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Copyright	2016	:	Lisa	Crispin	and	Raji	Bhamidipa9	
With	material	from	Janet	Gregory,	and	from	Discover	to	Deliver		
by	Ell...
Lisa	(with	Janet	Gregory):	Agile	
Tes/ng	2009	
More	Agile	Tes/ng:	2014	
@lisacrispin	
www.lisacrispin.com		
www.agileteste...
Who	are	testers?	
Who	are	business	analysts?	
Who	are	programmers?	
Who	are	managers	of	some	kind?	
	
Agile	experience	
Ne...
• Coffee	break	11	–	11:30	
• Lunch	13:00	–	14:15	
• Coffee	break	16:15	–	16:30	
• Finish	at	18:00	
4
•  Share	experiences	
•  PracJce	techniques	to	elicit,	explore	
specificaJons,	build	shared	understanding	
•  Perhaps	some	...
• Techniques	that	your	team	can	use	to	
help	your	customers	idenJfy	the	right	
features	to	build		
• Ways	to	enable	shared...
• Small	differences	can	cause	
big	mispercepJons	
• The	classic	“Jre	swing”	
metaphor	-	each	
stakeholder	has	own	
viewpoin...
8	
What’s	slowing	you	down?	Gehng	in	
the	way	of	shared	understanding?	
•  Write	one	problem	per	sJcky	note.	
•  Share	wit...
9	
Intro	
Req’ts	&	
TesJng	
EssenJals		
Big	Picture	
Release	&	
Feature	Levels	
Explore	with	
Examples	
IteraJon	
Level	
S...
10	
Copyright	2016	:	Janet	Gregory	–	DragonFire	Inc.
11	
Copyright	2016	:	Janet	Gregory	–	DragonFire	Inc.
12	
Levels	of	Precision
13	
Intro	
Req’ts	&	
TesJng	
EssenJals		
Big	Picture	
Release	&	
Feature	Levels	
Explore	with	
Examples	
IteraJon	
Level	
...
14
15	
Meaning	 Descrip9on	
I	 Independent	
Self-contained,	so	no	inherent	dependency	on	
another	user	story	
N	 NegoJable	
C...
func9onal	
nonfunc9onal	
www.DiscoverToDeliver.com/visual-language.php	
Source: DiscoverTo Deliver, Gottesdiener & Gorman,...
“	an	aspect	of	a	product	that	expresses	
product	capabiliJes	or	things	the	product	must	
do	for	its	users.”	
	
-	includes	...
agile	
tesJng	
quadrants	
	
(based	on	Brian	
Marick’s	matrix)
Amablé	Autobus	tour	bus	company	--	see	handout	
Choose	a	feature:	
1.  Ability	to	assign	and	schedule	subsJtute	buses	
and...
20	
As the scheduler,

I need to schedule regular hours as
well as add additional hours for
overtime hours to the payroll ...
21	
Dimension	 Ques9ons	
User	 Is	the	scheduler	an	administrator	of	the	
system?	Or	is	she	a	data	entry	person	only?	
Data...
In	your	group,	using	your	feature:	
	
1.  Ask	quesJons	about	funcJonal	
requirements	for	the	dimension	you	have	
been	give...
“	aspects	of	a	product	that	express	properJes	
that	the	product	must	have”		
	
-  includes	environment	and		interface		
di...
24
agile	
tesJng	
quadrants
26	
As the scheduler,

I need to schedule regular hours as
well as add additional hours for
overtime hours to the payroll ...
27	
Dimension	 Ques9ons	
Interface	 Who	/	what	else	has	access	to	the	scheduling	
system?	
Environment	 Can	it	be	entered	...
In	your	group,	using	the	same	feature…	
	
1.  Ask	quesJons	about	quality	a6ributes	for	
the	dimension	you	have	been	given....
29	
Intro	
Req’ts	&	
TesJng	
EssenJals		
Big	Picture	
Release	&	
Feature	Levels	
Explore	with	
Examples	
IteraJon	
Level	
...
30	
Levels	of	Precision
Can	be	used	at	product	backlog	level	as	well	as	
at	story	level	
• Helps	visualise	a	users	journey	through	the	
product	
•...
32
We	will	create	a	‘now	map’.		
	
