The Impact of English as a Global Language
on Educational Policies and Practices
in the Asia-Pacific Region
David Nunan
Th...
English as a Global Language
Impact on Educational Policies and Practices
Asia-Pacific Region
0. Topic Breakdown
1. Define English as a Global Language (EGL)
“A language achieves a genuinely global status when it
develops a special rol...
2. Research Questions
• 1) How does EGL influence language policy making?
• 2) What are the principles underpinning and re...
3. Data Collection
• Governmental documentation and interviews.

4. Data Analysis
• 1) At what age and grade level is English introduced as a
compulsory subject?
• 2) How many hours per w...
5. Findings
Order/ Comparison
Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam.
5. Findings
I. China
1. Age lowered from 11 to 9 in Sep. 2011
2. English teaching emerging as private business
3. English ...
5. Findings
II. HONG KONG
1. Year 1, Age 6
2. English symbolizes wealth and power in Hong
Kong
5. CLT and learner-centered...
5. Findings
III. Japan
2 Academic Teachers
0 Ministry Officials
1 Publishers
5 Teachers
1. Year 1, Age 12 , no plan to low...
5. Findings
IV. Korea
3 Academic Teachers
0 Ministry Officials
1 Publishers
3 Teachers
1. Age lowered from 13 to 9
2. Huge...
5. Findings
V. Malaysia
2 Academic Teachers
0 Ministry Officials
0 Publishers
4 Teachers
1. Age 7
2. One of the first coun...
5. Findings
VI. Taiwan
2 Academic Teachers
0 Ministry Officials
2 Publishers
7 Teachers
1. Grade 1, Ages 6–7
2. Compulsory...
5. Findings
VII. Vietnam
2 Academic Teachers
1 Ministry Officials
0 Publishers
1 Teachers
1. Grade 6, Ages 11–12
2. Englis...
6. Generalizations
1. EGL has a significant impact on policy.
2. Inequity is prevalent in terms of access to
English langu...
7. Discussions
1. Insufficient language proficiency of the teachers can be
improved through technology.
2. Private classes...
8. Conclusion
1. Teacher training is required if we want the resources invested
to achieve the desired goals.
2. Research ...
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The impact of english as a global language on educational policies and practices in the asia

  1. 1. The Impact of English as a Global Language on Educational Policies and Practices in the Asia-Pacific Region David Nunan The University of Hong Kong TESOL Quartly Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter 2003 http://davidnunan.com/
  2. 2. English as a Global Language Impact on Educational Policies and Practices Asia-Pacific Region 0. Topic Breakdown
  3. 3. 1. Define English as a Global Language (EGL) “A language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country” English as a Global Language, Crystal (1997) I. Native language III. Official language II. Priority foreign language
  4. 4. 2. Research Questions • 1) How does EGL influence language policy making? • 2) What are the principles underpinning and reflected in the English language curriculum? • 3) How does EGL influence educational practices and medium of instruction? • 4) What are the costs and benefits, in terms of time, money, and effort, of teaching EFL? • 5) Has the introduction of English had an impact, or is it likely to have an impact in the future, on L1 or indigenous language development?
  5. 5. 3. Data Collection • Governmental documentation and interviews. 
  6. 6. 4. Data Analysis • 1) At what age and grade level is English introduced as a compulsory subject? • 2) How many hours per week and weeks per year is English taught at each grade level? • 3) What plans to lower the age at which English is introduced as a compulsory subject? • 4) To what extent is English used as a medium of instruction for other subjects?
  7. 7. 5. Findings Order/ Comparison Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam.
  8. 8. 5. Findings I. China 1. Age lowered from 11 to 9 in Sep. 2011 2. English teaching emerging as private business 3. English is significant as university entry requirement 4. English enhancing promotional prospects in the workplace 5. CLT and learner-centeredness are declared to use 6. Little impact on Chinese 7. Content-based in the future Join WTO and 2008 Olympics 4 Academic Teachers 2 Ministry Officials 2 Publishers 5 Teachers
  9. 9. 5. Findings II. HONG KONG 1. Year 1, Age 6 2. English symbolizes wealth and power in Hong Kong 5. CLT and learner-centeredness are declared to use 4. English is used more as a medium of instruction comparing to other countries 5. A major problem is a lack of trained teachers 4 Academic Teachers 6 Ministry Officials 3 Publishers 6 Teachers
  10. 10. 5. Findings III. Japan 2 Academic Teachers 0 Ministry Officials 1 Publishers 5 Teachers 1. Year 1, Age 12 , no plan to lower 2. “General Studies” are introduced for fun 3. Declare to stress practical communication skills, but have to stress reading and writing for exams
  11. 11. 5. Findings IV. Korea 3 Academic Teachers 0 Ministry Officials 1 Publishers 3 Teachers 1. Age lowered from 13 to 9 2. Huge financial investment in teaching English 3. Concern with negative effects on national identity due to early introduction of English
  12. 12. 5. Findings V. Malaysia 2 Academic Teachers 0 Ministry Officials 0 Publishers 4 Teachers 1. Age 7 2. One of the first countries to embrace TBT 3. Concern with English decline in educational standards and competitive economic advantage 4. Fear of impact on national language
  13. 13. 5. Findings VI. Taiwan 2 Academic Teachers 0 Ministry Officials 2 Publishers 7 Teachers 1. Grade 1, Ages 6–7 2. Compulsory English lowered from Grade 5 to Grade 1 3. Teacher training is a main problem 4. No idea of CBT
  14. 14. 5. Findings VII. Vietnam 2 Academic Teachers 1 Ministry Officials 0 Publishers 1 Teachers 1. Grade 6, Ages 11–12 2. English compulsory from junior high school (ages 11–12) 3. English plays central role in education and employment 4. English proficiency now required for most professional employment
  15. 15. 6. Generalizations 1. EGL has a significant impact on policy. 2. Inequity is prevalent in terms of access to English language instruction. 3. Teacher education is inadequate. 4. CLT (TBLT in particular) is declared to use, but it is hard to realize. 5. The impact of EGL on the first and vernacular language is not a major concern.
  16. 16. 7. Discussions 1. Insufficient language proficiency of the teachers can be improved through technology. 2. Private classes are held for extended exposure which will exacerbate the economic divide. 3. Teacher training for young learners is needed. 4. Policy Questions of Age and Intensity
  17. 17. 8. Conclusion 1. Teacher training is required if we want the resources invested to achieve the desired goals. 2. Research is needed on A. the use of English in different occupations and its effects. B. what are some most cost-effective curriculum modes. C. the effect of EGL on first and indigenous language development.

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