Theories of Learning 1


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Theories of Learning 1

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  • Welcome to the first seminar session for Education Studies. Make sure everyone is able to locate the module on student central. Make sure everyone has a module programme.
  • Setting ground rules. Groups to discuss possible ‘rules’ for sessions. Share ideas and confirm final list of rules. Could include:We will attend sessions We will prepare for sessions (prepare reading and other non-contact tasks)We will listen to one anotherWe will respect different points of viewWe will actively contribute to group discussionsWhile the students are discussing these ideas, ask them to write their name on a lolly stick (each student to have one lolly stick). The lolly sticks will then be held in a “pot of fairness”. We will use the lolly sticks to randomly select talking partners/groups etc… in future sessions. This is a strategy that many primary teachers use and will be useful to model for the students.
  • Click on poster on slide to go to the webpage with the large poster. Share responses in groups.Was any of the language difficult to understand? How will these principles inform the development of your own values and beliefs about teaching and learning? Which aspects did you find particularly interesting?
  • In the support tutoring sessions the students were asked to give a short verbal presentation on the topic “I learn best when”. These quotes are some of the ideas that came up in many of the presentations. Other ideas included:I learn best through repetitionI learn best when I have a reward to work towardsI learn best in a calm environmentI learn best when I use visual things like mind maps and spider grams.I learn best when I am active – not just sitting stillI learn best when I have colourful notes (colour came up a lot!). I learn best when I have time to reflectI learn best when I am organisedI learn best when there are no distractionsI learn best when I have time to discuss with others but also time to think on my ownIn Education studies we will think about these ideas – how do children learn?? There are theories about how children learn and you have started to encounter these in the reading that you prepared for this session. There are many different theorists who have developed ideas about how children learn…..
  • The TLRP Ten Principles have developed through research based evidence in education. Research has led to the development of theories that help us to understand the learning process. We will be exploring key theories of learning over the next two sessions. We will be thinking and talking about some of the influential theorists who have informed our understanding of teaching and learning. We will be asking questions such as:How do children acquire knowledge?What is the role of adults in children’s learning?What is the child’s role in their learning?
  • Think about a recent learning experience – maybe when you learned how to drive, or how to use a new piece of technology (a new phone?), or learning a new sport, or a new game, or learning how to cook something. What happened? Who was involved? How did you master the new skill? Think about this quietly on your own and make some notes.
  • Draw on your own experiences as a child in school – or as an adult working in school. How is learning supported? What are the key elements? Share ideas in your group. Think back to the notes made about your own recent learning experience. Are there any similarities? How can our own learning experiences inform our practice as teachers? When we think about the theories of learning, it is helpful to remind ourselves of how these big ideas relate to day to day practice with children.
  • At this point ask the group to get themselves into smaller groups of about 4-5. This will be their reading group. Each week, between sessions, they will make time to meet with their reading group during non-contact time to discuss the readings they have engaged with
  • Each group to discuss these key ideas and put together a response to each question. Use the large paper and create a mind map of ideas for each question. One member of the group to act as facilitator, moving to another group to share their responses, and then listen to the other group’s ideas. Facilitators to visit two groups (or more if time). Each week we will select a different facilitator. Facilitator to then return to their original group. Groups to feedback ideas to large group.
  • Go over key points of behaviourism. Use video clips to illustrate (click on blue words for links to relevant videos) Classic Conditioning – Pavlov - In his famous experiment, Pavlov noticed dogs began to salivate in response to a tone after the sound had been repeatedly paired with the presentation of food. Pavlov quickly realized that this was a learned response and set out to further investigate the conditioning process.Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response.Watch video.Operant Conditioning – Skinner – Skinner extended the theory of classical conditioning. Operant conditioning focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behaviour. Through this process, an association is formed between the behaviour and the consequences for that behaviour. Skinner believed that most human behaviour is operant.Neutral Operants – responses from the environment that neither decrease or increase the probability of the behaviour being repeatedReinforcers – responses from the environment that increase the probability being repeatedPunishers – responses from the environment that decrease the probability being repeatedSkinner carried out experiments with animals (rats, pigeons) to test the theory of operant conditioning. Watch video. One of the simplest ways to remember the differences between classical and operant conditioning is to focus on whether the behavior is involuntary or voluntary. Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence.In operant conditioning, the learner is also rewarded with incentives, while classical conditioning involves no such enticements. Also remember that classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner, while operant conditioning requires the learner to actively participate and perform some type of action in order to be rewarded or punished.
  • Discuss in small groups and be prepared to share two ideas.Limitations:The behavioural approach is reductionist Ignores the importance of relationshipsBehaviourism is mechanistic and cannot explain human capacity for free will and achievement.Doesn’t deal with developmental aspects of learning
  • Bobo Doll Experiment Click on Bobo Doll in slide, or here: youtube video Bobo Doll Experiment was performed in 1961 by Albert Bandura, to try and add credence to his belief that all human behaviour was learned, through social imitation and copying, rather than inherited through genetic factors.The findings support Bandura's Social Learning Theory, a behaviourist theory. That is, children learn social behaviour such as aggression through the process of observation learning - through watching the behaviour of another person. Children who have been exposed to models of aggressive behaviour are more likely to imitate that aggressive behaviour than children who have not had observed this modelling.
  • Discuss in small groups and be prepared to share two ideas.
  • Getting up and moving….One side of the room will be AgreeThe opposite side of the room is DisagreeThe middle of the room is unsureThinking about the theories we have been discussing, ask the students to get up and stand in the appropriate place depending on whether they agree with the statement, disagree, or are unsure. Then ask some students to justify why they have chosen that spot. Statements:Using rewards such as stickers can motivate children to learn. Commenting on children who are working positively, rather than children who are displaying negative behaviour, is beneficial as children will copy the positive behaviour that is modelled by others. The behaviourist approach views learning as a passive processRote learning is a useful teaching strategyPunishment is an effective way to reduce negative behaviourAdults are important role models for children and so we need to be aware of our own behaviour at all times
  • Look at the notes that you made earlier in the session relating to your own learning experience. Consider the points that your group has noted about the key learning theories and the discussions we have had. Can you see any links? Has your understanding about learning been challenged? How?
  • Please remember to meet with your informal reading groups to discuss these ideas between sessions.
  • Theories of Learning 1