	
How	did	you	start	your	day	and	get	here	this	
morning?	
	
33
User Interface Action Data Control
persona
user role map
context
diagram
prototype
relationship
map
business process
diagr...
35	
As the scheduler,

I need to schedule regular hours as
well as add additional hours for
overtime hours to the payroll ...
36
37	
Name:	Sarita	the	Scheduler	
Schedules	buses	
Schedules	bus	drivers	
Matches	bus	drivers	to	buses	
Arranges	emergency	b...
38	
Schedule	
regular	
shiss	
Scheduler	
Driver	
Payroll	
Accepts	
shiss	
Reports	
hours	
(including	
overJme)	
Validates	...
39
Scenarios	for	payment	of	hours	
1.  Regular	hours	only	
2.  Regular,	plus	overJme	
3.  Regular,	plus	addiJon	call-out	due	...
41	
Scenarios	 Business	Policies	
Regular	hours	only	 Seasonal	part-Jme	hours	paid	
Regular	plus	overJme	 OverJme	is	paid	...
Consider	personas,	process	flow,	context	and	
state	diagrams	for	your	feature,	what	
scenarios	and	business	policies	can	yo...
43	
• Write	one	item	per	sJcky	note.	
• Share	with	your	table	group.	
• Post	on	your	wall	chart	by	the	
race	car.	
	
How	c...
44	
Intro	
Req’ts	&	
TesJng	
EssenJals		
Big	Picture	
Release	&	
Feature	Levels	
Explore	with	
Examples	
IteraJon	
Level	
...
Feature	
(with	
examples)	 User	
Story	
High-
Level	
AT	
Fix	
Defects	
Code,	test	&	automate	story	
ATDD	
Acceptance	Test	...
•  To	elicit	requirements	
•  To	reduce	uncertainty	
•  To	test	people’s	understanding	of	the	requirement	
46	
Credit	and	...
47	
As a user, I want guidelines to
create a strong password, so
that I have limited risk for
identity theft
48	
Copyright	2016	:	Janet	Gregory	–	DragonFire	Inc.	
1.  Pick	a	partner	table	group	
2.  Using	the	blue	index	cards,	inve...
49	
• Write	more	examples	to	clarify	the	rules	–	sJll	no	
conversaJon	except	yes	or	no.	
•  Two	more	iteraJons:	Pass	examp...
50	
What	did	this	exercise	show	you?	
	
What	did	you	learn?	
	
Are	rules	or	examples	be6er?	
Why	or	why	not?
51	
From	MaR	Wynne
As	a	user,	I	want	guidelines	to	create	a	strong	
password,		
so	that	I	have	limited	risk	for	iden/ty	theC	
52	
Story	
Rule...
53	
Create a story from your feature,
write it on a yellow card.

For example:

•  Send email to hotel staff …

•  Select ...
For	your	story,		
1.  IdenJfy	a	couple	of	obvious	business	rules	
(blue	cards)	
2.  Explore	examples	for	at	least	one	rule...
55	
• Write	one	item	per	sJcky	note.
• Share	with	your	table	group.	
• Post	on	your	wall	chart	by	the	
abyss.	
	
What	piza...
56	
Intro	
Req’ts	&	
TesJng	
EssenJals		
Big	Picture	
Release	&	
Feature	Levels	
Explore	with	
Examples	
IteraJon	
Level	
...
57	
Levels	of	Precision
Define,	constrain	or	enable	behaviour	of	the	
sosware,	business	processes,	data	structure	
	 		
58	
Business	goals	
Busines...
It	may	help	priori/ze	stories	
Example:	Schedule	a	distributed	team	meeJng	
in	our	scheduling	app.	
1.  MeeJngs	with	>	2	M...
• Where	can	you	get	the	data?	
◦ Data	dicJonary,	model,	fixtures	
• What	kind	of	data	might	you	need?	
• Is	there	appropria...
• Means	to	evaluate	capability	from	a	user’s	
perspecJve	
• Provide	the	scope	of	the	story	(or	feature)	
• Results	are	acc...
Scenario	example:			
As	a	user	with	valid	login	credenJals,	I	can	log	in	and	
see	the	landing	page.	
	
