This does include the most recent (2009) data – three year average is shown The rise in prevalence appears to be slowing for both sexes. Obesity prevalence remains higher for women, but the gap appears to have narrowed over time.
Obesity prevalence for children has also ‘levelled off’ – if not started to decrease. Note: healthy weight not published by the HSE – until recently there was no accepted thresholds for underweight when producing prevalence figures.
Current prevalence (2007-2009) prevalence across all BMI categories. Shows the difference in HW prevalence between the sexes is primarily due to differences in the % overweight
The relationship between obesity prevalence and socioeconomic status differs by sex. Obesity prevalence among females shows a linear increase with increasing deprivation and decreasing household income. This pattern is not the same for males, where there is no apparent relationship with equivalised household income and obesity prevalence, results differ for males between different indicators of socioeconomic status. More information and analysis is available in the Adult Obesity and Socioeconomic Status Data Briefing, available to download at http://www.noo.org.uk/NOO_pub/Key_data
Appleyard D, Lintell M. The environmental quality of city streets: The residents' viewpoint. American Inst of Planners Journal 1972;38:84-101
From Paffenbarger 1986 – see www.modalshift.org
Movement for Liveable London Street Talks - Harry Rutter 4th May 2011
Moving towards a healthier city – active travel and health Harry Rutter | Director, National Obesity Observatory
Distance travelled per person per year in GB by household income quintile and mode Source: 1999-2001 data - http://www.transtat.dft.gov.uk/tables/2002/nts/pdf/section5.pdf
Income and car ownership in GB http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_transstats/documents/page/dft_transstats_508295.pdf
Speed and risk of killing http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_transstats/documents/downloadable/dft_transstats_508344.pdf Proctor S. Accident reduction through area-wide traffic schemes. Traffic Engineering and Control 1991; 32(12): 566-573.
Child deaths by socioeconomic group Source: Edwards et al, BMJ 2006;333:119-121
Pedestrian casualty rates by age Source: Road Casualties Great Britain, 2004, DfT, URL: http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_transstats/documents/page/dft_transstats_041303.hcsp
Safety in numbers Jacobsen PL. Injury Prevention 2003;9:205-209
Health costs of transport interventions Based on an original idea from Prof Tord Kjellstrom Deaths and injuries Air pollution Noise pollution Physical activity Social impacts Climate change Improved fuel quality - + - - - - Increased vehicle efficiency - + - - - + Reduced travel demand + + + - - + More public transport, walking and cycling + + + + + +
Environmental quality of city streets Source: Appleyard D, Lintell M. The environmental quality of city streets: The residents' viewpoint. Am Inst Plan J 1972;38:84-101
Getting the balance right… Traffic zone / fast world Social zone / slow world Single purpose Uniform Regulated Impersonal Anonymous Predictable Vehicle oriented Multi-functional Diverse Culturally defined Personal Eye contact Unpredictable Human oriented From Hans Monderman - http://www.transformscotland.org.uk/conferences/homezones2004/HansMonderman.htm
Reduction in relative risk of death for regular cyclists Adapted from: Paffenbarger et al. Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. NEJM 1986;314:605-13 Andersen et al – RR 0.72 for 3 hours/week