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Framing Behavior Design


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First of three parts from SxSW 2011 workshop: Behavior Design: Stop Being Neutral, Start Influencing Decisions.

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Framing Behavior Design

  1. 1. Behavior Design Stop being neutral, and start influencing decisions. #sxbehavior Chris Risdon Nick Disabato Brad Nunnally@livebysatellite @nickdpi @bnunnally
  2. 2. Framing Behavior Design Chris Risdon @livebysatellite
  3. 3. Framing Behavior Design Chris 5 minute break Design Decisions Nick 5 minute break Ethical Frameworks Brad Q&A
  4. 4. A poster child for behavior design, bringingtogether many of the concepts and themes we’rediscussing, Green Goose creates the “internet ofthings” by allowing you to attach sensors (RFIDand accelerometers) to almost any object.
  5. 5. Set simple lifestyle goals. (such as brushing yourteeth 3x daily)Track your progress automatically with sensorsEarn lifestyle points
  6. 6. Ever since I started as an IA in the 90s, I’vethought about the impact of my design decisions.But it was 3 years ago I started to dive deeper intothe psychology of how we made decisions andwere influenced by technology.
  7. 7. Three years ago I moved from NYC to Atlanta, GA.
  8. 8. Within two months, I gained 10 pounds.
  9. 9. My whole family gained weight, even our threedogs. (though I’m smart enough not to illustratethe weight gain on my stick-figure wife)
  10. 10. Obviously I moved from a city where I walkedeverywhere, to one where I drove everywhere. Ibecame fascinated how the design of city spacesinfluenced my health and how my perceptionschanged around certain activities.
  11. 11. In New York, if you said there was a great restaurant just a20 minute walk away, I thought that was convenient.If you said that restaurant was a 20 minute walk in Atlanta,I was going to drive, and have it only take 8 minutes.
  12. 12. If I have a few of these choices every day, every week, Ithink about how I can maximize my time, not rationallyabout long term environment or health impact.
  13. 13. Dan Ariely Predictably Irrational The Upside of IrrationalityAs I started to research this, I came across behavioreconomist Dan Ariely. He had an anecdote that summedup how I made my decisions around driving in Atlanta.... billhr/3266119190/
  14. 14. Let’s say I have a half a box of chocolates open here in front of you. I will giveyou this half box of chocolates now, or I will a full box of chocolates in a week.Most people will select the half box of chocolates now.If you ask if they want a half box of chocolates in a year, or a full box in a yearand one week, they will be able to think rationally and select the full box.
  15. 15. “ Active Design is the idea that we can design...buildings to encourage people to get more exercise... By attacking obesity through urban design and architecture, governments are beginning to realize that designers might be their best warriors in the ” battle against obesity and its costs.Active Design are guidelines by the city in conjunctionwith architects and urban planning academics. —Fast Company
  16. 16. “ This strategy recognizes that the public’s underlying motivations are not about health, but rather, about what is ” convenient and enjoyable.These examples reinforce the fact that we, asdesigners, are not simply designing for cognition –or to support behavior. —Fast Company
  17. 17. Data
  18. 18. “ I do take some of the totals to heart and try to adjust my behavior accordingly. —Nicholas Felton ” The utility and pervasiveness of data has grown.
  19. 19. Thanks to technology data can be collected passively.
  20. 20. What does data provide. Once collected what does it do?Data tells a story. Their behaviors write the story.
  21. 21. BJ FoggWhen we understand how people make decisions, andhow we can provide insight to their behaviors, how do wetarget behavior change? netliferesearch/2867937570/
  22. 22. 90999Imagine sitting at an airport killing time before a flight, yousee a story about a disaster somewhere across the globe. Thisstory, and it’s images are the data.A call to donate to the Red Cross through their website is thetrigger. Your ability is limited by waiting to get on the web.
  23. 23. If you have a mobile phone, and are able to act simply bytexting the Red Cross, and having $10 seamlessly added toyour phone bill, the ability to act is easy, and thus themotivation does not have to be as high as when you’dneed to wait and log onto the website at a later time.
  24. 24. PersuasionLet’s talk about “persuasion.” It’s a loaded word whendiscussing behavior design.
  25. 25. Usability PersuasionIn some camps, certain techniques are seen as a means to persuade, in others that same technique is a means to aidcognition. Trialability is the concept that if you simulate an activity, or demonstrate a product, the user will be morelikely to engage in that activity, or with that product - it’s a tool for persuasion. But others, such as an informationarchitect or usability specialist, may see this as a means for aiding cognition, allowing the user to better complete theactivity, or understand how to use the product.