Test	might	look	lik...
63	
As a driver called in as a
replacement,

When I submit hours
including overtime, I
receive the correct pay
amount.

Ru...
BDD	–	Behaviour	driven	development	
	Captures	shared	understanding,	guides	
development.	
	
Given	-	precondiJon	
When	–	tr...
Story
As	a	driver	called	in	as	a	replacement,	
When	I	submit	hours	including	overJme,	I	receive	the	correct	
pay	amount.	
...
Given	40	hours	has	been	worked	in	one	week	
When	the	driver	submits	overJme	hours	
Then	the	driver	gets	paid	for	regular	h...
Driver	 Regular	
Wage	
Regular	
hours	
Over9me	
hours	
Total	paid	
José	 20.00	 36.0	 4.0	 840.00	
José	 20.00	 36.0	 2.0	...
1.  Use	the	story	from	your	example	mapping	
2.  Create	BDD	acceptance	tests	using	Given/	
When/Then	format	
3.  Then	iden...
• Interfaces	
◦ tesJng	design	–	how	does	it	interface	with	other	
apps?	
◦ Different	plazorms,	consistency,	how	does	it	rea...
• Consider	the	quality	a6ributes	–	are	there	any	
that	are	applicable	to	your	story?	
• Are	there	any	interfaces	you	need	...
• Stories	are	a	reminder	to	have	a	conversaJon	
• Acceptance	tests	agreed	upon	with	the	
customer	
◦ with	examples	to	expr...
72	
• Write	one	item	per	sJcky	note.
• Share	with	your	table	group.	
• Post	on	your	wall	chart	by	the	
abyss.	
	
What	expe...
73	
Intro	
Req’ts	&	
TesJng	
EssenJals		
Big	Picture	
Release	&	
Feature	Levels	
Explore	with	
Examples	
IteraJon	
Level	
...
74	
Examples	
Tests	
Adapted	from:	Agile	Alliance	FuncJonal	TesJng	Tools		
Open	Space	Workshop	2007,	&	EBG	ConsulJng	2012
75	
Levels	of	Precision
Assemble	op9ons	
Source: DiscoverTo Deliver, Gottesdiener & Gorman, 2012
76
77
And	always,	strive	for	quality!	
photoshd.wordpress.com/2008/04/24/13/
Agile	Tes/ng:	A	Prac/cal	Guide	for	Testers	and	Agile	Teams	
More	Agile	Tes/ng:	Learning	Journeys	for	the	Whole	Team	
		
ww...
Ques9ons?
• Go6esdiener,	Ellen	and	Gorman,	Mary,	Discover	to	Deliver,	
2012	
• Wynne,	Ma6,		"Introducing	Example	Mapping",	h6p://bit...
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Agile Requirements Exploration: How Testers Add Value

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ExpoQA tutorial from Lisa Crispin and ExpoQA 2016 Lisa Crispin and Raji Bhamidipati

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Agile Requirements Exploration: How Testers Add Value

