Lyl symposium vfinal

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This is what I presented at ISCAR Rome 2011

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Lyl symposium vfinal

  1. 1. Methodological Issues to Consider when Conducting CHAT Educational Research with Activity Systems Analysis<br />Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch<br />Associate Professor<br />University of Tennessee Knoxville<br />LisaYL@utk.edu<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />1<br />
  2. 2. Presentation Goals<br />Start discussion among CHAT scholars on how to conduct research while understanding and communicating transformative relationships between the organism and the environment<br />Or maybe there are conversations taking place, but we are not all conversing together so lets get together<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />2<br />
  3. 3. North American CHATEducational Research<br />Since the late 1980s there has been a growing interest in theoretical paradigms that capture complex learning environments for understanding the relationship between the organism and the environment<br />CHAT is one of several theoretical frameworks that has become popular<br />The number of consumers of CHAT in educational research has grown<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />3<br />
  4. 4. North American Introduction to CHAT<br />Cole (1985, 1996) and Wertsch (1981, 1985) introduced Vygotsky’s work <br />Engeström (1987, 1993) introduced activity systems analysis as part of the expansive learning model <br />The number of consumers of activity systems analysis as a data analysis tool grew, whether the work was interventionist or not<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />4<br />
  5. 5. Applications of CHAT in North American Educational Research<br />Many treat activity systems analysis as an independent descriptive methodology<br />Activity systems analysis is applied as a borrowed method in a manner that quantitative researchers choose one statistical method over another <br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />5<br />
  6. 6. North American Discussions on CHAT<br />Serves as a theoretical perspective for interpreting human interactions from a relational ontology<br />Lack of discussion on:<br />Methodological guidance on how to engage in research from this perspective (Yamagata-Lynch, 2010) <br />How to capture and communicate human interaction as a transformative process (Stetsenko, 2009) <br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />6<br />
  7. 7. Is this a problem?<br />Not much public discussion among the CHAT community whether this is problematic or not<br />It can be difficult for:<br />Newcomers to engage in CHAT research<br />CHAT community to develop a set of agreed-upon, trustworthy methodologies<br />Engaging in meaningful transformative research<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />7<br />
  8. 8. North American Applications of ASA<br />Used primarily in qualitative educational research as a descriptive tool to: <br />Capture organizational change processes<br />Identify how to design constructivist learning environments <br />Identify systemic contradictions and tensions that shape developments in educational settings <br />Demonstrate historical developments in organizational learning<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />8<br />
  9. 9. ASA Advantages in Educational Research<br />Provides new methods for researchers to extract the essence of complex data sets in a graphic model that they can communicate with others (Yamagata-Lynch, 2010)<br />Can capture educational change as it occurs rather than as it is hypothesized to occur (Rasmussen & Ludvigsen, 2009) <br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />9<br />
  10. 10. Advantages During Analysis (Yamagata-Lynch, 2010) <br />Work with a manageable units of analysis<br />Find systemic implications<br />Understand systemic contradictions and tensions<br />Communicate findings from the analyses<br />There are probably more<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />10<br />
  11. 11. Methodological Issues that need Further Discussion in North America<br />Unit of Analysis<br />Theory and Methodology Coherence<br />Generalizability Issues<br />Simplification Issues in Analysis<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />11<br />
  12. 12. Unit of Analysis<br />Researchers and practitioners need to understand Vygotsky’s work on mediated action and subsequent works by Russian scholars to conceptualize the transformative unit of analysis in CHAT as object-oriented activity <br />Activity includes both observable experiences and mental activities (El’konin, 1993, Galperin, 1989, Stetsenko & Arievitch, 1997)<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />12<br />
  13. 13. Unit of Analysis (continued)<br />Need to effectively communicate meanings associated with subject, tool, object, rules, community, division of labor, outcomes, tensions, and systemic contradictions within the mediated action framework<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />13<br />
  14. 14. Theory and Methodology Coherence<br />Make object-oriented activity as the unit of analysis consistently<br />Don’t walk away from CHAT once it is introduced in the literature review <br />Showcase a series of mediated actions with accompanying narratives in data analysis and presentation<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />14<br />
  15. 15. Theory and Methodology Coherence (continued)<br />Discuss, in the findings, how CHAT as a theoretical framework and ASA as a methodological framework contributed to the investigation<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />15<br />
  16. 16. Generalizability Issues<br />Need to be aware and honest that investigative goals are not to make generalizable claims<br />CHAT research is interested in what Stake (1995) refers to as “petite generalization” that focuses on particularization<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />16<br />
  17. 17. Generalizability Issues (continued)<br />Through research and practice CHAT scholars gain and share understandings of complex human activities by particularization <br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />17<br />
  18. 18. Simplification Issues in Analysis<br />Be aware that while ASA is designed to understand real-world complex situations, it cannot represent the complexities in its entirety (Yamagata-Lynch, 2003) <br />Be systematic and purposeful about how participant experiences are introduced in narrative data<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />18<br />
  19. 19. Simplification Issues in Analysis (continued)<br />Focus on identifying, summarizing, and reporting activities that are essential and relevant to the research questions in order to provide a trustworthy interpretation of the data set <br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />19<br />
  20. 20. Conclusion about North American CHAT in Educational Research<br />CHAT scholars need to engage in discussions related to methodological issues to understand, capture, and communicate human learning as a transformative experience<br />ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />20<br />
  21. 21. ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues <br />21<br />Questions & Discussions<br />

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