ELD 504: Reading and Writing Assessments

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Incorporating suitable assessments in reading and writing is important for students as they are essential components to communication in the English language. The following reading and writing assessments are research based and effective ways to accurately and properly assess student achievement for high school aged students. These assessments were carefully chosen to meet the guidelines set forth by the California Department of Education for English-Language Arts (ELA) Content Standards.

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ELD 504: Reading and Writing Assessments

  1. 1. READING AND WRITING ASSESSMENT PROJECTELD 504: Assessment of English Language Learners Learning Team A December 5, 2011
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Assessments can provide the teacher withinformation regarding student understanding of thecontent being taught. Assessments can also determinestudent achievement and areas where they may befalling behind. It is imperative that assessments beused to gauge student learning in relation to contentstandards. Carefully selected assessments can be usedacross curricular areas as they provide organizedand specific criteria relating to the learningobjectives.
  3. 3. Incorporating suitable assessments in reading andwriting is important for students as they are essentialcomponents to communication in the English language. Thefollowing reading and writing assessments are researchbased and ef fective ways to accurately and properly assessstudent achievement for high school aged students. Theseassessments were carefully chosen to meet the guidelinesset forth by the California Department of Education forEnglish-Language Arts (ELA) Content Standards.
  4. 4. READING ASSESSMENT Reading assessments are critical for high school studentsbecause information gleaned from informal and formal assessments helpdetermine the reading abilities and levels of all students in content -richacademic settings. Reading assessments are used for teacher s tounderstand how students obtain information and acquire literacy.Selected assessments should also take into account students’back grounds and how students structure and retain new literacyknowledge (Wren, 2004). Awareness and utilization of various formal andinformal reading strategies inform instructional planning, aiding in theselection of which skills are best for specific students. Three specificreading assessments greatly benefit high school students and theiref for ts to improve their reading skills.
  5. 5. READING FLUENCY: DIBELS R e a di n g f l u e n c y i s o f te n Because DIBELS is also useful for m o n i to r i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r e a d i n g considered a bridge between word i n te r v e n t i o n s ( K a m i n s ki a n d G o o d , 1 9 9 6 , decoding and comprehension. A a s c i te d b y B l o m - H o f f m a n , e t a l . , 2 0 0 2 ) , f o r m a l a s s e s s m e n t u s e d to m e a s u r e i t c a n b e a p p l i e d to a ny s t u d e n t reading fluency is called DIBELS. acquiring new language skills. By using D y n a m i c I n d i c a to r s o f B a s i c E a r l y D I B E L S , i n s t r u c to r s c a n t r a c k i n d i v i d u al L i te r a c y S k i l l s , o r D I B E L S ( G o o d a n d students’ progress and their level of K a m i n s k i , 1 9 9 6 , a s c i te d b y B l o m - a c h i ev e m e n t . O n c e s t u d e n t s h a v e t h e H o f f m a n , D w ye r, C l a r ke , a n d Po w e r, a b i l i t y to d e c o d e w o r d s a c c u r a cy, t h e i r 2 0 0 2 ) , d e s i g n e d to a s s e s s r e a d i n g f l u e n c y r a te s w i l l i n c r e a s e . S i n c e p h o n ol o gi c al a n d a l p h a b e t i c r e a d i n g f l u e n c y i s a l s o a r e q u i s i te s k i l l i n a w a r e n e s s a n d f l u e n cy, m e a s u r e s a s o c i al s t u d i e s , s c i e n ce , a n d m a t h , b r o a d r a n g e o f i m p o r t a n t e a r l y l i te r a c y D I B L E L S c a n b e a u s e f u l s t r a te g y to s k i l ls t h a t a r e p r e d i c to r s o f l a te r support English language learners (ELLs) r e a d i n g p r o f i ci e n cy ( R e a d i n g R o c ke t s , i n c o n te n t a r e a s o t h e r t h a n E L A s . 2 01 1 a ) .
  6. 6. TOWRE: TEST OF WORD READING EFFICIENCY Decoding is a skill needed to grant students access to informationin content area texts as they progress through their academic career s. Aformal assessment to measure students’ ability to decode is the Test ofWord Reading Ef ficiency, or TOWRE ( Torgesen, Wagner, and Tashotte,1999, as cited in Berninger, Smith, and O’Donnell, 2004). Thisassessment is used to help determine students’ ability to decode wordsef ficiently by reading a passage of text as clearly and correctly aspossible. The instructor monitor s student per formance by notingmistakes made by individual students while reading and decoding words .This instrument can prove especially helpful in monitoring the progressof ELLs with their English decoding skills.
