EV402 Session 7 Introducing Assessment


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EV402 Session 7 Introducing Assessment

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  • Make accurate and productive use of assessment. T5.
  • Students to use the questions on the slide to shape discussion about assessment for learning and establishing understandingTake feedback from groups and extend discussion of Clarke quote to consider: classroom culture: a transformation of practice: teacher role moving from controller to facilitator/coordinator
  • When we hear the term ’assessment’, we often think of exams, tests, marks, stress and pass or fail. It is easy to view it as an end product that is separate from the learning and teaching process. This, however, is only one type of assessment: assessment of learning (summative assessment). It takes place after the learning and tells us what has been achieved. Assessment cantake many forms and can be used for many purposes What can you remember about if from your learning experiences? Was is something done to you and you saw no real benefit from it or something that you could use to take your learning forward. What feelings do you associate with assessment?NutbrownThree different purposes for assessment- different tools for different purposes – Af Teaching and learning- the process of identifying the details of children’s knowledge skills and understanding to build a detailed picture of the child’s development and subsequent learning needs, Af management and accountability (baseline and value added)Af Research
  • Critique methods with talk partners and feedback.Is a formative and summative?What are the benefits?What are the drawbacks?Breaks down into 2 broad types: summative (assessment of learning) and formative (assessment for learning)Discuss with the person next to you which are formative and which are summative
  • Rationale and Overview Assessment for Learning is based on extensive research conducted by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam. In their 1998 study Inside the Black Box, they refined the term ‘formative assessment’ by emphasising that assessment is only formative when: it is an integral part of the learning and teaching process; and assessment evidence is actually used to: – modify teaching to meet the needs of pupils; and – improve learning. Unlike summative assessment, AfL is conducted during day-to-day classroom practice and takes place during learning. It also gives pupils an active role in the assessment process. Pupils work with the teacher to determine what is being learned and to identify what the next steps should be. Both parties then use the feedback (which includes information on how the pupils are learning, their progress, the nature of their understanding and the difficulties they are having) to improve the learning. This emphasis on the pupils’ role in the learning process is founded upon the constructivist view of learning, which says: however neatly we may design, package and deliver learning experiences, in the end learning is a process that is instigated and managed by the learner. It’s the learner who constructs the learning.
  • AfL requires the application of specific elements to produce the desired results. These elements are : learning intentions and success criteria – so that pupils understand whatthey are trying to learn, why and what is expected of them;questioning – to create a classroom climate where pupils come up withtheir own ideas, think aloud and explore their understanding;peer and self-assessment and self-evaluation – to enable them torecognise success in their own and others’ work and to focus on how they are doingfeedback – about the quality of their work and what they can do to make itbetter; learning as well as what they are learning.
  • Why introduce AfL in your classroom?It improves performanceIt increases learning independence It improves morale, motivation and risk takingIt enhances relationships and reflectionIt improves planning and delivery of learning.
  • These elements have most value when they are seen as integrated and mutually supportive of the process of learning rather than having discrete effects. The diagram below illustrates how these elements can be an integral, embedded part of the learning-teaching-assessment cycle. Afl as integral to driving the teaching and learning cycle (slide)Observation is a key element of this process.Pip to reference
  • ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING: A CULTURAL SHIFT IN PEDAGOGY:Explore this further with Hall and Burke quote (slide) andComparison of pupil and teacher perspectives from Clarke:The balance of classroom talk shifting away from teacher dominanceThe need for teachers to observe, listen and reflect moreA learning culture rather than a performance cultureRelationships and talk are central
  • ACTIVITY TO EXPLORE SELF AND PEER EVALUATION:Students to work in pairs and label each other A or B. Student A will choose a ‘flanimal’ from the sheet and without showing it to student B, will describe the flanimal for B to draw. Instructions must be clear and easy to follow.LO: to give clear instructions/to listen carefully5 minute time limit to complete. Drawer will give formative positive feedback to the instructor at the endFeedbackFeedback on feedback: was it formative? Was it respectful and positive? Would it move learning forward?Self-evaluate performance in roles
  • ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING IN ACTION: (slide)a. Introduce the audit grid. Students to watch the film closely identifying and noting examples of AfL strategieson the gridb. Talk partners (someone you haven’t worked with?) to discuss what students saw and notedc. Think about this morning’s session so far – have assessment for learning methods been used? Note down examples …. and continue to do so...
  • TALK AS MEDIUM FOR LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT: (the ‘petrol in the engine’!)What kinds of talk did we see being used in the film? Think, pair, shareCritical that we are aware of different purposes of talkQuality of questioning vital within the assessment for learning culture Consider the difference between ‘fat’ and ‘thin’ questions (from Harrison and Howard’s ‘Inside the Primary Black Box’)
  • http://www.teachersmedia.co.uk/videos/hot-research-questions
  • Give and gatherexamples
  • A ‘FAT’ QUESTION: (slide) Is assessment for learning possible without good behaviour management?
  • EV402 Session 7 Introducing Assessment

