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Accessibility, Automation and Metadata


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Slides from a talk on "Accessibility, Automation and Metadata" given at a WAI meeting held in Toronto in 1999.


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Accessibility, Automation and Metadata

  1. 1. Accessibility, Automation and Metadata Brian Kelly Email UKOLN [email_address] University of Bath Web Bath, BA2 7AY UKOLN is funded by the Library and Information Commission (formerly the British Library Research and Innovation Centre), the Joint Information Systems Committee of the Higher Education Funding Councils, as well as by project funding from the JISC’s Electronic Libraries Programme and the European Union. UKOLN also receives support from the University of Bath where it is based. Acknowledgments : This talk is based on the work of others including Tracy Gardner (UKOLN) and Dan Brickley (ILRT, Bristol) NOTE: Presented in 1999
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>UKOLN (UK Office For Library and Information Networking ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based at University of Bath, England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 20 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in applied research in information networking (digital libraries, metadata, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in project work funded by UK HE funding bodies, British Library, and EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners with similar groups in UK, US and Europe </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Relevant Project Work <ul><li>Subject Based Information Gateways (SBIGS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for UK Subject Gateways (manual catalogues of Internet resources in areas such as Medicine, Engineering, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes software development (ROADS link management software), metadata management tools (DC-dot) and quality criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See <URL: > </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DESIRE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU project to enhance networks for research users in Europe through R&D in Caching, Resource Discovery and Directory Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See <URL: > </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Machine Readable Definitions <ul><li>SBIGs and DESIRE work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of vocabulary for describing resources (cf P3P) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine readable (RDF) representation (see <URL: deliverables/D3.1/qualratings/doc0007.htm >) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notion of third party bureaus (cf PICS) </li></ul></ul><rdf:RDF xml:lang=&quot;en&quot; xmlns:dc=&quot;; <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;/docs/report.html&quot; > <dc:Title>Some Report or Other</dc:Title> <eg1:peerReviewedBy rdf:resource=&quot;personid:uk-Nicode:NX930366B&quot; /> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>
  5. 5. Current Work <ul><li>Current work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A browser companion service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape (3 / 4) (and IE / Opera?) browser extension (Javascript) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses ROADS 3rd party metadata bureau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables resource metadata to be viewed before accessing resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource metadata can be created manually or automatically (robot) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See <URL: metadata/desire/ > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work to be delivered by end June 99 - feedback welcome </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Browser Companion Service <ul><li>Use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drag link to Netscape toolbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click to switch service on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move over link to obtain 3rd-party rating </li></ul></ul>Browser extension
  7. 7. Inspiration <ul><li>Work on the browser companion service was inspired by Netscape's What's Related service. </li></ul><ul><li>See also the Bookmarklets web site. Misc. tools for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page analysis (e.g. nos. of images, modification dates, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing appearance (background colour, display of images, colour of links, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Accessibility Metadata <ul><li>Could be used for filtering, ranking (e.g. see <URL: qualityranking/cgi-bin/ >) or informative purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of metadata which can be generated automatically: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File size • File format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nos. of images • Image / text ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinking profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note need for aspects of Bobby-type ratings to be available in structured machine-readable format (as well as human readable) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Developments <ul><li>Research Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject Based Information Gateways in Europe (and UK) to further develop this work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Broader Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible relevance to work such as initiative for cataloguing resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of accessibility metadata criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third-party accessible bureau services (Dan Brickley's collaborative ratings work) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobbying </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Architectural Framework <ul><li>There is a need for registries: trusted, signed, machine accessible (APIs) repositories </li></ul>Dublin Core Machine readable definition of resource discovery schema WAI Machine readable definition of core accessibility metadata <ul><li>Reasons for schemas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backend services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation and repair tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input to Bobby-type tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browsers, authoring tools, etc. </li></ul></ul>Schema - used by application (e.g. FrontPage) Registry - schema available on network for use by any application
  11. 11. Further Work <ul><li>UKOLN interests in metadata and automated processes have other accessibility applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalisation Is &quot;universal design&quot; a false goal? Shouldn't we we aiming for personalised services based on individual preferences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Collections Metadata The need for metadata to define collections of resources for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved navigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content negotiation </li></ul></ul></ul>&quot;Rather than encouraging 'simplicity' in Web design ... we try to encourage 'flexibility', so that Web sites can be tailored to individual need 'simply'. Flexibility affords the personalisation which people with sight problems require.&quot; Julie Howell, RNIB <LINK REL=&quot;next&quot;>, .. Page 2 of 7
  12. 12. Graphics and Metadata <ul><li>PNG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The PNG graphic format could store metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can enable format and vocabularies to be defined separately from HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used by user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agents and robots </li></ul></ul>Role=&quot;non-functional&quot; Keywords=&quot;a TV&quot; Applicable to: http://.. Tooltip=&quot;..&quot; Image metadata See <URL: building/note_rdfmeta.html >
  13. 13. Where's The Metadata? <ul><li>Where is the metadata (and accessibility hints)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded in the resource - but, e.g. user with no arms and learning difficulties may want &quot; press footpedal here &quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External Note metadata may be context specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About user, not resource </li></ul></ul>Embedded Metadata Resource External Metadata External Metadata User User Profile (Metadata)
  14. 14. Conclusions <ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee wants an automated web </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata provides machine-readable information which can be used by automated tools </li></ul><ul><li>The WAI community has much to benefit from such developments </li></ul><ul><li>The WAI community should be active in the development of accessibility metadata, and in exploiting mainstream developments </li></ul>
  15. 15. Useful URLs <ul><li>Summary of DESIRE work: < > </li></ul><ul><li>Browser companion service </li></ul><ul><li>< > </li></ul><ul><li>ROADS demo </li></ul><ul><li>< > </li></ul>