  1. 1. Copyright 2016 : Lisa Crispin and Raji Bhamidipa9 With material from Janet Gregory, and from Discover to Deliver by Ellen Go6esdiener and Mary Gorman
  2. 2. Lisa (with Janet Gregory): Agile Tes/ng 2009 More Agile Tes/ng: 2014 @lisacrispin www.lisacrispin.com www.agiletester.ca Raji BhamidipaJ So you want to be a scrum master? 2016 www.raji.me @raji_bh 2
  3. 3. Who are testers? Who are business analysts? Who are programmers? Who are managers of some kind? Agile experience New (less than 6 months) > 6 months > 1 year > 5 years > 10 years? 3
  4. 4. • Coffee break 11 – 11:30 • Lunch 13:00 – 14:15 • Coffee break 16:15 – 16:30 • Finish at 18:00 4
  5. 5. •  Share experiences •  PracJce techniques to elicit, explore specificaJons, build shared understanding •  Perhaps some brand new ideas! •  Inspect and adapt as we go •  You’ll leave with some experiments to try 5
  6. 6. • Techniques that your team can use to help your customers idenJfy the right features to build • Ways to enable shared understanding of features and stories, and tesJng consideraJons. 6
  7. 7. • Small differences can cause big mispercepJons • The classic “Jre swing” metaphor - each stakeholder has own viewpoint, agenda
  8. 8. 8 What’s slowing you down? Gehng in the way of shared understanding? •  Write one problem per sJcky note. •  Share with your table group. •  Post on your wall chart by the parachute. Group related problems.
  9. 9. 9 Intro Req’ts & TesJng EssenJals Big Picture Release & Feature Levels Explore with Examples IteraJon Level Stories - 7 dimensions -  funcJonal -  non-func’l -  quadrants -  mindset -  levels of detail -  Using 7 dimensions -  Tools to help -  ATDD -  Example mapping -  using acceptance tests Wrap-up Wrap-UP
  10. 10. 10 Copyright 2016 : Janet Gregory – DragonFire Inc.
  11. 11. 11 Copyright 2016 : Janet Gregory – DragonFire Inc.
  12. 12. 12 Levels of Precision
  13. 13. 13 Intro Req’ts & TesJng EssenJals Big Picture Release & Feature Levels Explore with Examples IteraJon Level Stories - 7 dimensions -  funcJonal -  non-func’l -  quadrants -  mindset -  levels of detail -  Using 7 dimensions -  Tools to help -  ATDD -  Example mapping -  using acceptance tests Wrap-up Wrap-UP
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 Meaning Descrip9on I Independent Self-contained, so no inherent dependency on another user story N NegoJable Can be changed and rewri6en unJl they are accepted into an iteraJon V Valuable Relevant and necessary; linked to a business goal E EsJmable Must be able to size (or esJmate) the story S Small Small enough to have a certain level of certainty T Testable Must be able to test it Origins: Bill Wake, 2003
  16. 16. func9onal nonfunc9onal www.DiscoverToDeliver.com/visual-language.php Source: DiscoverTo Deliver, Gottesdiener & Gorman, 2012
  17. 17. “ an aspect of a product that expresses product capabiliJes or things the product must do for its users.” - includes users, acJons, data and control product dimensions Ellen Go6esdiener, Mary Gorman 17
  18. 18. agile tesJng quadrants (based on Brian Marick’s matrix)
  19. 19. Amablé Autobus tour bus company -- see handout Choose a feature: 1.  Ability to assign and schedule subsJtute buses and drivers for transporJng tour groups around Madrid 2.  Ability to noJfy staff at desJnaJon when bus is broken down, along with a plan of acJon 19
  20. 20. 20 As the scheduler, I need to schedule regular hours as well as add additional hours for overtime hours to the payroll system So that the drivers get paid correctly.
  21. 21. 21 Dimension Ques9ons User Is the scheduler an administrator of the system? Or is she a data entry person only? Data Is Jme measured in hours or minutes? AcJon Can the drivers add their hours in manually, or do they submit Jme sheets? How does she find out about extra hours? Control Do the Jmesheets have to be approved by a supervisor or somebody?
  22. 22. In your group, using your feature: 1.  Ask quesJons about funcJonal requirements for the dimension you have been given. 2.  Write each individual quesJon on a sJcky note and put on the Dimensions wall chart. 22