  7. 7. PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT An individual portfolio is an This allows the teacher toinformal way to assess students’ compare and check theabilities, progress, and progress of students over theachievements through course of an academic year.teacher/classroom observations This method can be applied inand samples of work. Instruction any subject area and ison how to pick a piece of work to especially effective with ELLsplace in a portfolio is beneficial when monitoring beginning offor students because it models the year work samples withreflection of their own work while end of the year progressencouraging students to take an (Pierce, 2002).active role in learning informationthey feel they have not yetmastered (Reading Rockets.org,2011b).
  8. 8. WRITING ASSESSMENT Writing assessment can be used for a variety ofpurposes, such as delivering feedback to students, studentplacement, realizing proficiency in a given subject area, andearning a grade. Because students and educators, more oftenthan not, are confronted with high stakes academicaccountability, it is paramount assessment protocols are guidedby sound pedagogical principles to insure that they are valid,fair, and appropriate to the context and purpose for which theyare designed (Conference on College Composition andCommunication, 2009). Formal and informal writingassessments are used regularly for a variety of reasons to meetessential criteria for high school students throughout California.
  9. 9. Despite the importance of writing, many high schoolstudents do not learn to write well enough to meet thedemands of school or the workplace. The National Assessmentof Educational Progress revealed that many students do notdevelop the competence in writing needed at their respectivegrade levels (Persky, Daane& Jin, 2003, as cited in Grahamand Perin, 2007). These findings support why it is criticalfor classroom teachers to instruct and perform regularinformal writing assessment to meet the needs of students.Authentic assessment measures are performance-based, andshould be used to guide instruction (EvaluationSpringboard.org, 2006).
  10. 10. Directions: Label each part of the essay using a different colored pen. Authentic assessments benefit students best when theyare utilized across the curriculum. Summaries, journaling, quick-writes, rewriting a story, and letter-writing are some examples ofwell-designed activities that provide teachers with fast authenticassessments of student performance. A variety of writing rubricsare available from reliable sources that can assist teachers andstudents before, during, and after writing activities. It is alsosuggested that peer editing be utilized to provide interaction amongstudents. Students often benefit from reading, editing, andr rewriting one another’s work.
  11. 11. FRAMED PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS Framed writing models are Frames can be used at thegraphic organizers that offer beginning, middle, and end ofstudents a solid framework in which instruction to make content-areato write paragraphs and essays. The learning more motivating andinstructor-provided frame guides meaningful. Frames can also bestudents through a formal writing utilized across disciplines to developstructure while making available literacy and thinking skills (Ellis,scaffolding for writing skills like 1998).transitional sentences andcompound-complex syntax (ReadingRockets, 2011).
  12. 12. REVISION Revising one’s writing is a way to learn about the craf t ofwriting. Learning to revise teaches students about the characteristicsof good writing, which will help to improve the quality of their futurewriting. Revision skills complement reading skills and require thatwriters distance themselves from their writing in order to criticallyevaluate their own work (Reading Rockets, 2011c). It is impor tant toinstill good revision practices in young writers because it gives theman oppor tunity for reflection about their process. Peer editing hasproven to be a successful way to help students develop revision skills(Graham & Harris, 2007, as cited by Reading Rockets, 2011c). This ispar ticularly true when peer groups have explicit goals for revision(MacAr thur, 2007, as cited by Reading Rockets, 2011c).
  13. 13. WRITING CONFERENCES Re s e arc h o n t h e w ri t i n g D o n a ld G rave s ( 1 9 8 2 ) i de n t i fied s i xpro c e s s a dvo c a tes t h a t w ri te r s l e a rn c h a ra c te rist ic s o f s uc c e s s ful w ri t i n gm o s t e f fi c i ent ly a bo ut w ri t i n g w h e n c o n fe re nc es. Co n fe re nc es s h o ul d: ( a )t h ey s h a re a n d re fl e c t o n t h e i r h ave a pre di c t a bl e s t ruc t ure ; ( b)w ri t i n g. In c l a s s rooms, t h i s i s m o s t fo c us o n a few po i n t s ; ( c )c o m m only do n e t h ro ug h w ri t i n g de m o nst ra te s o l ut i ons to s t ude n t s c o n fe re nc es a s pa r t o f t h e rev i s ion pro bl e ms; ( d) pe rm i t ro l e reve r s als;s t a g e. Wh et h e r t h ey o c c ur w i t h pa i r s , ( e ) e n c o ura g e us e o f a vo c a bul ar yw i t h s m a ll g ro ups , o r w i t h t h e a ppro pri a te fo r w ri t i n g ; a n d ( f)te a c h er, t h e s o c i al be n e fi t s o f s h a ri ng s t i mula te pl e a s ure i n w ri t i n g . M o s tw ri t i n g i m proves w ri t i n g ( Re a di ng te a c h er s us e s o m e va ri a t io n o f t h e s eRo c ket s, 2 01 1 d) . c h a ra c te rist ic s i n t h e i r c l a s sro oms a c ro s s t h e c urri c ul um .
