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Movement for Liveable London Street Talks - Max Martinez, 2nd September 2014

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September 2014 Street Talk by Max Martinez, Associate Director, Space Syntax

Brought to you by Movement for Liveable London -
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Movement for Liveable London Street Talks - Max Martinez, 2nd September 2014

  1. 1. Designing with movement Techniques for capturing the economic performance & social value of places Street Talks 2nd September 2014 Max Martinez Associate Director m.martinez@spacesyntax.com
  2. 2. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Understanding human activity
  3. 3. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Key principles Space is not a background to human activity, but intrinsic to it. Space is first and foremost configurational – relation to the network. What happens in individual spaces – rooms, corridors, streets and public spaces – is fundamentally influenced by the relations between that space and the network of space into which it connects
  4. 4. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Key principles The spatial layout of buildings and urban places exerts a powerful influence on human behaviour. The way space is designed is directly related to the way that people move, interact and transact.
  5. 5. Key principles Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Think grid not just street Think multi-scale not just place Think transaction not just movement
  6. 6. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 The value of movement in cities
  7. 7. Spatial modelling framework Metric, topological, angular, multi-scale Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014
  8. 8. Spatial modelling framework Metric, topological, angular, multi-scale Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014
  9. 9. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Spatial modelling framework A tool to design with
  10. 10. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Most people prefer simplest paths
  11. 11. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Which is the easiest route between A and B? B A Moving in space
  12. 12. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 A B Shortest path/least metric distance? Moving in space
  13. 13. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 A B Simplest path/least angle change? Moving in space
  14. 14. Most people prefer simplest paths A Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 B Observation studies show that most people prefer simple, more direct paths over complex, indirect paths – even if the complex path is shorter. B A Moving in space
  15. 15. City scan Movement patterns define the profile of a place Observed pedestrians Observed cyclists 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 0 Weekday Weekend Weekday 1003 Weekend pph 352 pph +65%
  16. 16. City scan Movement patterns define the profile of a place Max Martinez Designing with movement Streets around the site Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Average people per hour London streets
  17. 17. Spatial modelling framework Integrated Urban Model Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks 5. Carbon Emissions Space Syntax © 2014 4. Land Value 3. Crime & Safety 2. Land Use 1. Movement 0. Spatial Layout
  18. 18. Spatial modelling framework Explaining movement Spatial layout attraction Land use attraction Transport attraction Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 y = .784x + 2.147, R-squared: .589 Spatial accessibility 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pedestrian movement 60-80% of movement flows are due to the spatial structure of the network More accessible places get more movement.
  19. 19. Placemaking So what can space do? Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 1. Organise movement 2. Distribute land use 3. Influence crime & safety 4. Affect urban carbon footprint 5. Determine land value Which is the bottom line for property developers and homebuyers alike.
  20. 20. The cost of access Fast highways not “Main Streets” Main street, mixing global & local movement. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Suppressed movement economy. Space Syntax © 2014 Enhanced movement economy. Fast highways, separating global & local movement.
  21. 21. LOCATION LINKAGES LAYOUT LAND USE LANDSCAPE Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Design response Site potential Design process How does the design exploit opportunities and mitigate constraints? How well does the surrounding spatial network facilitate access to the social and economic infrastructure? What is the potential of the site to connect to the surrounding urban spatial network? Where are the key gateways into the site? How well does the design create an effective movement network? How well located are the key attractors within the spatial network? How well does the landscape design support social, economic and environmental performance? How does the landscape enhance the quality of the public realm? Designing for movement Creating places
  22. 22. Cycling
  23. 23. Map Measure Model Make Science-based creation of cycling policy and design proposals Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Weekday Weekend Existing cycle infrastructure around Euston station Observed cyclist flows around Euston station (weekday and weekend) Spatial accessibility model, Euston station
  24. 24. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Cycle Network Modelling Service Offer Baseline Studies Cycle network analysis Spatial layout attraction Multi-scale and multi-mode journey potential. Public transport attraction Distribution of bus, rail, cycle stations and passenger volumes and capacities. Cycle infrastructure attraction Cycle lanes, signage and parking, London Cycle Network, advance stop lines, crossings, cycle hire. Cycle environment attraction Number and speed of vehicle lanes. Land-use attraction Building land use and street quality. Cycle route capacity Comfort and capacity of lanes.