    2. 2. LEARNING INTENTIONS: To understand the role and purpose of assessment in classroom learning To identify the differences between summative and formative assessment To consider the roles of teacher and learner in assessment for learning
    3. 3. READING… ASSESSMENT Clarke, S. (2005) „Defining formative assessment‟, in Formative Assessment in Action. Weaving the elements together, London: Hodder Murray Nutbrown, C. (2006) „Assessment for learning‟, in Threads of Thinking: Young Children Learning and the Role of Early Education, (3rd ed), London, Sage What is your understanding of „assessment for learning‟ as explored by Cathy Nutbrown? What are some of the key elements of formative assessment? What might this look like in the classroom?
    4. 4. WHAT IS ... ‘ASSESSMENT’?
    5. 5. ASSESSMENT IS . . . • • Assessment foci built into plans/units/schemes of work • • Praise / well done/rewards /celebrations • Verbal feedback to children • Written feedback to children / „Marking‟/comments on work • Tests • Questions • Talk for learning e.g. TPS, lolly sticks • • • • • • • On the hoof records Formalised records e.g. guided reading Thumbs up and traffic lights Criteria for self and peer assessment Plenaries Reports Parent conferences APP (Assessing Pupil Progress frameworks) and moderating Checklists
    6. 6. WHO IS IT FOR? Who? How? Child To ensure they are making progress Family For home/school liaison, HLE Teacher To reflect on intervention, planning, resources etc Government/LA accountability
    7. 7. FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT “If we think of our children as plants…summative assessment of the plants is the process of simply measuring them. The measurements might be interesting to compare and analyse, but in themselves, they do not affect the growth of the plant. Formative assessment , on the other hand, is the garden equivalent of feeding and watering the plants – directly affecting their growth. Formative assessment describes the process of teaching and leaning, whereas summative assessment takes place after the teaching and learning.” (Clarke, 2001)
    8. 8. WHAT IS AFL? “Assessment for learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there”. (Assessment Reform Group, 2002)
    9. 9. ELEMENTS OF AFL • Sharing learning intentions and success criteria • Effective questioning • Self and peer evaluation • Effective feedback
    10. 10. THE AIMS OF AFL • every child knows how they are doing, and understands what they need to do to improve and how to get there. They get the support they need to be motivated, independent learners on an ambitious trajectory of improvement; • every teacher is equipped to make well-founded judgements about pupils’ attainment, understands the concepts and principles of progression, and knows how to use their assessment judgements to forward plan, particularly for pupils who are not fulfilling their potential; • every school has in place structured and systematic assessment systems for making regular, useful, manageable and accurate assessments of pupils, and for tracking their progress; • every parent and carer knows how their child is doing, what they need to do to improve, and how they can support the child and their teachers. (The Assessment for Learning Strategy, 2008)
    11. 11. A DEMOCRATIC COMMUNITY .... „Everyone has a contribution to make: authority for constructed knowledge does not lie solely with the teacher or in a text – it resides also with the learners, their relationship with each other and the activities they are engaged in, plus the way they are expected to view these activities.‟ (Hall and Burke, in Clarke (2005))
    12. 12. A CLASSROOM CONTRACT… PUPIL PERSPECTIVE TEACHER PERSPECTIVE Self & peer evaluation Planning lessons which explore and promote learning Talk partners Being allowed to think about and articulate ideas and opinions Making decisions and choices Feeling confident to question, challenge and seek help Sharing learning goals Negotiating success criteria Planning questions which further learning Using strategies which maximise pupil thinking and articulation Modelling ideas by using real examples
    15. 15. DIFFERENT TYPES OF TALK … Harrison, C. & Howard, S. (2009) ‘Inside the Primary Black Box’ • Rote – drilling of facts • Recitation – questions designed to elicit answers from clues in the question • Instruction – giving information • Discussion – exchange of ideas with a view to sharing information • Dialogue – seeking common understanding through questioning and discussion to acquire new concepts
    17. 17. QUESTIONING SKILLS • sequencing • pitching appropriately • distributing questions around the class • prompting and probing • listening and responding in a positive way • challenging right as well as wrong or underdeveloped answers; • using written questions effectively
    18. 18. OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS INVITE CHILDREN TO THINK: 'What do you think ...?' · 'How do you know ...?' · 'Do you have a reason ...?' · 'How can you be sure ...?' · „ Is this always so ...?' · 'Is there another way/reason/idea ...?' · 'What if ...? / What if ... does not ...?' · 'Where is there another example of this ...?' · 'What do you think happens next?' (In „Tell Me‟, A. Chambers promotes the use of „What if .....‟ questions)
    19. 19. ‘FAT’ NOT ‘SKINNY’ QUESTIONS If Red Riding Hood‟s grandmother had been out, what might the wolf have done? If you keep a drink with ice cubes in a thermos flask, how much room do you need to leave for the ice cubes to melt? How many ways can I make 10? A church is like a school because...? (Harrison, C. & Howard, S. (2009) „Inside the Primary Black Box‟)
    20. 20. INCREASING ‘WAIT TIME’ TO 3-5 SECONDS: • Children give longer answers • More children offer answers • Children are willing to ask more questions • Pupil responses become more thoughtful and creative
    21. 21. A ‘FAT’ QUESTION .... Is assessment for learning possible without good behaviour management?
    22. 22. FOR NEXT TIME…. Focus: Classroom organisation and management in the early years Reading: Nutbrown, C. and Clough, P. (2006) „Cultures of Inclusion‟ in Nutbrown, C., Clough, P. and Atherton, F. (eds) Inclusion in the Early years, London: Sage. Robson, S. (2009) „The physical environment‟, in Miller, L., Cable, C., and Goodliff, G. (eds) Supporting Children’s Learning in the Early Years (2nd ed), London, Routledge. Questions: What is your understanding of the term „inclusion‟? What does an „enabling environment‟ look like in the early years?