Make accurate and productive use of assessment. T5.
Students to use the questions on the slide to shape discussion about assessment for learning and establishing understandingTake feedback from groups and extend discussion of Clarke quote to consider: classroom culture: a transformation of practice: teacher role moving from controller to facilitator/coordinator
When we hear the term ’assessment’, we often think of exams, tests, marks, stress and pass or fail. It is easy to view it as an end product that is separate from the learning and teaching process. This, however, is only one type of assessment: assessment of learning (summative assessment). It takes place after the learning and tells us what has been achieved. Assessment cantake many forms and can be used for many purposes What can you remember about if from your learning experiences? Was is something done to you and you saw no real benefit from it or something that you could use to take your learning forward. What feelings do you associate with assessment?NutbrownThree different purposes for assessment- different tools for different purposes – Af Teaching and learning- the process of identifying the details of children’s knowledge skills and understanding to build a detailed picture of the child’s development and subsequent learning needs, Af management and accountability (baseline and value added)Af Research
Critique methods with talk partners and feedback.Is a formative and summative?What are the benefits?What are the drawbacks?Breaks down into 2 broad types: summative (assessment of learning) and formative (assessment for learning)Discuss with the person next to you which are formative and which are summative
Rationale and Overview Assessment for Learning is based on extensive research conducted by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam. In their 1998 study Inside the Black Box, they refined the term ‘formative assessment’ by emphasising that assessment is only formative when: it is an integral part of the learning and teaching process; and assessment evidence is actually used to: – modify teaching to meet the needs of pupils; and – improve learning. Unlike summative assessment, AfL is conducted during day-to-day classroom practice and takes place during learning. It also gives pupils an active role in the assessment process. Pupils work with the teacher to determine what is being learned and to identify what the next steps should be. Both parties then use the feedback (which includes information on how the pupils are learning, their progress, the nature of their understanding and the difficulties they are having) to improve the learning. This emphasis on the pupils’ role in the learning process is founded upon the constructivist view of learning, which says: however neatly we may design, package and deliver learning experiences, in the end learning is a process that is instigated and managed by the learner. It’s the learner who constructs the learning.
AfL requires the application of specific elements to produce the desired results. These elements are : learning intentions and success criteria – so that pupils understand whatthey are trying to learn, why and what is expected of them;questioning – to create a classroom climate where pupils come up withtheir own ideas, think aloud and explore their understanding;peer and self-assessment and self-evaluation – to enable them torecognise success in their own and others’ work and to focus on how they are doingfeedback – about the quality of their work and what they can do to make itbetter; learning as well as what they are learning.
Why introduce AfL in your classroom?It improves performanceIt increases learning independence It improves morale, motivation and risk takingIt enhances relationships and reflectionIt improves planning and delivery of learning.
These elements have most value when they are seen as integrated and mutually supportive of the process of learning rather than having discrete effects. The diagram below illustrates how these elements can be an integral, embedded part of the learning-teaching-assessment cycle. Afl as integral to driving the teaching and learning cycle (slide)Observation is a key element of this process.Pip to reference
ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING: A CULTURAL SHIFT IN PEDAGOGY:Explore this further with Hall and Burke quote (slide) andComparison of pupil and teacher perspectives from Clarke:The balance of classroom talk shifting away from teacher dominanceThe need for teachers to observe, listen and reflect moreA learning culture rather than a performance cultureRelationships and talk are central
ACTIVITY TO EXPLORE SELF AND PEER EVALUATION:Students to work in pairs and label each other A or B. Student A will choose a ‘flanimal’ from the sheet and without showing it to student B, will describe the flanimal for B to draw. Instructions must be clear and easy to follow.LO: to give clear instructions/to listen carefully5 minute time limit to complete. Drawer will give formative positive feedback to the instructor at the endFeedbackFeedback on feedback: was it formative? Was it respectful and positive? Would it move learning forward?Self-evaluate performance in roles
ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING IN ACTION: (slide)a. Introduce the audit grid. Students to watch the film closely identifying and noting examples of AfL strategieson the gridb. Talk partners (someone you haven’t worked with?) to discuss what students saw and notedc. Think about this morning’s session so far – have assessment for learning methods been used? Note down examples …. and continue to do so...
TALK AS MEDIUM FOR LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT: (the ‘petrol in the engine’!)What kinds of talk did we see being used in the film? Think, pair, shareCritical that we are aware of different purposes of talkQuality of questioning vital within the assessment for learning culture Consider the difference between ‘fat’ and ‘thin’ questions (from Harrison and Howard’s ‘Inside the Primary Black Box’)
A ‘FAT’ QUESTION: (slide) Is assessment for learning possible without good behaviour management?
EV402 Session 7 Introducing Assessment
To understand the role and purpose of
assessment in classroom learning
To identify the differences between
summative and formative assessment
To consider the roles of teacher and learner
in assessment for learning
Clarke, S. (2005) „Defining formative assessment‟, in Formative
Assessment in Action. Weaving the elements together, London:
Nutbrown, C. (2006) „Assessment for learning‟, in Threads of
Thinking: Young Children Learning and the Role of Early
Education, (3rd ed), London, Sage
What is your understanding of „assessment for learning‟ as
explored by Cathy Nutbrown?