  25. 25. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Euston Area Plan and cyclist analysis Multivariate cycle forecast model Cycle landscape Cycle lanes, segregated tracks and signed routes Spatial accessibility Spatial layout attraction 3000 m WD Rsquare = 14% Multivariate model WD Rsquare = 52% WD Ave Rsquare= 69% 69% of observed cycle movement in the area can be explained by spatial accessibility, cycle landscape and proximity to cycle hire stations Cycle hire Logged cycle hire station volume R400 WD AM Rsquare = 3%
  26. 26. The Business Cycle Cyclists prefer to cycle on major routes offering direct connections Max Martinez Designing with movement Commuter cycle routes Cyclist hotspots Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014
  27. 27. Max Martinez Designing with movement SkyCycle entrance Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 SkyCyle Network 10 minute catchment from entrances 221 km Total SkyCycle length 209 SkyCycle entrances 5.8 m Population 2.8 m Working population 3.7 m Job locations 10 minute catchment area from SkyCycle entrance (2.7km) SkyCycle path SkyCycle Based on Census 2011 and The Business Register and Employment Survey 2008
  28. 28. Max Martinez Designing with movement SkyCycle entrance Street Talks SkyCycle path Space Syntax © 2014 SkyCycle NACHrN_Pr – NACHrN_Ex Spatial integration high low SkyCycle Network Impact on Centrality Core
  29. 29. Max Martinez Designing with movement SkyCycle entrance Street Talks SkyCycle path Space Syntax © 2014 SkyCycle NAINTrN_Pr –NAINTrN_Ex Spatial integration difference Increase No change Decrease SkyCycle Network Impact London-wide
  30. 30. SkyCycle A new cycle network for London elevated above existing railway lines Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014
  31. 31. Designing for movement Elephant and Castle Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 1916 Coherent urban layout “The Piccadilly of the south” 2005 Fragmented urban layout - isolated, divided communities - disposable income exodus.
  32. 32. Pedestrian Forecast Model Correlations Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Pedestrian forecast Weekday R square = 60% Weekend R square=73% Spatial layout attraction Weekday R square = 49% Weekend R square = 54% Retail attraction Weekday R square = 38% Weekend R square = 51% Transport attraction Weekday R square = 26% Weekend R square = 28% Actual movement Forecast movement Actual movement Forecast movement
  33. 33. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Design proposal Forecast >600 300 – 600 150 – 300 100 – 150 60 – 100 0 – 60 0 50m 100m People Per Hour 1504_PedMov_Forecast_PropMasterplan
  34. 34. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 0 200 400 Cyclists per hour 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 0700 - 0800 0800 - 0900 0900 - 1000 1000 - 1100 1100 - 1200 1200 - 1300 1300 - 1400 1400 - 1500 1500 - 1600 1600 - 1700 1700 - 1800 1800 - 1900 CS7 Elephant & Castle Average 1,434 684 1,350 528 What do cyclists do? Predominantly commuting
  35. 35. Cycling infrastructure Elephant & Castle Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Underground sTtraatiino nstation Space Syntax © 2014 1504B_PedMov_0800-0900 Cyclists per hour 1,000- 1,500 500 – 1,000 250 – 500 100 – 250 50 – 100 0 – 50 Elephant & Castle Station Brook Drive Cycle Superhighway 7 LCN02 LCN23 CS7
