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Lorcan
Dempsey,
OCLC
@LorcanD
The Library in
the Life of the
User:
Two Collection
Directions
The transformation of
academic library
collecting:
a symposium inspired
by Dan C. Hazen.
Harvard Library, 20/21 Oct.
2016
Citations and fuller details are included in slide notes where relevant.
Thanks to my colleagues Brian Lavoie, Constance Malpas, JD
Shipengrover, Merrilee Proffitt and Rebecca Bryant for assistance
as I prepared this presentation.
Thanks to Sarah Thomas, Vice President for the
Harvard Library and University Librarian, for
the kind invitation to what was a very interesting event.
The presentation follows the outline of:
Dempsey, L., (2016). Library collections in the life of the
user: two directions. LIBER Quarterly. 26(4).
DOI: http://doi.org/10.18352/lq.10170
The background color is Harvard crimson 
@LorcanD
Hazen’s favorite collection, though, remains a
physical one: the Santo Domingo Collection, acquired
from a private Columbian collector obsessed with the
history of European sex, drugs, and rock and roll.
The collection contains everything from 16th-century
medical treatises about opiates to French pulp novels
from the 1950s.
“The rock and roll part of it went to the Rock and
Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland,” Hazen explains.
“But we got the sex and drugs.”
http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2015/2/5/tome-raider/#.VW8aiXO1swg.twitter
Places
Student
success
Research
support:
creation
Collections: a service
Technology reconfigures behavior.
Behavior reconfigures technology.
Collections: expanding view
Outside
In
Inside
out
Facil-
itated
Libraries focused on institutional mission:
responsibility to the scholarly record variably realised
A
Borrow
Direct
Prelude
B-W
26.1m
B-D
16.1m
Chicago, Cornell,
Duke, Stanford:
1.4m print book
publications NOT in
BOS-WASH
BOS-WASH &
BorrowDirect
BorrowDirect compared to megaregions
North
America:
45.7m
VS HOUORLEANS DAUSTIN DENVER CASCADIA SOFLO SOCAL NOCAL CHARLANTA BOSWASH TORBUFF CHIPITTS
BorrowDirect coverage
Bos-Wash
57%
Chi-Pitts
41%
Borrow
Direct
35%
Research libraries achieved status in this
environment by acquiring more than their peers or
by building niche collections of particular depth.
… a collections logic of enforced parsimony and
conscious selectivity can feel anachronistic and even
perverse.
Collections no longer lie at the center of research
library operations and goals, even as academic
communities focus ever more inclusively on
knowledge and information.
Hazen. Lost in the cloud. 2011
Reconfiguration of
research work by
network/digital
environment.
Reconfiguration of the
information space by
network/digital
environment.
The inside
out
collection
The
facilitated
collection
Overview
Support for
creation,
management
and disclosure
The
specialized
collection
Reconfiguration of
research work by
network/digital
environment.
Research
work
Supporting the creative process: the emerging
scholarly record
Expertise and reputation:
Identity > workflow > content
Office of
undergraduate
research
Disciplines &
departmentsGraduate school
Vice president for
research
Provost
Institutional
Reporting
CIO
Campus center for
teaching & learning
Medical
center
Tech Transfer Office
LIBRARY
Advancement
& corporate
relations
Data Warehouse
News Bureau
Colleges & depts
Rebecca Bryant, OCLC Research
Research Data
Management
Digital
scholarship
User
education
& training
RIM/Profiling
system
Institutional
Repository
Creation, management and
disclosure:
R-infrastructure
Researcher
Research manager
Research support
Her view is that publishers are
here to make the scientific
research process more
effective by helping them keep
up to date, find colleagues, plan
experiments, and then share
their results. After they have
published, the processes
continues with gaining a
reputation, obtaining funds,
finding collaborators, and even
finding a new job. What can we
as publishers do to address
some of scientists’ pain
points?
Annette Thomas,
Then CEO of Macmillan
Publishers
A
publisher’s
new job
description
http://www.against-the-grain.com/2012/11/a-publishers-new-job-description/
Researcher Librarian
Research
manager
Research, reputation, relevance
Reconfiguration of
research work by
network/digital
environment.
Support for
creation,
management
and disclosure
The inside
out
collection
Workflow is the new
content
Reputation
manage and disclose the
intellectual outputs and expertise
of the institution.
From discovery to
discoverability
Rightscaling and collective
action
Institutional
Collective collection
Third party
Collaboration at scale
Reconfiguration of the
information space by
network/digital
environment.
