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St...
EV402: Session 10
6th January 2014

POLICY &
PRESENTATION
SEMESTER ONE

Where we’ve been and where
we’re going

Play

Policy

Group Presentations
Session Overview
• Policy:
• What is policy?
• How does policy impact on me?
• Policy development
• Policy and education
•...
What is Policy?
What does policy
mean to you?
“The raft of laws and initiatives that determine the shape and
functioning o...
How does policy impact on me?
How does policy impact on me?
University
assessment policy

Website cookie
policies

Travel insurance
policy
How are policies developed?
Who decides what
the problem is?

Who decides
how to solve
the problem?
Policy and Politics
DEVELOPMENTS

POLITICAL
IDEOLOGIES
(ideas, beliefs
& values)

IN EDUCATION

Freedom for self developme...
Policy and Politics
Right Wing (Conservative)

Left Wing (Labour)

Key
beliefs

Traditional values

Markets and
individual...
Government
plans ‘primary
academies’

Longer Days and Shorter
Holidays for Pupils
Call to teach children atheism in schools
Schools to stay open from 8am to 6pm to offer childcare
under plan to get parent...
Policy and Politics
Right Wing (Conservative)

Left Wing (Labour)

Key
beliefs

Traditional values

Markets and
individual...
The Key Impacts of Policy on
Education
19451951

19511964

1944 Education
Act
Supported
tripartite system

1964-1970

1970...
Think and discuss:
What might a
school have
policies for?

School Policies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
...
School Policies … Part 2
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.

Force and Restraint Poli...
Why do schools have policies?
“This document is a statement of the principles,
practices and procedures that the school ha...
Why do schools have policies?
Reading & Implementing
Policy
•
•
•
•
•
•

Different understanding of documents based on own beliefs
Teachers not feeling ...
Presentation Skills
• What have been your good and bad experiences of hearing
other people make a presentation?
• What are...
So what makes a good
presenter and presentation?
Use your experiences of listening to other presenters, giving
presentatio...
Policy Presentation Task
1.

Draft Special Educational Needs Code of Practice
• Focus your reading on chapter 2 Summary. Y...
Policy Presentation Task
What are the key ideas that
you have learned from
reading the policy document?

• Who is it for?
...
Structuring Your Presentation
The
Presentation

7 Minutes
Questions &
Answers
2 minutes in
groups
1 minute to
ask/answer

...
Tutorials
• Presentations will be given on 20th January
• Next week (13th January): 15 minute group tutorial to support
un...
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Session 10 EV402 Policy

