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Ev612 education futures - scheduled task 1

  1. 1. The Purpose of Education and Effective Teaching EV612 Educational Futures
  2. 2. Session Outline ● The purpose of education ● Perspectives on education ● Political Ideologies & Policy ● What is effective teaching? ● BREAKOUT GROUPS ● Trainee presentations
  3. 3. Learning Objectives To explore the aims and purpose of education in the 21st century To develop a critical understanding of the nature of effective teaching To examine how external strategies and policy impact on teacher identity, values and ideals.
  4. 4. Understanding ourselves as teachers Good teaching is charged with positive emotion. It is not just a matter of knowing one’s subject, being efficient, having the correct competencies, or learning all the right techniques. Good teachers are not just well-oiled machines. They are emotional, passionate being who connect with their students and fill their work and their classes with pleasure, creativity and joy. (Hargreaves 1998, pg 835)
  5. 5. Is there a place for ideals? Hansen, D. (2013) ‘The place of ideals in teaching’. In: Hare, W. & Portelli, J (Eds.) Philosophy of Education: introductory readings. Canada: Brush Education, pp. 55-66.
  6. 6. Padlet What is the purpose of education? Base this on your own ideals, values, academic reading, experience of practice and your own schooling.
  7. 7. Models of Education - Human Capital Theory Human capital theory considers education relevant in so far as education creates skills and helps to acquire knowledge that serves as an investment in the productivity of the human being as an economic production factor, that is, as a worker. Thus, education is important because it allows workers to be more productive, thereby being able to earn a higher wage. By regarding skills and knowledge as an investment in one’s labour productivity, economists can estimate the economic returns to education for different educational levels, types of education, etc. Robeyns, I. (2006). ‘Three models of education Rights, capabilities and human capital’. Theory and Research in Education, 4 (1), pp 69-84.
  8. 8. Models of Education - Human Rights Theory The rights-based framework submits that every human being, including every child, is entitled to decent education, even when one cannot be sure that this education will pay off in human capital terms. Robeyns, I. (2006). ‘Three models of education Rights, capabilities and human capital’. Theory and Research in Education, 4 (1), pp 69-84.
  9. 9. Models of Education - Capabilities approach Education is important in the capability approach for both intrinsic and instrumental reasons (Drèze and Sen, 2002; Unterhalter,2003b). Being knowl-edgeable and having access to an education that allows a person to flourish is generally argued to be a valuable capability Robeyns, I. (2006). ‘Three models of education Rights, capabilities and human capital’. Theory and Research in Education, 4 (1), pp 69-84.
  10. 10. Perspectives on Education Dewey (1859 – 1952) Schooling becomes ‘burdensome’ when dominated by ‘the river of facts and information that saturates the world’... the process of education calls on the learner to be active rather than passive. It ‘calls upon the students’ intellectual and reflective resources. Ideas emerge from... wrestling with conditions, circumstances, and situations and working one’s way forward.
  11. 11. Perspectives on Education Freire Education must begin with the solution of the student-teacher contradiction by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students.
  12. 12. Perspectives on Education Freire (1921 - 1952) advanced a conception of educational practice centred directly around dialogue between teachers; students... he advocated a genuinely communicative environment in the educational setting through which people can learn to think and act critically. Freire contrasted this with situations where facts and information are deposited in the minds of students without creating circumstances in which students feel empowered to raise questions.
  13. 13. Freire and the banking concept ‘Education thus becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositer….This is the ‘banking’ concepts of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing, and sorting the deposits’.
  14. 14. Perspectives on Education Ken Robinson Economic: "We expect education to facilitate growth and stimulate our economy, yet we are still operating under systems designed to support the Industrial Revolution." Cultural: "You need a broad curriculum, not just STEM, to be able to meet our cultural goals for education: tolerance, understanding, and a sense of identity." Social: You don't restore confidence in political processes simply by talking about them; you have to mirror democratic values within education. He added, "If you design a system of education on a very narrow conception of creativity and capability, don't be surprised if not many people benefit from or participate in it." Personal: For Robinson, this is the linchpin on which the economic, cultural, and social purposes of education rely. He argues that schools need a richer conception of ability so that all students can connect with their natural aptitudes and be in their element.
  15. 15. Perspectives on Education Ken Robinson To restore the personal, elemental aims of education, Robinson recommends several conditions: ● School culture should foster a sense of community, individuality, and possibility. ● Curriculum must be diverse, deep, and dynamic. ● Pedagogy should inspire and engage the imagination and creativity of students and create confidence in learning. ● Assessment should motivate students to achieve at high standards Sir Ken Robinson: Reclaiming the Elemental Purpose of Education
  16. 16. Coalition Government ‘Education provides a route to liberation from these imposed constraints. Education allows individuals to choose a fulfilling job, to shape the society around them, to enrich their inner life. It allows us all to become authors of our own life stories.’ (DfE White Paper 2010)
  17. 17. Philosophical Perspectives What is Education for? Social control or social justice? Status quo or societal change? Feed the economy or develop questioning minds?
  18. 18. Political Ideologies and policy Right Wing Left Wing Conservative Labour Ideology Neo-Conservative Neo-Liberal Social Democrat Socialist Key Beliefs Traditional values leading to a healthier, more stable society Market forces and individual freedom leading to greater economic efficiency Opportunity for all and responsibility for all. Societal equality for all. State ownership of major utilities and industries Education Policy Discipline, school uniform, ‘proper subjects’, traditional assessment Parental choice leading to competition between providers. League tables. Choice and variety of schools within a strong state framework. Free education provision. Abolition of public schools. A comprehensive education system for all. Adapted from earlier models by Trowler (2003) and Bates et al. (2011)
  19. 19. Effective teaching How do our ideals and beliefs on the real purpose of education translate into effective teaching?
  20. 20. Effective teaching
  21. 21. The 10 principles of effective teaching Principle 1 - Effective teaching equips learners for life in its broadest sense Principle 2 - Valued knowledge Principle 3 - Prior experience Principle 4 - Scaffold learning Principle 5 - Assessment for learning
  22. 22. The 10 principles of effective teaching Principle 6 - Active Engagement Principle 7 - Social Relationships Principle 8 - Informal learning Principle 9 - Teacher learning Principle 10 - Policy Frameworks
  23. 23. Breakout Groups Discuss: Research into Teacher Effectiveness: A Model of Teacher Effectiveness · How does this research on teacher effectiveness compare to your own understanding of effective teaching and learning? · Are there any external challenges that might impact on our capacity to be effective teachers? · How do our values and ideals contribute to our understanding of effective teaching and learning?