Inform-
ation
space
 arXiv, SSRN, RePEc, PubMed Central (disciplinary
repositories that have become important discovery
hubs);
 Google Scholar, Google Books, Amazon (ubiquitous
discovery and fulfillment hubs);
 Mendeley, ResearchGate (services for social discovery
and scholarly reputation management);
 Goodreads, LibraryThing (social description/reading
sites);
 Wikipedia, Yahoo Answers, Khan Academy (hubs for
open research, reference, and teaching materials).
 FigShare, OpenRefine (data storage and
manipulation tools)
 Github (software management)
The ‘owned’
collection
The ‘facilitated’
collection
A collections spectrum
Purchased and
physically stored
Meet research and
learning needs in best way
A network logic: a coordinated mix of local,
external and collaborative services are
assembled around user needs
A print logic: the distribution of
print copies to multiple local
destinations
Value relates to locally
assembled collection.
Value relates to ability to efficiently
meet a variety of research and
learning needs.
http://www.xkcd.com/917/
The ‘external’ collection:
Pointing researchers at Google Scholar;
Including freely available ebooks in the catalog;
Creating resource guides for web resources.
The ‘owned’
collection
The ‘facilitated’
collection
The ‘borrowed’
collection
A collections spectrum
The ‘shared
print’
collection
The ‘shared
digital’
collection
The evolving
scholarly
record
Purchased and
physically stored
Meet research and
learning needs in best way
The ‘licensed’
collection
The ‘demand-
driven’
collection
Note: Libraries have variable
Investments across the entire
spectrum
Reconfiguration of the
information space by
network/digital
environment.
The
specialized
collection
The
facilitated
collection
The specialized collection
Reconfiguration of the
information space by
network/digital
environment.
The
specialized
collection
The
facilitated
collection
Specialization of locally
acquired/held collections?
Engagement
Understand and respond to
needs of faculty and students.
A diffuse responsibility for
stewardship of the scholarly
record
Rightscaling and collective
action
Institutional
Collective collection
Third party
Collaboration at scale
Reconfiguration of
research work by
network/digital
environment.
Reconfiguration of the
information space by
network/digital
environment.
Support for
creation,
management
and disclosure
The
specialized
collection
The
facilitated
collection
The inside
out
collection
Library structures
University structures
Collaborative
structures
An engagement model in which library liaisons
and functional specialists collaborate to
understand and address the wide range of
processes in instruction and scholarship is
replacing the traditional tripartite model of
collections, reference, and instruction.
Jaguszewski, J. M., & Williams, K. (2013)
New campus configurations are emerging.
Research managers (Research office), CIO,
University Press, Departments, …
Sourcing and scaling.
Rightscaling: finding the right level at which to
do things.
Sourcing: finding the right partners.
But …
Despite
(1) the positive lessons learned
from HathiTrust,
(2) the urgency of serving our
constituencies better and
(3) financial pressures,
the US infrastructure for research
and collaboration continues to
be primarily at the institutional
level. Is this a “structural
problem,” as was argued in that
ARL board discussion? It certainly
is “structural” in the sense that
the landscape looks a certain
way. This is a choice, however,
and it’s worth pondering the
question of why we have not
organized ourselves for scale,
impact and efficiency.
Radical Scatter. JISC/CNI 2016.
Collective collection
Rightscaling – optimum scale?
The ‘borrowed’
collection
The ‘shared
print’
collection
The ‘shared
digital’
collection
The evolving
scholarly
record
Shared Print Management
Rightscaling – optimum scale?
Research dataShared print
From
invisible
hand to
conscious
coordination
Conscious coordination
Reciprocal access
Curate locally, share globally
System-wide awareness
Align local action with collective
effort
Explicit commitments
Move commitments above the
institution
Collect more of less
Division of labor/specialization
Collection integrity
Research libraries have built their collections through
expensive, carefully planned efforts that have extended
over decades and in some cases centuries. Their holdings
are deliberate creations of mutually reinforcing materials
not just haphazard accumulations of books and journals.
Hazen. Selecting for storage. LRTS 44(4)
From collection integrity to collective collection
integrity?
Conscious coordination required to overcome radical
scatter
Reconfiguration of
research work by
network/
digital environment.
Reconfiguration of the
information space by
network/
digital environment.