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Session 10 EV402 Policy

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  • Resources:PASS evaluation sheetsFlip chart or A3 paper (one per group)Marker pens (at least one per group)Set of newspaper headlines – one per groupCopies of policy documents might be usefulSheet for arranging tutorialsVideo clips used: Jackanory clip on slide 20 – click on image to start or enter URL (http://youtu.be/BRJ3F9ND2Wc) – has advert at beginning, so best to run prior to the session.Websites:University of Brighton policies: http://www.brighton.ac.uk/studentlife/studentadvice/regulations/Education in England timeline: http://www.educationengland.org.uk/history/timeline.html
  • Briefly recap what students have covered and what is left to cover in Semester One.Explain where Semester Two starts and reassure that assessment will be covered then.
  • What we are covering today.Session in two parts:A brief overview and look at policy to understand how policy may impact on their lives as teachers. (suggest 1hr, 15mins)A discussion of presentation skills to be implemented in their presentation task (suggest 45mins – video is 15 mins)
  • Before we can look at policy, we need to know what it is we are talking about. This isn’t the easiest question to answer as different people and groups use different definitions.Collect a few definitions of policy from the roomBring up definitions – these are various definitions of policy – and in the first one of educational policy specifically. The key idea is that a policy is something which intends to bring about a change in behaviours in order to achieve a desired outcome. It outlines how someone – or a group of people (for instance teachers) should act in given circumstances.Whilst there are different types of policy, impacting on different people and with different desired outcomes, these definitions hold across policy types.
  • Policy is not just about what happens in Westminster or in our schools.Policy impacts on many aspects of our lives – discuss pictures (Website cookie policies, Travel insurance,University policies, Facebook privacy)and what they represent:Why do these policies exist? – Use Uni of Brighton regulations as an example – click on picture to be taken directly to policies page (or: http://www.brighton.ac.uk/studentlife/studentadvice/regulations/)Who do they help?Who do they not help?Why might they have been written?How might they impact on our behaviour?
  • In groups: students to discuss the areas in which policy impacts on their lives. Feedback to the whole group, emphasising the extent to which policy does impact on their lives and will impact on their lives as teachers.Bring up two questions to extend discussion.Discuss range of responses and how they impact on behaviours.
  • We have looked at how policies may impact on many areas of our lives, but where do these policies actually come from? What is the process for writing a policy? Why are policies written?Talk through the policy development cycle, perhaps use the example of a behaviour policy in school as an example for what would happen at each stage.This makes the process look fairly simple, but there are issues to consider (whole group discussion):Who decides what the problem is? What might the issues be here?Who decides how to solve the problem? Again, what issues might arise?Bring out different levels of policy and how these will impact on who makes particular decisions.In education, one key policy level and policy decision maker is government level policy. But will all Governments see and define the same problems? Will they all support the same strategies for addressing these policies? May want to gather some thoughts here about the role of political views before moving on.
  • From previous slide, bring out that the perception of a problem and the best ways to tackle it will depend on peoples’ beliefs and values. Hence, policy development (and therefore changes in the education system) are highly political.Each political party will have its own ideologiesMajor left and right wing beliefs are very different ranging from freedom and expression on the left to discipline and order on the right.How might this impact on education policies? – What would a school and its curriculum look like if solely founded on Freedom / Discipline ideologies?Whilst ideology and the political context is particularly strong in educational change, there are also government responses to external events – as a nice example, it was the European ruling on Human Rights that led to corporal punishment being abolished rather than this being based on political ideology at the time.
  • Given this political basis, we see different aims and therefore policies based on the government in power, because different governments have different ideologies (values about what makes a good society).This table shows the key beliefs of the major political parties and how these translate into beliefs about appropriate education.Focus on the differences between the education policies. Class discussion (brief as lead into task): What are the students aware of in terms of recent government policy / suggested changes which reflect the ideological views coming through into education?Group Task: Separate out news headlines (from variety of newspapers 1995 – 2013) as originating from predominantly Left or Right wing ideologies.Headlines are separated out over the following two slides (right then left)What are the major differences?Were any hard to place? – why? (discuss for instance uni fees policy under Labour Gov and issues with school choice)
  • Right wing ideology based education policy / aims
  • Left wing ideology based education policy / aims
  • Following discussion of headlines, emphasis how this highlights the extent to which political ideologies influence what happens in education.Therefore, changes in Government, which we can see fairly regularly in England, lead to regular changes in education systems and the production of multiple new policies.
  • Look at changes in Government between 1940s and today. Given so many changes and differences in party ideologies it is not surprising we have seen so many key changes in education systems.This timeline shows just a few key changes – there are in fact hundreds:http://www.educationengland.org.uk/history/timeline.html (Click on link to show – students encouraged to access themselves as a useful resource setting out events and also with links to most of the documents mentioned)As such, it should come as no surprise that schools find it difficult to keep up with government policy changes and these changes impact significantly on your work as teachers.
