Ei505 Session 1


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EI505 - Session 1

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  • Highlight the focus on computer science in the new curriculumStatutory from September 2014Old curriculum was created in 19993 mins
  • This slide highlights the aims we’ll be focusing on in the session (i.e. aims 1 and 2)Reassure students that we’ll be starting to unpack some of the terminology used here (e.g. abstraction, logic, algorithms)Explain that aims 3 and 4 are particularly relevant to the development of children’s broader digital literacy3 mins
  • Algorithms: a useful definition for KS1 is “a sequence of clear (precise/unambiguous) instructions to achieve a specific outcome”. At KS1 an algorithm can be thought of as being like a recipe. If the algorithm has been logically developed then the outcome should be predictable.Bebug: identify and correct errors in programs.Explain that we’ll be exploring sequence, selection and repetition during the session (and in their follow-up task).3 mins
  • Algorithms: a useful definition for KS1 is “a sequence of clear (precise/unambiguous) instructions to achieve a specific outcome”. At KS1 an algorithm can be thought of as being like a recipe. If the algorithm has been logically developed then the outcome should be predictable.Bebug: identify and correct errors in programs.Explain that we’ll be exploring elements of sequence, selection and repetition during the session (and in their follow-up task).3 mins
  • There is more focus on IT & CSUse car analogy – CS is understanding how the car works, looking under the bonnet, IT/DL are how to to drive, and the eSafety element comes in with how to drive it safely.Q: Do you have an understanding of how technology works?Q: Have you been taught it?Q: How will you teach it?What are we aiming for?Think about teaching Computing in a way that we teach other subjects, particularly science. Use investigation, experimentation, problem solving, learning the ‘craft’ of coding, , planning, writing, testing, debugging. Enable children to develop computational thinking.What do we want children to be?We want children to be capable users and producers, digitally literate, digital citizens.
  • Well it is a collection of diverse skills to do with problem solving that result from studying the nature of computation. It includes some obviously important skills that most subjects help develop,like:creativity,ability to explainteam work IIt also consists of some very specific problem solving skills such as the ability to: think logicallythinkalgorithmically and recursivelyIt is also about understanding people. Computer Science is unique in the way it brings all these diverse skills together.
  • Computer scientists differ as to which skills and techniques are part of computational thinking. However most will agree on a core set of skills and understanding which include generalisation, abstraction, decomposition and algorithm design. Being able to think like a computer in sequence, selection and repetition is also often included. I would argue that most of the terms we have included here are part of computational thinking.AlgorithmWe all use algorithms all the time but often don't recognise them as such. The order we dress and wash could be described as a getting up algorithm. Posting a letter, dance steps, making a sandwich or preparing a cup of tea are other common algorithms. In fact we all use algorithms every day of our lives. The important task for budding computer scientists is to break the steps of any algorithm up into the smallest possible steps that could be repeated by someone else or a computer.DecomposingIn a software company this allows different teams of people to work on the same overall project at the same time. For junior computer scientists this might be analysing someone elses program to determine the different problems that they have had to solve to complete the whole or it might involve breaking their own programming project into manageable chucks that they are able to create piece by piece. AbstractionIf you ask pupils how they get to school they will say. I get up, have breakfast and travel to school. This is an abstraction as each one of these tasks is in fact a much more complex algorithm of precise instructions. Getting up involves a mechanism for waking up, getting out of bed and getting washed and changed. These are still abstractions. A getting out of bed algorithm may involve pulling back the covers, rotating the body so the feet are over the floor on a specific side of the bed. Lowering the feet to the floor and then pushing with the hands on the bed to lever the body upright.
  • - Explain that Scratch 2.0 runs in a browser so no need to install anythingGive a brief tour of the Scratch 2.0 interface (the pic in the slide is hyperlinked to the Scratch site), including a very brief tour of the block toolboxShow where to sign up to community (would be helpful to briefly show your own community profile so they can see how the community works)5 mins
  • Show how Scratch uses simple blocks (like LEGO) that can be snapped together to create sequences of instructions (these are called ‘scripts’)SequenceA sequence is a set of actions or events that must be carried out in the same order every time. Along with selection and repetition it is one of the three basic logical structures used by algorithms and programming.Show how you can have multiple ‘scripts’ in Scratch and that these can run parallel to each otherExplain that the scripts are attached to specific sprites or to the backgroundExplain that a script will only run if it begins with an Event block5 mins
  • Show how to use a forever block to make a sequence repeat endlessly when the green flag is clickedYou might want to show other examples of repetition (loops) but it might be best to keep things really simple at this stageRepetition (loop)Repetition refers to sections of code or algorithmic instructions that are repeated. There are different types of loop. The most basic is where a set of instructions in repeated a set number of times (repeat 4 [fd 100 rt 90]). Another type of loop repeats continuously until an escape clause is met. When loops are combined with variables the sets of instructions can be adapted in every repetition. Along with sequence and selection it is one of the three basic structures used by algorithms and programming.5 mins
  • This is so they can follow a social constructivist (connectivist) model of learningThis is so that peers and tutor can easily find themDemo the interactive tour feature in Scratch 2.0 for them. Remind them that young children build Scratch projects independently so no reason why they can’t This is important so tutors and peers have a chance to look and comment5 mins intro + 45 mins activity time
  • Explain that this is a very important part of the process and is based on a social-constructivist model of learningDon’t tell them, but in the next session they’re going to remix someone else’s project and develop it to include inputs/outputs and add features using variables (KS2 objectives)5 mins
  • Ei505 Session 1