What are some of the key elements of formative assessment?
What might this look like in the classroom?
ASSESSMENT IS . . .
Assessment foci built into
plans/units/schemes of work •
Praise / well done/rewards
Verbal feedback to children
Written feedback to children
/ „Marking‟/comments on
Talk for learning e.g.
TPS, lolly sticks
On the hoof records
Formalised records e.g.
Thumbs up and traffic lights
Criteria for self and peer
APP (Assessing Pupil
Progress frameworks) and
WHO IS IT FOR?
To ensure they are making progress
For home/school liaison, HLE
To reflect on intervention, planning, resources etc
“If we think of our children as plants…summative assessment
of the plants is the process of simply measuring them. The
measurements might be interesting to compare and analyse,
but in themselves, they do not affect the growth of the plant.
Formative assessment , on the other hand, is the garden
equivalent of feeding and watering the plants – directly
affecting their growth.
Formative assessment describes the process of teaching and
leaning, whereas summative assessment takes place after the
teaching and learning.”
WHAT IS AFL?
“Assessment for learning is the process of
seeking and interpreting evidence for use
by learners and their teachers to decide
where the learners are in their learning,
where they need to go and how best to get
(Assessment Reform Group, 2002)
ELEMENTS OF AFL
• Sharing learning intentions and success criteria
• Effective questioning
• Self and peer evaluation
• Effective feedback
THE AIMS OF AFL
every child knows how they are doing, and understands what
they need to do to improve and how to get there. They get the
support they need to be motivated, independent learners on an
ambitious trajectory of improvement;
every teacher is equipped to make well-founded judgements
about pupils’ attainment, understands the concepts and principles
of progression, and knows how to use their assessment
judgements to forward plan, particularly for pupils who are not
fulfilling their potential;
every school has in place structured and systematic assessment
systems for making regular, useful, manageable and accurate
assessments of pupils, and for tracking their progress;
every parent and carer knows how their child is doing, what they
need to do to improve, and how they can support the child and
(The Assessment for Learning Strategy, 2008)
A DEMOCRATIC COMMUNITY ....
„Everyone has a contribution to make:
authority for constructed knowledge
does not lie solely with the teacher or
in a text – it resides also with the
learners, their relationship with each
other and the activities they are
engaged in, plus the way they are
expected to view these activities.‟
(Hall and Burke, in Clarke (2005))
A CLASSROOM CONTRACT…
Self & peer evaluation
Planning lessons which explore
and promote learning
Being allowed to think about
and articulate ideas and
Making decisions and choices
Feeling confident to
question, challenge and seek
Sharing learning goals
Negotiating success criteria
Planning questions which further
Using strategies which maximise
pupil thinking and articulation
Modelling ideas by using real
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
Harrison, C. &
Howard, S. (2009)
‘Inside the Primary
• Rote – drilling of facts
• Recitation – questions designed to
elicit answers from clues in the
• Instruction – giving information
• Discussion – exchange of ideas with
a view to sharing information
• Dialogue – seeking common
understanding through questioning
and discussion to acquire new
distributing questions around the class
prompting and probing
listening and responding in a positive way
challenging right as well as wrong or
using written questions effectively
OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS INVITE
CHILDREN TO THINK:
'What do you think ...?' ·
'How do you know ...?' ·
'Do you have a reason ...?' ·
'How can you be sure ...?' · „
Is this always so ...?' ·
'Is there another way/reason/idea ...?' ·
'What if ...? / What if ... does not ...?' ·
'Where is there another example of this ...?' ·
'What do you think happens next?'
(In „Tell Me‟, A. Chambers promotes the use of „What if
‘FAT’ NOT ‘SKINNY’
If Red Riding Hood‟s grandmother had been
out, what might the wolf have done?
If you keep a drink with ice cubes in a thermos
flask, how much room do you need to leave for
the ice cubes to melt?
How many ways can I make 10?
A church is like a school because...?
(Harrison, C. & Howard, S. (2009) „Inside the Primary Black Box‟)
INCREASING ‘WAIT TIME’
TO 3-5 SECONDS:
• Children give longer answers
• More children offer answers
• Children are willing to ask more questions
• Pupil responses become more thoughtful and
A ‘FAT’ QUESTION ....
Is assessment for learning possible
without good behaviour management?
FOR NEXT TIME….
Focus: Classroom organisation and management in
the early years
Nutbrown, C. and Clough, P. (2006) „Cultures of Inclusion‟ in
Nutbrown, C., Clough, P. and Atherton, F. (eds) Inclusion in the Early
years, London: Sage.
Robson, S. (2009) „The physical environment‟, in Miller, L., Cable, C., and
Goodliff, G. (eds) Supporting Children’s Learning in the Early Years (2nd
ed), London, Routledge.
What is your understanding of the term „inclusion‟?
What does an „enabling environment‟ look like in the early years?