  • So if policy changes impact on the lives of teachers, how do they do this? Further, the plethora of government level policy is by no means the only policy you will encounter within your careers as teachers. Everyday policy, as we looked at earlier, will also impact, but there will also be a raft of policies from a local level and drawn up within the school.You have previously looked at behaviour and discussed strategies for classroom organisation. It is important to note that whilst there will be some space for individual approaches, all schools should have a behaviour management policy and you will need to conform to this in your classroom management strategies.Schools will also, as we saw with the list of policies for this university, have multiple policies covering a range of issues. Discuss briefly what these might be.If time: students to discuss as a group the range of policies that might exist (e.g. curricular, welfare…) and how many policies a school might have – how many policies will impact on their future lives as a teacher?Reveal Woodlands Junior School Policies – this is just an example from a Google search; it has not been selected as an extreme example! And this is only page one – next slide is page two…
  • Having revealed all these policies, how do the students envisage various policies impacting on their lives as teachers?
  • We’ve seen that schools have a huge number of policies as well as having to respond to policy documents from higher levels.Why do schools go to the effort of writing so many policy documents – what purpose do they serve?Discuss behaviour policy as students have done work on behaviour management – what benefits does a behaviour policy serve? How does the policy achieve its stated aim? Are there any potential issues to be aware of?[Click] This is an example of a curriculum policy many schools will have – a calculation policy. Look through the aim given by the school. Why would a school need a calculation policy (be aware that students haven’t covered maths yet so may not be aware of the issues of calculation methods)?Policies of this type are written by the school to address an issue within the school. But levels of policy also interact – schools will write their own policy documents as a response to higher policy levels e.g. Government policy.
  • This is an example of a policy all schools will have in some form – a Special Needs Policy. Schools are required to have such a policy showing how they support the education of children with special educational needs and disabilities, and this example actually references Government legislation. [Click on page to bring up 1996 Education Act]What this and the previous slides have hopefully highlighted is that policy is going to be a major feature of the students’ lives, both as student teachers and in their subsequent careers.They need to be aware that policy will impact on them from different levels – from top level policies such as the National Curriculum to some of the smaller policies covering issues specific to the school, and the approaches of the school, in which they are working.
  • We have seen that schools and teachers are subject to a range of policies often with quite specifically stated aims. However, even with these policies in place, the stated aims are not always achieved. They may have outcomes that were not intended or foreseen.Whole group discussion: Why might policies not achieve their stated aim?The environments that policies seek to influence or manipulate are typically complex systems meaning a policy change can have counterintuitive results. Discuss the issues outlined here and add any others that students contribute.Given these issues with interpretation, it is unsurprising that policies are implemented differently in practice.This brings us to the presentation task where students will be involved in reading and interpreting a policy document.
  • Students will be giving a presentation based on a policy document they have been reading. We will talk more about this task towards the end of the session, but before that we’d like to look at presentation skills more generally. These can be applied to this presentation and to subsequent presentations students will be required to do – and to an extent to their work as teachers.Students will have experienced a range of presentations and presenters and may have given presentations themselves – discuss as a whole group what in their experience makes a good presentation / presenter and what does not.One form of presentation students will be engaged in as teachers is storytelling. This is a very specific type of presentation, but there are important issues to consider in storytelling which are just as relevant to any presentation including the presentations you will be giving.We’re going to watch someone engaged in storytelling. Whilst you are watching this I want you to pick out the features that you think makes the storytelling effective. Watch for the techniques that storyteller uses to engage the audience and how that storyteller presents themselves as well as the story. Write a list of the features you note and we will be using these in the next task.[Click on the Jackanory image to launch the clip – clip is about 14mins long – you may want to stop it before the end dependent on time]http://on.ted.com/RitaPierson
  • Group Task: [flip chart or A3 paper, one per group, marker pens] Students to produce a poster on flip chart paper identifying the key features of effective presenters and presentations.Feedback from these posters as a whole group, emphasising key features.Bring up completed diagram on screen [Click] – students should have identified these key features. Talk particularly through and emphasis the need to be prepared and to think about the structure of their presentation – they are telling a story.
  • You have been reading on of these policy documents as a group – ensure all groups know what document they have been reading!You task will be to present you policy document to the rest of the group, remembering that they will not have read the document.You will need to draw on the general issues associated with giving a presentation. But you will also need to consider some specific issues.
  • Go through what we want them to present – emphasise creativity in presentation methods – they can choose how they present – they do nothave to use PowerPoint![Click]Look at key points we will be looking for in their presentations – they should use this as a checklist when putting together their presentations.Discuss what preparation they need to do – emphasise what they will get out of the formative task if they put the work in
  • Explain purpose of tutorials and what they need to bring to them (notes on policy, key ideas, any questions).Remind that groups will need to meet before the tutorial to decide on the key points they will be presenting.Make a tutorial time for each group.
  • Cards to be cut for policy sorting task (mixed)
  • Cards to be cut for policy sorting task (mixed)
  • Session 10 EV402 Policy