  14. 14. CONCLUSION Assessing the reading and writing abilities of students isan essential part of the learning process. Assessments aredone at every level of the learning process. The reasons forassessments are to identify skills that need review, monitorstudent progress, guide teacher instruction,demonstrate the ef fectiveness of instruction,and provide teachers with information on howinstruction can be improved.
  15. 15. Both instructor and student can provide a morebenefit from the results of initial and well-rounded pictureongoing assessment. Educators are of their skills, abilities,able to design instruction to meet the and ongoing progress.individual needs of their students. Educators can design immediateOngoing informal assessments are instruction based on the results ofparticularly important for English informal assessment. MasteringLanguage Learners. Informal reading and writing skills are extremelyassessments (partner reading, class important because they are used indiscussion, role-playing, every subject area. Achieving these brainstorming, etc.) skills at every level of learning helps students to be successful life-long learners.
  16. 16. REFERENCES Berninger, V., Smith, D.R., & O’Donnell, L. (2004). Research- suppor ted assessment-intervention links for reading and writing. National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved from www.ldonline.org/article574/. Blom-Hof fman, J., Dwyer, J.F., Clarke, A .T., & Power, T.J. (2002). Strategies for conducting outcome evaluations of early inter vention literacy programs. National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved from www.readingrockets.org/articles/577/. Conference on College Composition and Communication (2009). Writing Assessment: A position statement . Retrieved fromwww.ncte.org/cccc/resources/positions/writingassessm ent.
  17. 17. REFERENCES (CONT.) Ellis, E.S.(1998). Framing main ideas and essential details to promote comprehension . Tuscaloosa, AL: Masterminds. Evaluation Springboard (2006). Selected methods: Assessments. Rockman et al & EdVenture Group. Retrieved from http://www.evaluationspringboard.org/assessments.html?&lang = en_us&output=json&session -id=5fcabef1be960952 ace1b3a302aae4e3. Good, R. H., & Kaminski, R. A. (1996). Assessment for instructional decisions: Toward a proactive/prevention model of decision-making for early literacy skills. School Psychology Quar terly, 11, 326−336. Graham, S. & Harris K. (2007). Best practices in teaching planning. In S. Graham, C. MacArthur, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.) Best practices in writing instruction . New York: Guilford Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta -analysis for writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychololgy,99 (3) pp. 445-476. Graves, D. (1982). Six guideposts to a successful writing conference. Learning, 11(4), 76-77
  18. 18. REFERENCES (CONT.) Kaminski, R. A ., & Good, R. H. (1996). Toward a technology for assessing basic early literacy skills. School Psychology Review, 25, 215-227. MacArthur, C. (2007). Best practices in teaching evaluation and revision. In S. Graham, C. MacArthur, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.) Best practices in writing instruction . New York: Guilford. Persky, H. R., Daane, M. C., & Jin, Y. (2003). The nation’s repor t card: Writing 2002. (NCES 2003–529). U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences. National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: Government Printing Of fice. Pierce, L. V. (2002). Performance -based assessment: Promoting achievement for English language learners. ERIC/CLL News Bulletin, 24 ,(1), pp. 1-3.
  19. 19. REFERENCES (CONT.) Reading Rockets (2011a). Classroom strategies. Washington, D.C.: WETA. Retrieved from www.readingrockets.org/ strategies/. Reading Rockets (2011b). Types of informal classroom-based assessment: Por tfolios. Washington D.C.: WETA . Retrieved from www.readingrocket.org/article/3412/. Reading Rockets (2011c). Classroom strategies: Revision . Washington, D.C.: WETA. Retrieved from www.readingrockets.org/strategies/revision . Reading Rockets (2011d).Classroom strategies: Writing conferences. Washington, D.C.: WETA. Retrieved from www.readingrockets.org/strategies/writing_conferences .
  20. 20. REFERENCES (CONT.) Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C.A . (1999). Test of Word Reading Efficiency. Austin, TX: PRO-ED Publishing, Inc. Weaver, B. (2011). Formal versus informal assessment. Scholastic Teachers. Retrieved from http:// www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/formal -versus-informal- assessments?&lang=en_us&output= json&session- id=5fcabef1be960952ace1b3a302aae4e3. Wren, S. (2004, November). Descriptions of early reading assessments. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Retrieved from www.balancedreading.com/assessment/assessment.pdf.
  21. 21. IMAGES Microsoft Clip art gallery MisterElements (2011). Notebook sketch doodle clip . ShutterStock.com. Retrieved from http://www.shutterstock.com/pic -64796410/stock-vector- notebook-sketch-doodle-clip-art-design-flower-speech-bubbles- elements-vector-illustration-set.html. Tatsumi67 (2009). Notebook paper must be stopped . Deviant Art.com. Retrieved from http://tatsumi67.deviantart.com / art/Notebook-Paper-Must-Be-Stopped-116237037

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