Devotional Music of the Lowland Folk Villages
The Way of the Fiesta
The music of the so-called Hispanized lowland Christian, and village peoples
of Luzon, Visayas, Mindoro, and Palawan.
Their culture is essentially Southeast Asian, fused with a strong animistic
core, though with elements of Latin culture (Mexican, Italian or Hispanic).
The lowland folk are composed mostly of farmers, fishermen, artisans,
vendors and traders, and common folk. They have a deep faith in God,
whom they serve with utmost devotion. Their key celebration is the fiesta,
which revolves around the Sto. Niño, Virgin Mary, Jesus Christ or a patron
The devotional orientation of the lowland folk is a valuable resource for
creative yet painstaking and repetitive tasks that require great patience like
weaving, embroidery, carving, and metalwork. Their music is often referred
to as folk music (ex. pasyon, balitaw, daigon).
Though belonging to the same subculture, we may observe carefully the
intriguing contrasts between the expressive forms of the Ilocano and the
Visayan, as manifested in their folk music and dances. Whereas the Ilocanos
like their music notes close to each other, Visayan music notes are quite far
apart. While Ilocanos love closed, inward movement, the Visayans cherish
open, outward movement, as seen in the hand and arm gestures of the
dances. Given a dance space, the Ilocanos hardly move away from a center,
while the Visayans move around very freely. The Ilocanos’ way of peeling
fruits is usually directed towards the body, while the Visayan way is directed
away from the body. These opposing styles could be indicative of the
contrasting temperament and values of the Ilocanos and the Visayan – the
Ilocanos being more reserved while the Visayans more exuberant. Historian
Teodoro Agoncillo astutely noted that while Ilocanos are gifted towards
survival, Visayans have a penchance for celebrations.
Liturgy of Traditions of Filipino Music in luzon
Filipino music evolved from the simple drumbeats and chants of the native
Aeta, Ita or Ati of different islands; they invented simple mouth harps and
could even make music by means of a fresh cut leaf folded between the
tongue and the lips.
The rich, indigenous Kulintang or Gamelan traditions of Southern Philippines
served as entertainment in weddings, coronation and other festivals. Vocal
traditions vary among the northern Luzon, Visayan and southern Mindanao
The indigenous northern tribes of Luzon are more rhythmical, with
expressive pauses; Visayan songs are slower and more melodic, while in
Mindanao, the southern style has more Islamic singing influence with
melisma, (using several notes in one syllable of text) tremolo and long
Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of
sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae (Kingdom Protista). Plants need only light energy,
CO2, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically
using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis.
Leaf Cross-Section Photosynthesis takes place primarily in plant leaves, and little to none occurs in
stems, etc. The parts of a typical leaf include the upper and lower epidermis, the mesophyll, the vascular
bundle(s) (veins), and the stomates. The upper and lower epidermal cells do not have chloroplasts, thus
photosynthesis does not occur there. They serve primarily as protection for the rest of the leaf. The
stomates are holes which occur primarily in the lower epidermis and are for air exchange: they let CO2
in and O2 out. The vascular bundles or veins in a leaf are part of the plant’s transportation system,
moving water and nutrients around the plant as needed. The mesophyll cells have chloroplasts and this
is where photosynthesis occurs.
Chlorplast As you hopefully recall, the parts of a chloroplast include the outer and inner membranes,
intermembrane space, stroma, and thylakoids stacked in grana. The chlorophyll is built into the
membranes of the thylakoids.
Chlorophyll looks green because it absorbs red and blue light, making these colors unavailable to be
seen by our eyes. It is the green light which is NOT absorbed that finally reaches our eyes, making
chlorophyll appear green. However, it is the energy from the absorbed red and blue light that is,
thereby, able to be used to do photosynthesis. The green light we can see is not/cannot be absorbed by
the plant, and thus cannot be used to do photosynthesis.
The chemical processes by which cells produce the substances and energy needed to sustain life. As part
of metabolism, organic compounds are broken down to provide heat and energy in the process called
catabolism. Simpler molecules are also used to build more complex compounds like proteins for growth
and repair of tissues as part of anabolism. Many metabolic processes are brought about by the action of
enzymes. The overall speed at which an organism carries out its metabolic processes is termed its
metabolic rate (or, when the organism is at rest, its basal metabolic rate). Birds, for example, have a high
metabolic rate, since they are warm-blooded, and their usual method of locomotion, flight, requires
large amounts of energy. Accordingly, birds usually need large amounts of high-quality, energy-rich
foods such as seeds or meat, which they must eat frequently. See more at cellular respiration.
1. The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the
maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes
while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized.
2. The processing of a specific substance within the living body: water metabolism; iodine metabolism.