    1. 1. Welcome Back: PASS Evaluations Please complete the PASS evaluation sheets on your tables (even if you didn’t use PASS). Stack your completed sheets in the centre of your table.
    2. 2. EV402: Session 10 6th January 2014 POLICY & PRESENTATION
    3. 3. SEMESTER ONE Where we’ve been and where we’re going Play Policy Group Presentations
    4. 4. Session Overview • Policy: • What is policy? • How does policy impact on me? • Policy development • Policy and education • Implementing policies • Presentation skills and task: • What makes a good presenter / presentation • Task and tutorials
    5. 5. What is Policy? What does policy mean to you? “The raft of laws and initiatives that determine the shape and functioning of educational systems at both national and local level” (Bates et al., 2011, p.54) Policy guides actions toward those that are most likely to achieve a desired outcome. Bates, J., Lewis, S., & Pickard, A. (2011). Education Policy, Practice and the Professional. London: Continuum A policy is a principle or protocol to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure.
    6. 6. How does policy impact on me?
    7. 7. How does policy impact on me? University assessment policy Website cookie policies Travel insurance policy
    8. 8. How are policies developed? Who decides what the problem is? Who decides how to solve the problem?
    9. 9. Policy and Politics DEVELOPMENTS POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES (ideas, beliefs & values) IN EDUCATION Freedom for self development (encourages exploration) Political parties have different beliefs Developments in the English education system are influenced by their political, social and economic context as well as external events Discipline and order (pupils subject to punishment and control) .
    10. 10. Policy and Politics Right Wing (Conservative) Left Wing (Labour) Key beliefs Traditional values Markets and individual freedom Opportunity / responsibility for all Social equality for all Education policy Discipline, ‘proper subjects’, traditional assessment Parental choice, league tables Choice of schools within a strong state framework Free comprehensive education system for all GROUP TASK: Can we see these ideological differences in Government educational policies? Sort the headlines into those reflecting left wing and those reflecting right wing ideologies.
    11. 11. Government plans ‘primary academies’ Longer Days and Shorter Holidays for Pupils
    12. 12. Call to teach children atheism in schools Schools to stay open from 8am to 6pm to offer childcare under plan to get parents back to work Comprehensive system is flawed, thinktank to be told Education Secretary today firmly rules out any return to selection at age 11
    13. 13. Policy and Politics Right Wing (Conservative) Left Wing (Labour) Key beliefs Traditional values Markets and individual freedom Opportunity / responsibility for all Social equality for all Education policy Discipline, ‘proper subjects’, traditional assessment Parental choice, league tables Choice of schools within a strong state framework Free comprehensive education system for all A change of government is likely to lead to an ideological shift, thus aspects of the education system are in a continual state of being ‘reformed’.
    14. 14. The Key Impacts of Policy on Education 19451951 19511964 1944 Education Act Supported tripartite system 1964-1970 19701974 Circular 10/65 LEAs convert to comprehensive system 19741979 1979-1997 1988 Education Reform Act First National Curriculum Introduction of league tables 1997-2010 1999 Introduction of National Numeracy and Literacy strategies Education in England: Timeline A chronological list of education acts, white papers, reports and other key events http://www.educationengland.org.uk/history/timeline.html 2010now New NC
    15. 15. Think and discuss: What might a school have policies for? School Policies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. After School Clubs Policy Art Policy Assessment Policy Attendance Policy Calculations Policy Curriculum Policy Design Technology Policy EAL (English as an Additional Language) Policy Educational Visits Policy English Policy E-safety Policy G&T (Gifted & Talented) Policy Geography Policy History Policy Home School Agreement Homework Policy ICT Policy Maths Policy MFL Policy 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. Monitoring & Evaluation Policy Music Policy Photos and Filming Policy Physical Education Policy PSHCE Policy RE Policy Science Policy Teaching and Learning Policy with Dyslexia Appendix Transition Policy Anaphylaxsis Policy Anti Bullying Policy Asthma Policy Behaviour Management Policy Bereavement Policy Diabetes Policy Drug Education and Incident Management Policy Fairness at Work Policy Food Policy
