 17.37 0.93 -1734250 -1646315±163035 6 84203 15.58 2000SS4 16.59 1.01 -119159 -117593±4920 7 133936 16.10 2006QS137 16.60 0.50 8 2002SF64 18.41 2007AQ6 17.39 1.02 -108950 -113396±12938 9 173389 16.84 2002KW8 16.99 0.15 10 27298 15.16 58107 15.49 0.33 11 115216 15.70 166913 16.46 0.76 12 45878 14.29 2001CH35 15.91 1.62 13 25884 14.26 48527 15.75 1.49 -422100 -422733±900 Very close couples selected after filter 2: couples with the nearest times in the past of close orbit similarities, obtained by the D-criterion. TCA1 is the time of maximum orbit similarity for the two nominal asteroid orbits; TCA2 is the mean and range of uncertainty of the same times of similarity obtained with clones. H1, H2 are the absolute magnitudes. 21
  22. 22. 10. The theory on couples by PF A hypothesis for the interpretation of asteroid couples, very close in proper ele- ments, has been proposed long ago, see (Milani, 1994), with reference to the cou- ple of Trojan asteroids (1583) Antilochus and (3801) Thrasimedes (the distance expressed in velocity was found to be less than 10 m/s, also much less than the escape velocity ∼ 65 m/s). The idea, which was proposed by PF, is the following: the pairs could be obtained after an intermediate stage as binary, terminated by a low velocity escape through the so-called fuzzy boundary, generated by the heteroclinic tangle at the collinear Lagrangian points. This model predicts an escape orbit passing near one of the Lagrangian points L1 or L2 of the 3-body system asteroid-asteroid-Sun, with a very low relative velocity of escape, which would be extremely unlikely to be obtained from a direct ejection, whatever the cause of the fission. (For Antilochus-Thrasimedes, the ejection should be at a velocity between 65 and 65.7 m/s to have a velocity at infinity < 10 m/s; PF private report, December 4, 1991). However, for comparatively large Trojans the mechanism to push the satellite to- wards the weak stability boundary should be tidal friction, which appears to be too slow. 22
  23. 23. 11. What is the origin of very close couples? For Hungaria, in the most interesting case of (88259) and 1999 VA117, we have found a close approach 32 500 years ago at the margins of the sphere of influence, with relative velocity ∼ 10 cm/s. Escape is close to the asteroid orbital plane. The non-gravitational perturbations should be the main cause of evolution for a binary. The YORP effect could have an asymptotic state for the spin axis with an obliquity of 180◦, from which the spin up could continue until rotational fission. We have found no cases with ∆H < 1 magnitude (a case with ∆H = 0.93 is dubious). Equal binaries may be rare rare, or maybe less likely to be the source of a couple. It has been inappropriately reported that fission by rotational instability could lead to immediate ejection of the satellite. In cases with realistic parameters, the satellite cannot be placed on an hyperbolic orbit, but on an elongated elliptic orbit which would later evolve with large scale instability and reach the weak stability boundary. In conclusion, we do not yet have a self consistent theory of the evolution of an asteroid spin state taking into account YORP, fission of the primary, tidal and non- gravitational perturbations on the orbit of the satellite, until the weak stability bound- ary is reached. Such theory may take quite some time to be developed. In the meantime, the portion of this evolutive path we do understand is the last one, which should be as suggested by PF many years ago. 23

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