Editor's Notes

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    Throughout this module you will be encouraged to examine your own educational philosophy and some philosophies of influential thinkers in the field of education. What do you feel education is for? How does this compare to your peers and researchers in the field? How does this impact on teaching? You need to have a clear understanding of your educational philosophy because you will need to articulate this in your assignment task - work you do on this today will help shape this part of the assignment.
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    There are many reason for becoming a teacher. Research has show that primary teachers have a commitment to working with children whereas secondary have a passion to share their love for their subject.
    However, within all of this there is a well established theme that crosses all which of idealism and a moral purpose to make a contribution to the future of society.
    The values that we hold as teachers are important as they can help us with our struggles thoughout our career and challenging times. They can help us respond to external influences to be ‘creative mediators of policy’. We can also reflect on these and assess whether our values and philosophies are consistent with classroom practice.
    In contrast to other professions teaching is emotionally charged and value laden. Teachers often have intense feeling and Hargreaves states that teachers often don’t just see their role as duty and responsibility but filled with positive emotion.

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    Can we have a discussion here? Would be good to get student view point on how their ideals are challenged in context.

    Every educator draws upon a mix of learning theories and educational ideals that act as their foundations and moral compass for working within this field (Moore, 2006: Hansen, 2013). It is perhaps curious to some that many of us practice according to these values with ‘little explicit knowledge of ideas of theorists of teaching and learning’ (Moore, 2006, p2). Curious, yes, surprising, perhaps not. These educational ideals can be transient and dependent on context, determined by experience and academic engagement.

    Give example of changes in views - Sheridan could share hers on working class - opposite to Lis and middles class human capital theory - conservative discourse.
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    Robeyn argues that this model of education makes an important point - skills and knowledge, acquired through education are important for future income generation.

    However, there are issues with this model - it is economistic, the only benefits from education that are considered are an increased productivity and a higher wage. It’s only focu is contemporary main-stream economics, a discipline that has increasingly blocked out the cultural, social and non-material dimensions of life. Indeed, it cannot satisfactorily deal with
    issues of culture, gender, identity, emotions, history.

    In this model education is external to the child and the child is an object to be fashioned by the state.
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    In contrast to human capital, are rights based approaches - now increasingly influential. These are interested in rights to education, rights in education and rights through education. It is the realisation of fundamental human rights. These include the enactment of negative rights such as protection from abuse, as well as positive rights , for example celebration and nurturing of learner creativity, use of local languages in schools and pupil participation in democratic structures and debate.

    There are issues with this theory that it appears to be too theoretical. Some governments of developing countries have
    legally granted every child a right to education, but still millions of the children in their countries have no education at all, or might be officially enrolled but are not present in schools, or are present in schools where there
    are no teachers.
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    Sen argues that a good and just society should expand people’s capabilities, but should not channel them into particular roles or industries.. In principle, people’s capabilities refer to moral concern not economically rewarding outcomes. Individuals should have the capability to hold jobs, but they should be able to make decisions themselves about whether to hold jobs or not.