  36. 36. What do cyclists do? Prefer direct routes Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Underground sTtraatiino nstation Space Syntax © 2014 1504B_PedMov_0800-0900 Cyclists per hour 1,000- 1,500 500 – 1,000 250 – 500 100 – 250 50 – 100 0 – 50 Elephant & Castle Station Brook Drive Cycle Superhighway 7 LCN02 LCN23 CS7 Morning peak 08:00-09:00
  37. 37. Max Martinez Designing with movement Cycle Superhighway 7 LCN02 LCN23 Street Talks Underground sTtraatiino nstation Space Syntax © 2014 1504B_PedMov_1800-1900 Elephant & Castle Station Cyclists per hour 1,000- 1,500 500 – 1,000 250 – 500 100 – 250 50 – 100 0 – 50 Brook Drive CS7 Evening peak 18:00-19:00 What do cyclists do? Prefer direct routes
  38. 38. 68% 32% 72% 28% Max Martinez Designing with movement Elephant &Castle CS7 (Elliott’s Row) Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Cycling movement summary Cyclist distribution Weekday peaks Elephant &Castle (1,434) CS7 (Elliott’s Row) (1,350) (528) (684) AM Peak PM Peak
  39. 39. Cycling network analysis Assessment criteria Accessibility Safety Infrastructure Character Max Martinez Designing with movement COUNTY STREET BRANDON STREET TURQ UAND STREET WANSEY STREET BROWN ING STR EET AVONMOUTH STREETNEWINGTON CAUSEWAY MEADOW ROWARCH STREET DEACO N WAY TIVERTON STREET STREET TARN WALWORTH ROAD CRAMPTON STREET ILIFFE STREET ILIFFE YARD GAUNTSOUTH WAR K BRID GE ROAD STREET NEWINGTON CAUSEWAY Keyworth Place KEYWORTH STREET STREET HEDGER STREET PEACOCK YARD PEACOCK HOWELLWALK STREET ILIFFE STREET ILIFFE YARD LONG VILLE ROAD GEORGE MATHER S ROAD A route with good character has active frontages, entrances and mixed land use (15) facing it. STREET MUNTON ROAD KING AND QUEEN STREET BRONTI CLOSE WALWORTH PLACE Street Talks PENTON PLACE BORRETT CL Space Syntax © 2014 ROAD WESTMINSTER BRIDGE Lane WALCOT SQUARE WALCOT SQUARE ST MARY'S GARDENS TERRACE BISHOP'S OAKDEN STR EET REEDWORTH STREET KEMPSFORD ROAD STREETCHESTER WAY DENNY A route with good infrastructure provision has advanced stop lines (10), cyclist’s crossings (11) and provision of cycle hire (12). Routes with low legibility are those with multiple direction changes (1) and depends on one way systems (2). BROCKHAM SQUARE MERRICK SQUARE MERRICK MUNTON ROAD VICTORY ELBA PLACE HARPER ROAD VICTORY PLACE Close CO NTENT STREET BRANDON STREET CHARLESTON STREET Walters COTHAM STREET MORECAMBE STREET KING AND BRANDON STREET BRONTI DATE MORECAMBE ST TOWNLEY MORCAMBE STREET DATE STREET LIVERPOOL GROVE EAST STREET ROAD HARPER DICKENS SQUARE HARPER ROAD RODNEYROAD FALMOUTH ROAD ASOLANDO DRIVE WALCORDE AVENUE QUEEN STREET BROWNING STREET Walters Close DEACON WAY RODNEY PLACE NEW KENT ROAD LARCOM STREET HEYGATE STREET YORK AVENUE ETHEL STREET COLWORTH G ROVE AMELIA STREET OCCUPATION ROAD STEEDMAN STREET AMELIA STREET CRAMPTON STREET MANOR PLACE HAM PTON STREET STEEDMAN STREET Marlborough Close ROBERT DASHWOOD WAY Thrush Street BECKFORD PLACECADIZ STREET WALWORTH ROAD SUTHERLAND WALK SUTHERLAND SQUARE MACLEOD STREET CARTER PLACE PENROSE GROVE SUTHERLAND SQUARE SUTHERLAND SQUARE PENROSE STREET STREET CARTER PASLEY CLOSE STURGEON ROAD BATH TERRACE NEW KENT ROAD STREET ROCKINGHAM DEACON WAY DEACO N WAY ELEPHANT ROAD ELEPHANT ROAD GAUNT STREET ELEPHANT AND CASTLE ONTARIO STREET PRINCESS STREET LONDON ROAD GAYWOOD STREET ROTARY STREET THOMAS DOYLE STREET STREETGLADSTONE STREET COLNBROOK GARDEN ROW LAMBETH STREET GERALDINE