  23. 23. “ aspects of a product that express properJes that the product must have” -  includes environment and interface dimensions -  Also known as “non-funcJonal requirements” or “para-funcJonal requirements” Go6esdiener, The Sosware Requirements Memory Jogger 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. agile tesJng quadrants
  26. 26. 26 As the scheduler, I need to schedule regular hours as well as add additional hours for overtime hours to the payroll system So that the drivers get paid correctly.
  27. 27. 27 Dimension Ques9ons Interface Who / what else has access to the scheduling system? Environment Can it be entered remotely or is it desktop only? Quality A6ributes Are there performance requirements? Can I assume there is only one person accessing at a Jme? What level of security do we need for the scheduler?
  28. 28. In your group, using the same feature… 1.  Ask quesJons about quality a6ributes for the dimension you have been given. 2.  Write each individual quesJon on a sJcky note and put with the Dimension wall chart. 28
  29. 29. 29 Intro Req’ts & TesJng EssenJals Big Picture Release & Feature Levels Explore with Examples IteraJon Level Stories - 7 dimensions -  funcJonal -  non-func’l -  quadrants -  mindset -  levels of detail -  Using 7 dimensions -  Tools to help -  ATDD -  Example mapping -  using acceptance tests Wrap-up Wrap-UP
  30. 30. 30 Levels of Precision
  31. 31. Can be used at product backlog level as well as at story level • Helps visualise a users journey through the product • Useful tool for visualising product backlog 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. We will create a ‘now map’. How did you start your day and get here this morning? 33
  34. 34. User Interface Action Data Control persona user role map context diagram prototype relationship map business process diagram capability map dependency graph story, story map use case value stream map data model state diagram business policy, rule decision table decision tree Source: DiscoverTo Deliver, Gottesdiener & Gorman, 2012
  35. 35. 35 As the scheduler, I need to schedule regular hours as well as add additional hours for overtime hours to the payroll system So that the drivers get paid correctly.
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. 37 Name: Sarita the Scheduler Schedules buses Schedules bus drivers Matches bus drivers to buses Arranges emergency buses and drivers Ensures hours get logged Liaises with the bus maintenance Detailed oriented Likes working with numbers Likes trying new ideas Likes the outdoors, camping Introvert Doesn’t like conflict DescripJon Values Likes
  38. 38. 38 Schedule regular shiss Scheduler Driver Payroll Accepts shiss Reports hours (including overJme) Validates hours Submits to payroll Creates payment Driver gets paid
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. Scenarios for payment of hours 1.  Regular hours only 2.  Regular, plus overJme 3.  Regular, plus addiJon call-out due to bus breakdown 4.  Call-out only due to bus breakdown 40
  41. 41. 41 Scenarios Business Policies Regular hours only Seasonal part-Jme hours paid Regular plus overJme OverJme is paid at 1.5 x regular Call-out for bus breakdown AddiJonal compensaJon for extra call
  42. 42. Consider personas, process flow, context and state diagrams for your feature, what scenarios and business policies can you find. Pair up, each pair try a tool and report to the group. What quality a6ributes might be applicable at the feature level? Consider all 7 dimensions. 42
  43. 43. 43 • Write one item per sJcky note. • Share with your table group. • Post on your wall chart by the race car. How can you explore funcJonal requirements and quality a6ributes to improve quality?
  44. 44. 44 Intro Req’ts & TesJng EssenJals Big Picture Release & Feature Levels Explore with Examples IteraJon Level Stories - 7 dimensions -  funcJonal -  non-func’l -  quadrants -  mindset -  levels of detail -  Using 7 dimensions -  Tools to help -  ATDD -  Example mapping -  using acceptance tests Wrap-up Wrap-UP