    16. 16. School Policies … Part 2 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. Force and Restraint Policy Health and Safety Policy Inclusion Policy Lone Working Policy Looked After Children Policy Medicines Policy Race Equality Policy Safeguarding Policy SEN Policy Sex and Relationships Education Policy Single Equality Action Plan Smoke Free Policy Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Policy Acceptable Use Policy Acts of Worship Policy Admissions Policy Anti-Litter Policy Appraisal Policy 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. Capability Procedure Policy Charging and Remissions Policy Communications Policy Community Cohesion Policy Complaints Policy Confidentiality Policy Continuing Professional Development Policy CRB Data Storage Policy Finance Policy Governor Allowance Policy Induction Policy KCC Swim Policy Lettings Policy Mobile Telephone Policy Pay & Reward Policy Performance Management Policy Safer Recruitment Policy Swim Policy Whistle Blowing Policy
    17. 17. Why do schools have policies? “This document is a statement of the principles, practices and procedures that the school has set in place in order to ensure a safe and caring environment for pupils and staff alike. The policy is set within the aims and values we teach.” “This policy contains the key pencil and paper procedures that are to be taught throughout the school. It has been written to ensure consistency and progression throughout the school.”
    18. 18. Why do schools have policies?
    19. 19. Reading & Implementing Policy • • • • • • Different understanding of documents based on own beliefs Teachers not feeling involved in policy development Time / perceived time Unwillingness to take on new behaviours / initiatives Lack of financial backing Incompatibility with the local context – policy not thought to work in practise • Lack of theoretical backing / belief policy will not work • Poor evaluation / management of adherence to the policy IMPLICATION: Two schools (or teachers) may interpret and implement a policy very differently
    20. 20. Presentation Skills • What have been your good and bad experiences of hearing other people make a presentation? • What are your good and bad experiences of making a presentation? • What have you learnt from these experiences? http://on.ted.com/RitaPierson • How does the presenter engage the audience? • How does she present herself? • How is interest added to the presentation?
    21. 21. So what makes a good presenter and presentation? Use your experiences of listening to other presenters, giving presentations, and anything you have learnt from the presentation clip to identify features of effective presenters and presentations. Make eye-contact Don’t apologise Talk to the audience – not to your notes or screen Speak slowly and loudly. Use an academic voice and consider your tone and grammar Preparation – prompt cards, rehearse Structure – introduction, main content, conclusion Pause and breath! Don’t hide or fiddle with hair, jewellery etc.
    22. 22. Policy Presentation Task 1. Draft Special Educational Needs Code of Practice • Focus your reading on chapter 2 Summary. You might then want to explore some of the chapters in more depth 2. Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage • Read all of this document 3. Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage 2012 • Focus your reading on Section 1: The learning and development requirements 4. The National Curriculum for England (2014): framework for key stages 1-4 • Read all of this summary document. You might then wish to explore the content of the new National Curriculum in further depth
    23. 23. Policy Presentation Task What are the key ideas that you have learned from reading the policy document? • Who is it for? • What are the aims? • Think of 5 ways it could impact on placement 1 • What 3 questions does it raise?
    24. 24. Structuring Your Presentation The Presentation 7 Minutes Questions & Answers 2 minutes in groups 1 minute to ask/answer • • • • Title Introduction Main Body Conclusion • Groups to formulate questions • Random groups chosen to ask questions Tell them what you’re going to tell them, tell them, tell them what you told
    25. 25. Tutorials • Presentations will be given on 20th January • Next week (13th January): 15 minute group tutorial to support understanding of policy documents and preparation of presentations – no taught session • Click on the link to sign up to a session

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