Workflow is
the new
content:
process and
product
The
specialized
collection
The inside
out
collection
The
facilitated
collection
@LorcanD
Thank You

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The Library in the Life of the User: Two Collection Directions

  • 1. Lorcan Dempsey, OCLC @LorcanD The Library in the Life of the User: Two Collection Directions The transformation of academic library collecting: a symposium inspired by Dan C. Hazen. Harvard Library, 20/21 Oct. 2016
  • 2. Citations and fuller details are included in slide notes where relevant. Thanks to my colleagues Brian Lavoie, Constance Malpas, JD Shipengrover, Merrilee Proffitt and Rebecca Bryant for assistance as I prepared this presentation. Thanks to Sarah Thomas, Vice President for the Harvard Library and University Librarian, for the kind invitation to what was a very interesting event. The presentation follows the outline of: Dempsey, L., (2016). Library collections in the life of the user: two directions. LIBER Quarterly. 26(4). DOI: http://doi.org/10.18352/lq.10170 The background color is Harvard crimson  @LorcanD
  • 3. Hazen’s favorite collection, though, remains a physical one: the Santo Domingo Collection, acquired from a private Columbian collector obsessed with the history of European sex, drugs, and rock and roll. The collection contains everything from 16th-century medical treatises about opiates to French pulp novels from the 1950s. “The rock and roll part of it went to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland,” Hazen explains. “But we got the sex and drugs.” http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2015/2/5/tome-raider/#.VW8aiXO1swg.twitter
  • 7. Libraries focused on institutional mission: responsibility to the scholarly record variably realised
  • 9. B-W 26.1m B-D 16.1m Chicago, Cornell, Duke, Stanford: 1.4m print book publications NOT in BOS-WASH BOS-WASH & BorrowDirect
  • 10. BorrowDirect compared to megaregions North America: 45.7m VS HOUORLEANS DAUSTIN DENVER CASCADIA SOFLO SOCAL NOCAL CHARLANTA BOSWASH TORBUFF CHIPITTS BorrowDirect coverage Bos-Wash 57% Chi-Pitts 41% Borrow Direct 35%
  • 11. Research libraries achieved status in this environment by acquiring more than their peers or by building niche collections of particular depth. … a collections logic of enforced parsimony and conscious selectivity can feel anachronistic and even perverse. Collections no longer lie at the center of research library operations and goals, even as academic communities focus ever more inclusively on knowledge and information. Hazen. Lost in the cloud. 2011
  • 12. Reconfiguration of research work by network/digital environment. Reconfiguration of the information space by network/digital environment. The inside out collection The facilitated collection Overview Support for creation, management and disclosure The specialized collection
  • 13. Reconfiguration of research work by network/digital environment. Research work
  • 14. Supporting the creative process: the emerging scholarly record
  • 15.
  • 16. Expertise and reputation: Identity > workflow > content
  • 17. Office of undergraduate research Disciplines & departmentsGraduate school Vice president for research Provost Institutional Reporting CIO Campus center for teaching & learning Medical center Tech Transfer Office LIBRARY Advancement & corporate relations Data Warehouse News Bureau Colleges & depts Rebecca Bryant, OCLC Research Research Data Management Digital scholarship User education & training RIM/Profiling system Institutional Repository Creation, management and disclosure: R-infrastructure Researcher Research manager Research support
  • 18. Her view is that publishers are here to make the scientific research process more effective by helping them keep up to date, find colleagues, plan experiments, and then share their results. After they have published, the processes continues with gaining a reputation, obtaining funds, finding collaborators, and even finding a new job. What can we as publishers do to address some of scientists’ pain points? Annette Thomas, Then CEO of Macmillan Publishers A publisher’s new job description http://www.against-the-grain.com/2012/11/a-publishers-new-job-description/
  • 21. Reconfiguration of research work by network/digital environment. Support for creation, management and disclosure The inside out collection Workflow is the new content Reputation manage and disclose the intellectual outputs and expertise of the institution. From discovery to discoverability Rightscaling and collective action Institutional Collective collection Third party Collaboration at scale
  • 22. Reconfiguration of the information space by network/digital environment. Inform- ation space
  • 23.  arXiv, SSRN, RePEc, PubMed Central (disciplinary repositories that have become important discovery hubs);  Google Scholar, Google Books, Amazon (ubiquitous discovery and fulfillment hubs);  Mendeley, ResearchGate (services for social discovery and scholarly reputation management);  Goodreads, LibraryThing (social description/reading sites);  Wikipedia, Yahoo Answers, Khan Academy (hubs for open research, reference, and teaching materials).  FigShare, OpenRefine (data storage and manipulation tools)  Github (software management)
  • 24.
