Scarce resources are usually conceived as financial costs but can be considered as specific scarce resources including oil or land Transport land use and associated urban sprawl limit availability for other uses, including agriculture. Also associated reduction in social capital. Transport related land use changes are themselves a source of CO2 emissions
Passenger cars are resource intensive: opportunity cost- as these resources could be used to improve health. Need to consider the impact of lifecycle resource use and health impacts: vehicle production, use and disposal and infrastructure: associated and dependent industries, including construction, steel, rubber, insurance, advertising and finance. However, there is little research on these health impacts.
Movement for Liveable London Street Talks - Ian Roberts 10th September 2012
Energy Glut Ian Roberts
Prevalence of adult obesity in England by gender 1993-2005
“The degree of thinnessexhibited by models chosento promote products is both unachievable and biologically inappropriate. The gap between the idealbody shape and the reality is wider than ever.” British Medical Association Vivian Nathanson called for action.
Trends in waist circumference for women in the USA 1988-94 and 1999-2000YEAR 5th percentile 10th percentile1988-1994 68.0 70.71999-2000 70.5 73.3 Ford et al. Obesity Research (2003) 11, 1223–1231
Heart deaths and BMI in never smokers 16 8 4 2 1 0·5 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 Baseline BMI (kg/m2)Adjusted for age, sex and study; 1st 5 years of follow-up excluded Lancet 2009; 373: 1083-96
Change 4 Life“the way we live in modern society means alot of us, especially our kids, have fallen intounhelpful habits.”“the government is trying to create a lifestylerevolution on a huge scale - something whichno Government has attempted before.”Dawn PrimaroloPublic Health Minister
Something is happening It affects us all It is not our genesIt is not our bad habbits
Prentice A, Jebb SA. BMJ 1995;311:437-439 (12 August) Education and debate Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth?The prevalence of clinical obesity in Britain has doubled in thepast decade. It is generally assumed that ready access to highlypalatable foods induces excess consumption and that obesity iscaused by simple gluttony. There is evidence that a high fat dietdoes override normal satiety mechanisms. However, averagerecorded energy intake in Britain has declined substantiallyas obesity rates have escalated. The implication is that levelsof physical activity, and hence energy needs, have declinedeven faster. Evidence suggests that modern inactive lifestylesare at least as important as diet in the etiology of obesity andpossibly represent the dominant factor.