    The capabilities approach imply the freedom and opportunity for an individual to convert whatever resources she may have at her disposal into achievements or outcomes of different kinds.

    However, there are economic implications to this model and it is important to ask the question of who will pay for these privileges?
  • S - children learning through experience
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    Paulo’s Freire,( a Brazilian philosopher and educator) voice is a treasure one? See what you think. HIs work grew from experiencing and seeing domination and exploitation of certain classes within Brazil and his most famous work is ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed’. HIs work focuses on social hope, something that Fisherman and Mccarthy say we may need in our practice to be both effective and full hearted.
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    Paulo’s Freire,( a Brazilian philosopher and educator) voice is a treasure one? See what you think. HIs work grew from experiencing and seeing domination and exploitation of certain classes within Brazil and his most famous work is ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed’. HIs work focuses on social hope, something that Fisherman and Mccarthy in the book ethical visions in education we may need in our practice to be both effective and full hearted. He contrasted his ideas to the banking concept of education - see next slide
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    traditonal instruction- formal where the teacher is seen as the one with power and transmits the knowledge.
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    "Politicians talk about getting back to basics as a finite set of disciplines, but the basics of education are really a set of purposes—why are we doing this in the first place?," Robinson asked. He outlined four major purposes for education and the challenges to realizing these purposes in the current state of industrialized education:
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    Studies have shown that Social equality no more equal than before the education reforms in the 1980 - in Ball New Class inequalities in Education. Research carried out by Sutton trust
    Focus on performativity - commodifies students
    Teachers feeling that their ‘value replaces their values’ - conflict.
    Middle class competitive advantage - cultural capital - being able to buy in.
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  • These 10 principle were conceptualised by the UK’s T&L research prog 200-12 by reviewing the outcome of many research projects.
    They are evidence informed. Not seeking to tell teachers what to do but are intended as a guide to support teachers in making professional judgements. Its a supplement and not a quick fix.

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    Principle 1 - Commitment to broad education objectives has existed for many years but these have been eroded due to emphasis on assessment and accountability. Gove’s statement as we have discussed shows a strong commitment to opportunity but is it just rhetoric? Education can make a enormous difference to lives and teaching has a moral purpose this is why education for life is so important.
    Principle 2 - Teachers require a good understanding of the subjects they teach and the best way to teach these subjects - called pedagogical content knowledge. How you teach plus also the principles that underpin it
    Principle 3 - To challenge assumptions of teachers and pupils - eg inclusive practice.. Helping SEND - not just about getting through the curriculum but securing understanding and helping with difficulties. TAking into account the personal and cultural experiences of learners. Children do not arrive at school as empty vessels. Challenging misconceptions.
    Principle 4 - Vygotsky - AFL, feedback and role of more expert other
    Principle 5 - Assessment should advance learning as well as measure it. - Black and Williams - assessment for learning can leadr to improved learning and achievement - 1. Developing classroom talk and questioning 2. Appropriate feedback 3. sharing criteria for quality 4. Peer and self assessment
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    Principle 6 - The projects researched for this review emphasised the importance of developing active engagement, positive learning dispositions, self-confidence and learning awareness. However, some teachers find this a difficult as national requirements and prescriptions over curriculum, assessment and pedagogy so much so that motivation and engagement of under-performing learners has become an increasingly pressing contemporary issue. Active engagement in learning has been discussed and research by Guy Claxton, Carol Dweck and Jon Hatte.
    Principle 7 - Learning is a social as well as an individual activity. Good relationships are important - t-p and p-p - respect encouraged.Research has confirmed that pupils who are able to work well in groups made gains in other areas of their learning and understanding. This principle is also concerned with consulting learners and asking them to reflect on classroom practises and experiences - encourages engagement, gives teachers a deeper insight into pupils learning preferences. About listening
    Principle 8 - This principle discusses how social and cultural dimensions impact on learning. It discusses how the home-school environment can compliment each other rather than viewing schools’ as islands, loosely connected with society’. Robertson and DAle (2009) conclude ‘maybe it is time to consider young people’s out of school knowledge and cultures not as distractions from the main business of schooling, but as rich, complex, diverse and powerful sources for learning and as an important place to start in designing education for the 21 century. (p176)
    Principle 9 - Encourages the principle that as teachers we need to learn continuously to develop our knowledge and skills and to adapt . We need to be reflective in order to enhance our effectiveness in supporting our pupils.
    Principle 10 - Effective teaching and learning should be the focus of all policy at all levels. This does cause dilemmas from head teachers and leaders in schools seeing themselves as compliant to subversive…...