  45. 45. Feature (with examples) User Story High- Level AT Fix Defects Code, test & automate story ATDD Acceptance Test Driven Development Accept Story Explore Examples 45
  46. 46. •  To elicit requirements •  To reduce uncertainty •  To test people’s understanding of the requirement 46 Credit and thanks to Brian Marick “That’s not right” can be music to your ears •  Can become the actual tests •  Are a form of specificaJon
  47. 47. 47 As a user, I want guidelines to create a strong password, so that I have limited risk for identity theft
  48. 48. 48 Copyright 2016 : Janet Gregory – DragonFire Inc. 1.  Pick a partner table group 2.  Using the blue index cards, invent 3 secret business rules for “Create a strong password” story 3.  Write 3 (and only 3) examples on the white cards to express those rules <2 min> 4.  Now pass them to your partner table. 5.  Guess the rules based on the examples – write them on the sJcky notes, and pass them back 6.  Let’s stop and reflect
  49. 49. 49 • Write more examples to clarify the rules – sJll no conversaJon except yes or no. •  Two more iteraJons: Pass examples to your partner table and have them guess the rules. Now: Have a conversaJon about the story.
  50. 50. 50 What did this exercise show you? What did you learn? Are rules or examples be6er? Why or why not?
  51. 51. 51 From MaR Wynne
  52. 52. As a user, I want guidelines to create a strong password, so that I have limited risk for iden/ty theC 52 Story Rules Examples QuesJons 1.  Minimum 8, maximum 32 characters 2.  One or more of each: lower-case le6er, upper-case le6er, number, punctuaJon mark Valid: p4ssW0rd!, paSSw.rDp Invalid: p4ssword1, p4ssw@d, Pa%swd. What wording to use for the error messages? Should we have a password strength meter?
  53. 53. 53 Create a story from your feature, write it on a yellow card. For example: •  Send email to hotel staff … •  Select an alternate bus …
  54. 54. For your story, 1.  IdenJfy a couple of obvious business rules (blue cards) 2.  Explore examples for at least one rule (green cards) 3.  Are there quesJons (pink cards) 54
  55. 55. 55 • Write one item per sJcky note. • Share with your table group. • Post on your wall chart by the abyss. What pizalls do you want to help your team avoid?
  56. 56. 56 Intro Req’ts & TesJng EssenJals Big Picture Release & Feature Levels Explore with Examples IteraJon Level Stories - 7 dimensions -  funcJonal -  non-func’l -  quadrants -  mindset -  levels of detail -  Using 7 dimensions -  Tools to help -  ATDD -  Example mapping -  using acceptance tests Wrap-up Wrap-UP
  57. 57. 57 Levels of Precision
  58. 58. Define, constrain or enable behaviour of the sosware, business processes, data structure 58 Business goals Business policies Business rules
  59. 59. It may help priori/ze stories Example: Schedule a distributed team meeJng in our scheduling app. 1.  MeeJngs with > 2 Madrid a6endees need a meeJng room 2.  Remote a6endees must have video link 3.  MeeJngs are during normal work hours for all a6endees (employees located across Europe). 59
  60. 60. • Where can you get the data? ◦ Data dicJonary, model, fixtures • What kind of data might you need? • Is there appropriate test data? 60
  61. 61. • Means to evaluate capability from a user’s perspecJve • Provide the scope of the story (or feature) • Results are accepted or not accepted ◦ If not – revisit! 61
  62. 62. Scenario example: As a user with valid login credenJals, I can log in and see the landing page. Test might look like: •  Given Janet has a valid login, •  When she enters her valid username and password, •  Then she sees the landing page. 62 User Email Password Expected Result Comments Jara jara@example.com Passw0rd22 Logged in Valid login scenario
  63. 63. 63 As a driver called in as a replacement, When I submit hours including overtime, I receive the correct pay amount. Rule: 1.5 x regular pay if more than 1 hour over scheduled driving Jme Rule: 1 hour extra pay in addiJon to overJme hours if call-in replacement
  64. 64. BDD – Behaviour driven development Captures shared understanding, guides development. Given - precondiJon When – trigger, acJon Then – consequences, results 64
