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BREAST
FEEDING
Presented by:
Ms. Lisa chadha
M.Sc Nursing
BVCON
BREAST FEEDING.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is
the feeding of babies and young children
with milk from a woman's breast.
Exclusive breast feeding should be given for
the first six months.
ADVANTAGES OF BREAST
FEEDING
Benefits to the baby
 Complete food
 Easily digested and well absorbed.
 Protects against infection.
 Promotes emotional bonding.
 Better brain growth.
Benefits to mother
 Helps in involution of uterus
 Delays pregnancy
 Lowers risk of breast and ovarian
cancer.
 Decreases mothers workload
Benefits to family and
society
Saves money
Contribute to child
survival
Decreases need for
hospitalization.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
 Breast consist of glandular tissue ,supporting tissue
and fat.
 Milk is secreted by the glands which travels through
the tubules which drains in to lactiferous sinuses.
 The sinuses which store small quantities of milk
.They open out on to the nipple lactiferous ducts .
A thin layer of muscle surrounds each gland. The
contraction of these muscles causes ejection of
milk from the glands.
MILK SECRETION AND
EJECTION
Prolactin reflex
Prolactin is produced by the anterior pituitary
gland which is responsible for milk secretion.
When the baby sucks, the nerve endings of the
nipple carry message to the anterior pituitary
which in turn releases prolactin.
This hormone passes through the blood to the
glands in the breast, promoting milk secretion
Oxytocin reflex
Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the posterior
pituitary. It is responsible for the contraction of the
myo-epithelium around the glands leading to
ejection of milk from the glands in to the lactiferous
sinuses and lactiferous ducts.
TYPES OF BREAST MILK
 Colostrum-Milk secreted during the first
week after delivery . It is yellow, thick and
contains more antibodies and white blood
cells.
 Transitional milk-Milk secreted during the
following two weeks. The immunoglobulin
and protein content decreases while the
fat and sugar content increases
 Mature milk-Thinner and watery but
contains all the nutrients essential for the
growth of the baby
 Fore milk-Milk secreted at the start of the
feed. Watery and rich in protein, sugar
vitamins, minerals and water
 Hind milk-Comes later towards the end of
the feed and in fat, provides more energy
and satisfies baby’s hunger
Types of Milk
HELPING A MOTHER TO BREAST
FEED
Preparing the infant and mother.
1. Ensure that the infant is
clinically stable.
2. Ensure that the infant is alert
3. Make sure that the mother is
comfortable and relaxed.
4. Make her sit down in a
comfortable and convenient
position.
Demonstrate the four key
points in position.
1. Baby’s head and body should
be straight.
2. Baby’s face should face
mothers breast.
3. Baby’s body should be close to
her body.
4. Mother should support the
baby’s whole body
Show the mother how to
support her breast with
the other hand.
1. Put her fingers below
breast
2. Use her first finger to
support the breast
Look for signs of good
attachment
1. More areola is visible above
the baby’s mouth than below
it.
2. Baby’s mouth is wide open
3. Baby’s lower is turned
outwards.
4. Baby’s chin is touching the
breast.
HOW FREQUENTLY A MOTHER
HAS TO BREAST FEED HER
BABY?
 A healthy newborn baby can be breast
feed on demand.
ASSESSING THE FREQUENCY OF
BREAST FEEDING
 Passes urine 6-8 times in 24 hours.
 Goes to sleep for 23 hours after the feed.
 Gains weight 15-30 gm per day
TECHNIQUES OF BREAST
FEEDING
KEY MESSAGE TO PROMOTE
EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING
 Put baby to feed at breast as
soon as possible after birth
preferably in the delivery
room.
 Do not discard the colostrum
 Keep baby close to mother.
 Mother may lie down, sit on a
bed chair or floor to breast
feed her.
 Breast feed during the day and
night for at least eight to ten
times and whenever baby cries
with hunger
 The more baby sucks at
breast, more milk the breast
will produce and healthier the
baby becomes.