  • 25. The ‘owned’ collection The ‘facilitated’ collection A collections spectrum Purchased and physically stored Meet research and learning needs in best way A network logic: a coordinated mix of local, external and collaborative services are assembled around user needs A print logic: the distribution of print copies to multiple local destinations Value relates to locally assembled collection. Value relates to ability to efficiently meet a variety of research and learning needs. http://www.xkcd.com/917/
  • 26. The ‘external’ collection: Pointing researchers at Google Scholar; Including freely available ebooks in the catalog; Creating resource guides for web resources. The ‘owned’ collection The ‘facilitated’ collection The ‘borrowed’ collection A collections spectrum The ‘shared print’ collection The ‘shared digital’ collection The evolving scholarly record Purchased and physically stored Meet research and learning needs in best way The ‘licensed’ collection The ‘demand- driven’ collection Note: Libraries have variable Investments across the entire spectrum
  • 27. Reconfiguration of the information space by network/digital environment. The specialized collection The facilitated collection
  • 29. Reconfiguration of the information space by network/digital environment. The specialized collection The facilitated collection Specialization of locally acquired/held collections? Engagement Understand and respond to needs of faculty and students. A diffuse responsibility for stewardship of the scholarly record Rightscaling and collective action Institutional Collective collection Third party Collaboration at scale
  • 30. Reconfiguration of research work by network/digital environment. Reconfiguration of the information space by network/digital environment. Support for creation, management and disclosure The specialized collection The facilitated collection The inside out collection
  • 31. Library structures University structures Collaborative structures An engagement model in which library liaisons and functional specialists collaborate to understand and address the wide range of processes in instruction and scholarship is replacing the traditional tripartite model of collections, reference, and instruction. Jaguszewski, J. M., & Williams, K. (2013) New campus configurations are emerging. Research managers (Research office), CIO, University Press, Departments, … Sourcing and scaling. Rightscaling: finding the right level at which to do things. Sourcing: finding the right partners.
  • 33. Despite (1) the positive lessons learned from HathiTrust, (2) the urgency of serving our constituencies better and (3) financial pressures, the US infrastructure for research and collaboration continues to be primarily at the institutional level. Is this a “structural problem,” as was argued in that ARL board discussion? It certainly is “structural” in the sense that the landscape looks a certain way. This is a choice, however, and it’s worth pondering the question of why we have not organized ourselves for scale, impact and efficiency. Radical Scatter. JISC/CNI 2016.
  • 34. Collective collection Rightscaling – optimum scale? The ‘borrowed’ collection The ‘shared print’ collection The ‘shared digital’ collection The evolving scholarly record
  • 35. Shared Print Management Rightscaling – optimum scale? Research dataShared print
  • 37. Conscious coordination Reciprocal access Curate locally, share globally System-wide awareness Align local action with collective effort Explicit commitments Move commitments above the institution Collect more of less Division of labor/specialization
  • 38. Collection integrity Research libraries have built their collections through expensive, carefully planned efforts that have extended over decades and in some cases centuries. Their holdings are deliberate creations of mutually reinforcing materials not just haphazard accumulations of books and journals. Hazen. Selecting for storage. LRTS 44(4) From collection integrity to collective collection integrity? Conscious coordination required to overcome radical scatter
  • 39. Reconfiguration of research work by network/ digital environment. Reconfiguration of the information space by network/ digital environment. Workflow is the new content: process and product The specialized collection The inside out collection The facilitated collection @LorcanD Thank You

Editor's Notes

  1. Picture of Sterling Memorial Library, Yale. By Günter Waibel.
  2. http://search.it.online.fr/covers/wp-content/morgan-rockhill-2008.jpg
  3. Opening view: mega-regional print collections First click: Borrow Direct partners are mostly in BOS-WASH mega-region Second click: Chicago, Cornell, Duke, and Stanford are each located in another mega-region. Third click: BD overlap with BOS-WASH collection; non-BOS-WASH contribution highlighted. More on mega-regional print book collections: Lavoie, Brian, Constance Malpas and JD Shipengrover. 2012. Print Management at "Mega-scale": A Regional Perspective on Print Book Collections in North America. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2012/2012-05.pdf.