  65. 65. Story As a driver called in as a replacement, When I submit hours including overJme, I receive the correct pay amount. Scenario Regular hours plus overJme plus call-in replacement pay business rule(s) OverJme is calculated as: (Total driving Jme minus regular hours) * overJme Given pre-condition(s), state Driver exists and drove his bus fixed data Driver: José, worked 40 hours, including 4 overJme hours when called in as a replacement Regular wage: 20 euros/hour OverJme percentage: 150% (1.5 x regular pay) When action Driver submits hours input data Hours submi6ed: 36 regular, 4 overJme call-in replacement Then observable outcome: message, output Total wages: 860 post-condition Paycheck cut
  66. 66. Given 40 hours has been worked in one week When the driver submits overJme hours Then the driver gets paid for regular hours plus the overJme hours Given 40 hours has been worked in one week When the driver submits overJme hours Then the scheduler submits the regular hours plus the overJme hours for payment to payroll
  67. 67. Driver Regular Wage Regular hours Over9me hours Total paid José 20.00 36.0 4.0 840.00 José 20.00 36.0 2.0 780.00 José 20.00 30.0 0.0 600.00 67
  68. 68. 1.  Use the story from your example mapping 2.  Create BDD acceptance tests using Given/ When/Then format 3.  Then idenJfy possible examples (test data) that could be input in a tabular format 4.  Show your tests to another table group. Do they understand the capability to be delivered? 68
  69. 69. • Interfaces ◦ tesJng design – how does it interface with other apps? ◦ Different plazorms, consistency, how does it react? • Quality a6ributes ◦ Constraints to be considered with every story • ImplementaJon environments ◦ Requirements that limit build and deploy opJons 69
  70. 70. • Consider the quality a6ributes – are there any that are applicable to your story? • Are there any interfaces you need to consider? • What about your environments? Anything specific to worry about? Discuss in your teams 70
  71. 71. • Stories are a reminder to have a conversaJon • Acceptance tests agreed upon with the customer ◦ with examples to express business rules • ConversaJon – examples, clarificaJons Requirement Story Acceptance Tests with examples Conversa9on + + = 71
  72. 72. 72 • Write one item per sJcky note. • Share with your table group. • Post on your wall chart by the abyss. What experiments can your team try?
  73. 73. 73 Intro Req’ts & TesJng EssenJals Big Picture Release & Feature Levels Explore with Examples IteraJon Level Stories - 7 dimensions -  funcJonal -  non-func’l -  quadrants -  mindset -  levels of detail -  Using 7 dimensions -  Tools to help -  ATDD -  Example mapping -  using acceptance tests Wrap-up Wrap-UP
  74. 74. 74 Examples Tests Adapted from: Agile Alliance FuncJonal TesJng Tools Open Space Workshop 2007, & EBG ConsulJng 2012
  75. 75. 75 Levels of Precision
  76. 76. Assemble op9ons Source: DiscoverTo Deliver, Gottesdiener & Gorman, 2012 76
  77. 77. 77
  78. 78. And always, strive for quality! photoshd.wordpress.com/2008/04/24/13/
  79. 79. Agile Tes/ng: A Prac/cal Guide for Testers and Agile Teams More Agile Tes/ng: Learning Journeys for the Whole Team www.agiletester.ca, www.lisacrispin.com Email: lisa@lisacrispin.com 79 Save 35%: h6p://informit.com/ swtesJng or h6p://informit.com/ agiletest Use code AGILETESTING
  80. 80. Ques9ons?
  81. 81. • Go6esdiener, Ellen and Gorman, Mary, Discover to Deliver, 2012 • Wynne, Ma6, "Introducing Example Mapping", h6p://bit.ly/ 1iw19w4 • Wynne, Ma6 and Aslak Hellesoy, The Cucumber Book: Behavior-Driven Development for Testers and Developers, PragmaJc Programmers, 201 • Adzic, Gojko, Specifica/on by Example: How Successful Teams Deliver the Right SoCware, Manning, 2011 • Adzic, Gojko, Bridging the Communica/on Gap, Neuri Limited, 2009 •  Gärtner, Markus, ATDD By Example: A Prac/cal Guide to Acceptance Test-Driven Development, Addison-Wesley, 2012a • Keogh, Liz, h6p://lunivore.com - look for her posts on BDD, Real OpJons 81

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