    2. 2. SESSION OBJECTIVES • To understand the requirements of the new Computing curriculum • To gain an understanding of computational thinking • To introduce students to a programming environment suitable for teaching at KS2/3
    3. 3. COMPUTING? DISCUSS: In pairs, share experiences from your placements on the teaching and learning of ICT or Computing within your settings. CONSIDER: How are schools are implementing the new curriculum? How confident do teachers feel about teaching Computing? How do you feel? How prepared are you?
    4. 4. COMPUTING - POS Purpose of study A high-quality computing education equips pupils to use computational thinking and creativity to understand and change the world. Computing has deep links with mathematics, science, and design and technology, and provides insights into both natural and artificial systems. The core of computing is computer science, in which pupils are taught the principles of information and computation, how digital systems work, and how to put this knowledge to use through programming. Building on this knowledge and understanding, pupils are equipped to use information technology to create programs, systems and a range of content. Computing also ensures that pupils become digitally literate – able to use, and express themselves and develop their ideas through, information and communication technology – at a level suitable for the future workplace and as active participants in a digital world.
    5. 5. COMPUTING - AIMS Aims The national curriculum for computing aims to ensure that all pupils:  can understand and apply the fundamental principles and concepts of computer science, including abstraction, logic, algorithms and data representation  can analyse problems in computational terms, and have repeated practical experience of writing computer programs in order to solve such problems  can evaluate and apply information technology, including new or unfamiliar technologies, analytically to solve problems  are responsible, competent, confident and creative users of information and communication technology.
    6. 6. COMPUTING - KS2/KS3 Key stage 2 Pupils should be taught to:  design, write and debug programs that accomplish specific goals, including controlling or simulating physical systems; solve problems by decomposing them into smaller parts  use sequence, selection, and repetition in programs; work with variables and various forms of input and output  use logical reasoning to explain how some simple algorithms work and to detect and correct errors in algorithms and programs  understand computer networks including the internet; how they can provide multiple services, such as the world wide web; and the opportunities they offer for communication and collaboration  use search technologies effectively, appreciate how results are selected and ranked, and be discerning in evaluating digital content  select, use and combine a variety of software (including internet services) on a range of digital devices to design and create a range of programs, systems and content that accomplish given goals, including collecting, analysing, evaluating and presenting data and information  use technology safely, respectfully and responsibly; recognise acceptable/unacceptable behaviour; identify a range of ways to report concerns about content and contact.
    7. 7. COMPUTING - KS2/KS3 Key stage 3 Pupils should be taught to:  design, use and evaluate computational abstractions that model the state and behaviour of real-world problems and physical systems  understand several key algorithms that reflect computational thinking [for example, ones for sorting and searching]; use logical reasoning to compare the utility of alternative algorithms for the same problem  use 2 or more programming languages, at least one of which is textual, to solve a variety of computational problems; make appropriate use of data structures [for example, lists, tables or arrays]; design and develop modular programs that use procedures or functions  understand simple Boolean logic [for example, AND, OR and NOT] and some of its uses in circuits and programming; understand how numbers can be represented in binary, and be able to carry out simple operations on binary numbers [for example, binary addition, and conversion between binary and decimal]  understand the hardware and software components that make up computer systems, and how they communicate with one another and with other systems  understand how instructions are stored and executed within a computer system; understand how data of various types (including text, sounds and pictures) can be represented and manipulated digitally, in the form of binary digits  undertake creative projects that involve selecting, using, and combining multiple applications, preferably across a range of devices, to achieve challenging goals, including collecting and analysing data and meeting the needs of known users  create, reuse, revise and repurpose digital artefacts for a given audience, with attention to trustworthiness, design and usability  understand a range of ways to use technology safely, respectfully, responsibly and securely, including protecting their online identity and privacy; recognise inappropriate content, contact and conduct, and know how to report concerns
    8. 8. COMPUTING IS… Digital Literacy Computer Science IT
    9. 9. COMPUTATIONAL THINKING Computational thinking is, in its broadest sense, a term that encapsulates a number of particular logical thought processes that people employ to utilise a range of computer hardware and software to transform ideas and imagined solutions into reality. Turvey, K. Potter, J. Allen, J, Sharp, J. (2014)
    10. 10. COMPUTATIONAL THINKNG… (THINKING LIKE A COMPUTER) Algorithm - A precise step by step guide to achieving a specific outcome. Decomposition - sometimes called factoring is breaking a problem into smaller manageable chunks that can be solved separately. Abstraction - is the process of simplifying a process so that it can be considered at a higher level often in relation to other processes.
    11. 11. COMPUTATIONAL THINKING IN ACTION… ACTIVITIES: • Using a roamer, create an equilateral triangle • Knock down a tower of bricks • Navigate a maze • Shall we dance? Synchronous dancing robots. • Tip: Procedures are great for this.
    12. 12. HOW DO WE TACKLE THE CHALLENGES OF COMPUTING? • The skills of computational thinking can be taught with or without computers • Encourage exploration and ‘what if…’ questions • Provide learners with time to experiment, test and take risks • Enable children to solve problems and in turn, create their own problems / challenges • Provide creative and exciting contexts for learning • Aim for children who create, communicate and are safe
    14. 14. INTRO TO SCRATCH 2.0
    15. 15. SEQUENCE
    16. 16. REPETITION
    17. 17. GETTING STARTED 1. Sign up to the Scratch 2.0 community at http://scratch.mit.edu 2. Add your Scratch community username to group Google doc 3. Create a simple Scratch project that uses sequence, selection and repetition (e.g. a game or an interactive story). If you need help to get you started, use the interactive help provided in Scratch 2.0 (click small button near top-right corner). 4. Share your project in the community Add your Scratch name here http://goo.gl/nRC0il
    18. 18. FOLLOW UP TASK 1. Take a look at 3 of your peer's projects (you might want to ‘See Inside’ to learn about what they've done) and leave a comment 2. Come to the next session ready to critically reflect upon your experience and to build upon what you have learnt