    1. 1. Education Studies 1: How Children Learn Session Two Semester One 2013 Key Learning Theories 1: Behaviourism Social Learning Theory
    2. 2. Today we are thinking about….. Setting Ground Rules Responses to pre-course task Key theories of learning;  Behaviourism  Social Learning Theory How theories of learning relate to practice
    3. 3. Ground Rules How can we all make sure that we make the most of these sessions?
    4. 4. Pre-course Task • Download, read and annotate the TLRP 10 Principles poster • What have you learnt from reading and reflecting upon this poster? • What further action would you like to take based on these principles?
    5. 5. I learn best when… I am not hungry! I have time to discuss ideas with others I am motivated by the subject I am taught by an enthusiastic and passionate teacher I am working in a small group I am working towards a set goal I am not just listening, but also doing I am given hands on, practical experiences I have opportunities to be creative I have positive relationships with my peers and teachers I have things to look at and listen to
    6. 6. Theories of learning Behaviourism Social Learning Theory Constructivism Social constructivism Big questions: How do children acquire knowledge? What is the adult’s role? What is the child’s role?
    7. 7. Time to reflect…. Think about a key learning experience you have had. What supported you in the learning process?
    8. 8. Now think about a child’s learning experiences. What would you say are the key elements which lead to learning for children?
    9. 9. Module Reading Expectations • Each week you will read, and make notes about, the ‘key’ readings as identified on your module programme • Your notes can be in any format that works for you: mind map, bullet points, written narrative summary etc.. • During your non-contact time you will meet with your informal reading group to discuss the readings you have engaged with • We will discuss the key readings in sessions
    10. 10. Reading Feedback In response to your reading, discuss these questions in your group: How might you define the ‘behaviourist’ view of learning? What beliefs did Skinner hold about teaching and learning? What are some of the criticisms of Skinner’s behaviourist theory in relation to teaching and learning?
    11. 11. Behaviourism Key Ideas Learning is a behaviour that is shaped by external stimuli Key Individuals Ivan Pavlov, B F Skinner Key Concepts Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Implications Praise / reward systems
    12. 12. Behaviourism (Skinner) How might this theory be usefully applied to classroom teaching? What might the limitations of such an approach to teaching and learning?
    13. 13. Social Learning Theory Key Ideas Behaviour is learned through observation Key Individuals Albert Bandura Key Concepts Children will imitate the social behaviours that they are exposed to Use of experiments to ‘test’ theories (Bobo Doll) Implications Teachers are influential role models for children Children imitating one another = need for positive role models
    14. 14. Social Learning Theory (Bandura) How might Social Learning Theory inform classroom practice? What might be the limitations of this theory?
    15. 15. Return to your initial ideas A key learning experience you have had. A child’s learning experiences. What can I add to my initial thoughts about learning? What have I taken from this session? How does the behaviourist perspective relate to my own experiences of learning?
    16. 16. For Next Time…. Focus: Key Learning Theories 2: Constructivist and Social Constructivist perspectives Reading: Edmond, N. & Evans, E. (2012) “Cognitive Development” in Edmond, N. & Price, M. (Eds) Integrated Working with Children and Young People, London: Sage Rodd, J. (1996) ‘What is Normal Behaviour’ in Understanding Young Children’s Behaviour, St Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin Questions: “Piaget believed that infants are born predisposed to adapt and learn from their environment” (Rodd, 1996, p.31). What does this mean? What is the zone of proximal development? How do the constructivist (Piaget) and social constructivist (Vygotsky/Bruner) perspectives differ?