  26. 26. Usability PersuasionAmazon One Click has value to the user, it makespurchasing an item easier.It’s also a persuasive tool designed to prompt moreimpulse purchases.
  27. 27. Usability Persuasion Good Defaults are intended to aid in completing easily and correctly. But it also persuades the user’s actions.
  28. 28. Dan Lockton Design with Intent Design patterns that influence behavior.A good quote about persuasion.
  29. 29. I see the best behavior-influencing design “ to be where the needs of two (or more) parties align... ...There are people in the persuasive technology community who would argue that this isn’t persuasion, and perhaps it isn’t, but it’s certainly interaction design ” that affects user behavior.E.g. if someone decides he/she wants to get fit, a mobileapp which helps track everyday exercise, sets goals, andmakes tailored suggestions at opportune moments alignsthe user’s desire to get fit, with ‘society’s’ desire for a —Dan Locktonhealthier population.
  30. 30. Awareness (of intent, by the user) High Usability PersuasionLet’s take the scale and add a second axis. This is the user’sawareness of your intent as a designer. Low
  31. 31. Awareness (of intent, by the user) High Usability Persuasion Good DefaultsHas some persuasive effect, but intent is to aid usability.User may have some awareness they are being guided, butthere is no overt intent identified about persuasion. Low
  32. 32. Awareness (of intent, by the user) High Usability Persuasion Amazon Good Defaults One ClickThere is value to user with Amazon One Click, but it’sprimarily intended to persuade.Many people know that e-tail sites want to sell themmore stuff, they may have a sense that this feature aims to Lowdo this, but the intent isn’t overt.
  33. 33. Awareness (of intent, by the user) High Usability Persuasion Amazon Good Defaults One ClickManipulation: all persuasion with no value to the user ManipulationDeception: covert in intentions Deception LowStay away from this ethically mucky area.
  34. 34. Awareness (of intent, by the user) High iTunes Usability Persuasion Amazon Good Defaults One ClickApplications with high utility (iTunes, Gmail, Basecamp,etc.). Intent of utility is fairly high, usually as part of value Manipulationproposition. (actual usability may vary from app to app, Deceptionbut it is intended to be usable as an aid, such as managing Lowyour music library).
  35. 35. Awareness (of intent, by the user) High iTunes Green Goose Usability Persuasion Amazon Good Defaults One ClickGreen Goose and similar products and services can be autility, but designed to have high effect (persuasive) on Manipulationbehavior change. DeceptionIntent is typically made clear, usually in value proposition Low(reduce your debt, get in shape, etc.)
  36. 36. Awareness (of intent, by the user) High iTunes Green Goose Usability Persuasion Amazon Good Defaults One ClickLet’s focus on this area and discuss two frameworks Manipulationfor designing products and services intent on Deceptioninfluencing behavior. Low
  37. 37. Behavior Change asIntended Byproduct
  38. 38. Primary value proposition is as utilityor an aid.System does not make explicitrecommendations.Behavior (acting on data) isself-determined.Persuasion is at micro (feature) level.
  39. 39. Behavior Change as Value Proposition
  40. 40. Primary value proposition is directlyrelated to behavior.System makes explicitrecommendations.Behavior change is measurable.(not necessarily activities)User has limited self-determination.
  41. 41. Both can be effective and have different value propositions. One will have broaderadoption due to wider range of utility. It may have lower rate of sustained behaviorchange, but number could still be high do to high overall product usage.The other is more narrowly focused on a specific problem, lower adoption, but higherrate of sustained behavior change among users.
  42. 42. Awareness (of intent, by the user) High Ready for Zero Mint Usability PersuasionMint has more utility, and high awareness of it’s intent.Ready for Zero will employ more persuasive techniques,but also very high awareness of intent to persuade or Lowchange behavior.
  43. 43. Robert Cialdini
  44. 44. Commitment and ConsistencyThe idea that once we commit to something, we haveinternal pressures to follow through consistently withour commitment.
  45. 45. Target a behavior goal 1-3 discreet behaviors max Keep it simple Use less laundry detergent vs. reduce your carbon footprint Create a storyMay be literal, or metaphorical (data)
  46. 46. Khan Academy
  47. 47. Thousands of videosShort, digestible chunksSelf assessment (no judgement from teacher or peers)Immediate summary feedbackGame play to aide motivation
  48. 48. “ We should look at what kind of impact people’s behavior should have on design. ” —Paola Antonelli
  49. 49. Framing Behavior Design Chris Risdon @livebysatellite