COORDINATIONNervous System and Endocrine System
Review: Detecting Stimuli• The five senses detect stimuli in the environment Sight Smell HearingResponse Skin Ears TongueorganStimuli Light Pressure, Chemical Chemical temperature, substances substances pain
The Coordination SystemCoordination systems work together to processinformation received from stimuli and to produceappropriate responses.Animals have two coordination systems:• the nervous system and• the endocrine system.
The Nervous System• The nervous system regulates the body‟s activities and responses. It works by means of specialized cells called neurons which transmit information in the form of nerve impulses.
The Endocrine System• The endocrine system regulates and coordinates the body functions by means of chemical substances called hormones. The endocrine system regulates functions which require maintained responses. These include changes during the metamorphosis of some animals, growth, and the production of milk in mammals.
Summary• The coordination system tells the body how to respond to a stimulus. The body can coordinate a response quickly with a nerve impulse or over time as chemicals build up and break down in the blood stream.
Fill in the Blank Nervous System Endocrine SystemType of messenger Nerve impulsesTransmission by BloodSpeed of response RapidDuration of response BriefRegulation and Functions which require Functions which requirecoordination of rapid responses, such as _______ responses,functions locomotion such as growth, development, and metabolism
Review• How do messages travel in the nervous system?• How do messages travel in the endocrine system?• Which system controls how tall you will grow?• Which system controls how fast your heart beats?
Responsive OrgansThere are two types of responses to stimuli:• Motor responses: the response is movement• Endocrine responses: the response is the release of hormonesThe responsive organs, or effectors, control motor andendocrine responses.The motor and endocrine systems need to receive aninstruction from the nervous system in order to respond.
Motor Responses in Vertebrates Motor responses are controlled by organs in the motor system, which consist of: • Skeletal system: bones support the body and act as levers during movement. The skeleton is internal. • Muscular system: muscles are contractile organs attached to the bones by tendons.
Motor Responses in InvertebratesMany invertebrates possess an exoskeleton, or hard outershell, which protects them.
Motor Responses in InvertebratesInsects need a more flexible, articulated exoskeletonbecause they make rapid movements. When insects grow,they shed their exoskeleton and grow a bigger one. Thisprocess is called „moulting.‟
Motor Responses in InvertebratesAnimals which live fixed to a surface (coral) and slowmoving animals (sea urchins, starfish) are covered withhard, protective shells.
Summary: Motor ResponsesSome motor responses allow an animal to move toward orescape a stimulus. Muscles expand and contract and pullon the skeleton. The skeleton acts as a lever and movesthe limbs. This is the same for vertebrates and fast-movinginvertebrates with an exoskeleton.Some animals can‟t move quickly. Their motor response isto hide in their protective exoskeleton or to emerge whenthe environment is safe.
Endocrine ResponsesThe endocrine response is a release of hormones.Endocrine responses are controlled by glands in theendocrine system. These glands produce hormoneswhich:• Are released into the blood• Control and coordinate activities throughout the body.Both vertebrates and invertebrates have endocrinesystems.
Review: Which system is working?Stimulus Coordination Response Time Response SystemFeeling a fire ishotEating a big mealBeing tickledHearing a loudnoise Forming a scar Increasing the amount of sugar in the blood Coughing Running away
True or False?• Only vertebrates possess an endocrine system.• Hormones are transported in the blood.• The pancreas is part of the motor system.• Responses from the endocrine system are immediate and rapid.
Coordination in PlantsPlants do not have a nervous system or an endocrinesystem. Responses to stimuli in plants are coordinated byhormones.Hormones act as chemical messengers which enableplants to respond to many factors, such as light, gravity,water, and temperature.Cells inside the plant detect stimuli, which are processedand analyzed slowly. Movement is limited and based onpredetermined, automatic systems.
Movement in PlantsPlants can respond to stimuli on a permanent or temporarybasis.• Tropism• Nastic movements
TropismTropism is a type of response in plants whichpermanently changes the direction of a plant‟s growth.There are two types of tropism:• Positive tropism is when the plant grows in the direction of the stimulus.• Negative tropism is when the plant grows away from the stimulus.
Tropism Tropism is classified according to the source of the stimuli: Geotropism Phototropism Hydrotropism ThigmotropismResponse to: Gravity Light Water ContactStem Runners makeRoot contact with an object and ____ themselves around it
Nastic MovementsTemporary responses in plants, such as opening andclosing, are called nastic movements. The plant laterreturns to its original position.An example: carnivorous plants close their leaves when aninsect lands on them.
SummaryPlants coordinate responses with hormones, which meansthey respond slowly to stimuli.Tropism is a type of permanent response.Nastic movement is a type of temporary response.
Review• What coordinates responses to stimuli in plants?• Name three stimuli to which plants respond.• What is the main difference between tropism and nastic movement?
ReviewWhy does jasmine openat night and closeduring the day?• Stimulus• Response• Duration of change
ReviewWhy do vine tendrils(runners) wrap aroundother stems and nearbyobjects?• Stimulus• Response• Duration of change
ReviewWhy do potatoes growstems when left on thewindowsill?• Stimulus• Response• Duration of change