ROAD ST GEORGE'S ROAD Oakey KING EDWARD WALK LAMBETH ROAD Oakey Lane MEAD ROW KENNINGTON ROAD ELEPHANT AND CASTLE PASTOR STREET OSWIN STREET CHURCHYARD ROW ELLIO TT'S OSWIN STREET ROW FIVES CT LAMLASH STREETELLIOTT'S ROW HAYLES STREET HAYLES STREET WEST SQUARE WEST SQUARE ST GEORGE'S RO AD ORIENT STREET ORIENT STREET BROOK DRIVE WEST SQUARE AUSTRAL STREET CASTLEBROOKCLOSE HARMSWORTH MEWS AUSTRAL STREET SULLIVAN ROAD ROAD POLPERRO MEWS SULLIVAN AMELIA STREET Thrush St MARSLAND TARVER ROAD MANOR PLACE CLOSE BERRYFIELD ROAD DELVERTON ROAD CHAPTER ROAD STOPFORD R OAD Canterbury PENTON PLACE Place AMBERGATE STREET WESTCOTT ROAD ALBERTA STREET STREET BRAGANZA STREET ALBERTA GAZA STREET KENNINGTON LANE FAUNCE STREET KEMPSFORD ROAD KENNINGTON PARK ROAD SHARSTED STREET DE LAUNE STREET SHARSTED STREET HARMSWORTH STREET NIGHTINGALE COTTINGTON OTHELLO CLOSE COTTINGTON STREET STREET KENNINGS WAY CLEAVERSQUARE PEACOCK STREET STREET HAMPTON Marlborough Close CanterburyPlace Canterbury Place Wesley Close Canterbury Place DANTE PLACE NEWINGTON BUTTS Winchester Close Canterbury Place HOLYOAK ROAD ROMAN ROAD KENNINGTON PARK ROAD PENTON PLACE Wesley Close DANTE RO AD OPAL STREET STREET OPAL Knight's Walk OPAL STREET RENFREW ROAD GILBERT ROAD HERALDS PLACE MEWS Tavy Close KENNINGS WAY RADCOT STREET CLEAVER SQUARE KENNINGTON PARK ROAD METH LEY STREET RAVENSD ON STREET STANNARY STREET CLEAVER SQUARE CLEAVER SQUARE ROMAN ROAD MILVERTON STREET Stannary Place WHITE HART STREET CLEAVER STREET BOWDEN STREET Au lton Pla ce WIGTON PLACE KENNINGTON LANE WINDMILL ROW KENNINGTON ROAD BROOK DRIVE ST MARY'S WALK Tavy Close Seaton Close MONKTON STREET GILBERT ROAD ST MARY'S GARDENS CHESTER WAY KENNINGTON LANE BROOK DRIVE WINCOTT STREET CRES DENNY STREET KENNING TON ROAD DENNY LOL LARD STREET A safer route is one with cycle tracks (4), cyclist only route (5), traffic speed reduction measures (6) and cyclists crossings (11). ONE WAY High Speed 20 Sto p Accessibility Low Hig h 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 12 1 3 1 4 15 16 17 High legibility is achieved by the overlap with street segments with high levels of accessibility. Additional benefits come from clear signage and road markings. A less safe route has segmented sections (7), a high speed vehicular environment (8) and are close to parked cars or parked vehicles on the cycle lane (9). A route with poor infrastructure provision has a lack of cycle parking (13) and cyclist’s crossings, (toucan) (14). A route with poor character has inactive frontages, entrances (16) and residential land use (17) facing it. Strength Weakness
  40. 40. Walking
  41. 41. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square, London
  42. 42. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square, London Low levels of space use
  43. 43. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square In 1996, there were pockets of activity on the south-east side of the square. Manipulating spatial networks
  44. 44. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square Tourists cross dangerous roads Manipulating spatial networks
  45. 45. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square, London Pedestrian survey
  46. 46. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square Visual field from centre of space
  47. 47. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square Visual field from southern island Manipulating spatial networks