  4. North American print book collection: 45.7m distinct publications 57 percent of the print book publications held in North America are available within BOS-WASH (the largest mega-regional collection) 41 percent of the print book publications held in North America are available in CHI-PITTS (the second largest mega-regional collection) 35 percent of the print book publications held in North America are available within the BorrowDirect partnership (which would represent the third largest mega-regional collection) The BorrowDirect print book collection duplicates at least half of every mega-regional collection in North America.
  5. Hazen, D. (January 01, 2011). Lost in the Cloud Research Library Collections and Community in the Digital Age. Library Resources and Technical Services, 55, 4, 195-204. https://journals.ala.org/lrts/article/view/5302
  6. This is how we framed out the scholarly record in terms of nature and scope of what it might contain.   Start with published outcomes: the reporting of results, conclusions, ideas and so forth from a particular scholarly inquiry. These outcomes are still the coin of the realm for scholarly activities, so they are privileged here at the center of the picture; A lot of these outcomes take the form of text-based materials like books and journal articles, but often supplemented by additional materials such as video, graphics, and interactive programs.   Rest of scholarly record divided into two broad areas: process and aftermath   Process: process of scholarly inquiry; process by which outcomes are produced. Identified three categories of materials generated in this phase in which there is interest in including them as part of the scholarly record: Method materials related to the methodology of scholarly inquiry (e.g., software, computer models, digital lab notebooks, sampling frames, experimental protocols, instrument calibrations) Evidence raw materials/inputs to scholarly work (e.g., data sets, survey results, new or enhanced primary source documents, links to findings from other scholarly works); Discussion refining and improving ideas, methods, conclusions (e.g., pre-prints, listserv/blog discussions, conference presentations, annotated commentary, grant proposals).   Anchoring outcomes directly to the methods employed, evidence used, and formative discussions conducted during the process of scholarly inquiry helps contextualize and deepen our understanding of these outcomes, facilitate replicability, and leverage results into new research.   Once the outcomes from a research project have been formally published or otherwise made available, scholarly activities surrounding that piece of work may still continue in the “aftermath” phase. Activities in the aftermath phase may include Discussion (through similar channels as those in the process phase, but also post-publication formal reviews and commentary); Revision published work can be revised in various ways (the work may be enhanced with additional findings; errors may be corrected or clarifications made, etc.) Re-use (the work may be edited or re-packaged into new forms, such as conference presentations, summaries, blog posts, versions for the “popular media”, etc.).   Not saying that everything discussed here will end up in the scholarly record. But picture represents the maximal scope and depth of materials regarding which there is increasing interest in systematic collection and curation.   Note that some of the materials in the outlying components are becoming or might become outcomes in their own right. Data sets are a good example: in some disciplines the publication of an important data set is now considered a first-class scientific outcome. More on the evolving scholarly record: Lavoie, Brian, Eric Childress, Ricky Erway, Ixchel Faniel, Constance Malpas, Jennifer Schaffner, and Titia van der Werf. 2014. The Evolving Scholarly Record. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch-evolving-scholarly-record-2014.pdf.
  7. http://global.oup.com/uk/orc/busecon/economics/carlin/
  8. A Publisher's New Job Description November 8, 2012 Donald Hawkins Charleston Conference Blog http://www.against-the-grain.com/2012/11/a-publishers-new-job-description/
  9. More on facilitated collections: Dempsey, L., (2016). Library collections in the life of the user: two directions. LIBER Quarterly. 26(4). DOI: http://doi.org/10.18352/lq.10170
  10. Jisc and CNI conference 2016 International advances in digital scholarship Oxford, July 2016 Powerpoint from presentation available at: http://www.slideshare.net/JISC/closing-plenary-john-wilkin-and-david-Maguire Quote from unpublished paper provided by the author. Pic: http://www.library.illinois.edu/administration/librarian/aboutme.html
  11. More on conscious coordination: Lavoie, Brian and Constance Malpas. 2015. Stewardship of the Evolving Scholarly Record: From the Invisible Hand to Conscious Coordination. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/2015/oclcresearch-esr-stewardship-2015.pdf.
  12. Key components of conscious coordination More on conscious coordination: Lavoie, Brian and Constance Malpas. 2015. Stewardship of the Evolving Scholarly Record: From the Invisible Hand to Conscious Coordination. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/2015/oclcresearch-esr-stewardship-2015.pdf.
  13. Hazen, D. (January 01, 2000). ARTICLES - Selecting for Storage - Local Problems, Local Responses, and an Emerging Common Challenge. Library Resources & Technical Services, 44, 4, 176. https://journals.ala.org/lrts/article/view/5508