  48. 48. Trafalgar Square, London Urban design concept ST MARTIN'S STREET Max Martinez Designing with movement ADELAIDE STREET CORNER HOUSE STOP STAND STOP Street Talks BUS BUS STOP Space Syntax © 2014 ADELAIDE STREET CORNER HOUSE NORTHUMBERLAND STREET STREET CHARING CROSS ROAD WILLIAM 1V STREET WARWICK HOUSE STREET COCKSPUR STREET CROSS C RAIG' S TRAFALGAR SQUARE SPRING GARDENS COURT THE MALL CHARING CROSS CHARING ST MARTIN'S PLACE STRAND TRAFALGAR SQUARE TRAFALGAR SQUARE TRAFALGAR SQUARE DUNCANNON STREET TRAFALGAR SQUARE ORANGE STREET WHITCOMB STREET SUFFOLK STREET CARLTON HOUSE TERRACE SPRING GARDENS COCKSPUR COURT SUFFOLK STREET PALL MALL EAST TRAFALGAR SQUARE WHITCOMB STREET N © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. Licence number: LA100032379 NORTHUMBERLAND STREET STREET CHARING CROSS ROAD WILLIAM 1V STREET WARWICK HOUSE STREET COCKSPUR STREET CROSS CRAIG'S TRAFALGAR SQUARE SPRING GARDENS COURT THE MALL CHARING CROSS CHARING ST MARTIN'S PLACE STRAND TRAFALGAR SQUARE TRAFALGAR SQUARE TRAFALGAR SQUARE DUNCANNON STREET TRAFALGAR SQUARE ORANGE STREET WHITCOMB STREET SUFFOLK STREET CARLTON HOUSE TERRACE SPRING GARDENS ST MARTIN'S STREET COCKSPUR COURT SUFFOLK STREET PALL MALL EAST TRAFALGAR SQUARE WHITCOMB STREET BUS BUS STAND BUS STAND BUSBUS STAND STAND STOP BUS STOP BUS BUS STOP BUS STOP BUS STOP BUS STOP BUS BUS STOP BUS STOP BUS STOP LANE BUS to SOUTH BANK to THE MALL/WHITEHALL to St JAMES'/PICCADILLY to LEICESTER SQUARE/ COVENT GARDEN To Leicester Square & Covent Garden To the South Bank To Buckingham Palace & St James Park To Leicester Square, Piccadilly & St James N Design issue Movement was pushed around the edges of the Square by the physical design of the space such as indirect staircase links. Design strategy The design strategy, developed with Foster + Partners, was to bring movement through the heart of the Square via a new, central staircase.
  49. 49. Trafalgar Square, London Spatial accessibility analysis Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Before After Spatial Accessibility High Low
  50. 50. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square, London Artist’s impression
  51. 51. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 First day of opening Trafalgar Square, London
  52. 52. Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Trafalgar Square, London New central staircase
  53. 53. Max Martinez Designing with movement Shoreditch Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 The new approach to street design Spot the guardrail!
  54. 54. Max Martinez Designing with movement DAY 1 - 2003 LEGEND people per hour 1500 to 6000 800 to 1500 400 to 800 200 to 400 100 to 200 0 to 100 PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT ALL 12:00 to 14:00 – WEEKDAY Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 978 1,368 540 1,482 42 1,176 2,724 336 1,548 2,442 3,000 1,278 1,134 576 210 1,206 762 774 684 642 462 162 1,302 570 2,604 1,896 © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. Licence number: LA100032379 Drawing courtesy Foster and and Partners, with Atkins and Ordnance Survey information. N Designing for movement Trafalgar Square
  55. 55. Trafalgar Square, London Spatial design process Max Martinez Designing with movement Street Talks Space Syntax © 2014 Observe Explain Forecast Deliver

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