 Allow baby to feed at one
breast until he leaves the
nipple on his own.
 Give baby only one breast
for the first six month.
 Don’t give baby ghutti
water, gripe water, honey,
animal or powered milk
before six months.
 Never use bottles and
pacifier
ISSUES IN BREAST FEEDING.
SORE NIPPLES
Causes
1. Incorrect attachments:
Nipple sucking
2. Frequent use of soap
and water.
3. Fungal infection of
nipple
Treatment
1. Continue breast feeding and change
position .
2. Apply hind milk to the nipple after breast
feed.
3. Expose the nipple to air between feeds .
Do not wash time before and after feed.
4. Use local antifungal medication.
Breast engorgement
Milk production increases during the second and
third day after delivery. If feeding is delayed,
infrequent or the baby is not well positioned at the
breast, the milk accumulates in the alveoli.
Treatment.
Breast engorgement can be prevented by early and
frequent breast feeds and correct attachments of the
baby to the breast. Treatment consist of local warm
water packs for not more than 15 minutes.
Gently express the milk to soften the breast and then help
the mother to correctly latch the baby on the breast.
Cabbage therapy
Breast abscess.
If conditions like engorged breast, cracked nipples,
blocked neck are not treated early breast abscess
may develop.
Causes
 Not breast feeding frequently
 Too short or hurried breast feeding
 Poor position
Treatment
 Mother may treated with analgesics and
antibiotics.
 Incision and drainage.
CONTRAINDICATIONS TO B.F
 Mother on anti metabolic/ anticancer
/radioactive drug
 HIV Infection.

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Breast feeding

  • 1. BREAST FEEDING Presented by: Ms. Lisa chadha M.Sc Nursing BVCON
  • 2. BREAST FEEDING. Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast. Exclusive breast feeding should be given for the first six months.
  • 3. ADVANTAGES OF BREAST FEEDING Benefits to the baby  Complete food  Easily digested and well absorbed.  Protects against infection.  Promotes emotional bonding.  Better brain growth.
  • 4. Benefits to mother  Helps in involution of uterus  Delays pregnancy  Lowers risk of breast and ovarian cancer.  Decreases mothers workload
  • 5. Benefits to family and society Saves money Contribute to child survival Decreases need for hospitalization.
  • 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY  Breast consist of glandular tissue ,supporting tissue and fat.  Milk is secreted by the glands which travels through the tubules which drains in to lactiferous sinuses.
  • 7.  The sinuses which store small quantities of milk .They open out on to the nipple lactiferous ducts . A thin layer of muscle surrounds each gland. The contraction of these muscles causes ejection of milk from the glands.
  • 8. MILK SECRETION AND EJECTION Prolactin reflex Prolactin is produced by the anterior pituitary gland which is responsible for milk secretion. When the baby sucks, the nerve endings of the nipple carry message to the anterior pituitary which in turn releases prolactin. This hormone passes through the blood to the glands in the breast, promoting milk secretion
  • 9. Oxytocin reflex Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the posterior pituitary. It is responsible for the contraction of the myo-epithelium around the glands leading to ejection of milk from the glands in to the lactiferous sinuses and lactiferous ducts.
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  • 11. TYPES OF BREAST MILK  Colostrum-Milk secreted during the first week after delivery . It is yellow, thick and contains more antibodies and white blood cells.  Transitional milk-Milk secreted during the following two weeks. The immunoglobulin and protein content decreases while the fat and sugar content increases
  • 12.  Mature milk-Thinner and watery but contains all the nutrients essential for the growth of the baby  Fore milk-Milk secreted at the start of the feed. Watery and rich in protein, sugar vitamins, minerals and water  Hind milk-Comes later towards the end of the feed and in fat, provides more energy and satisfies baby’s hunger
  • 14. HELPING A MOTHER TO BREAST FEED Preparing the infant and mother. 1. Ensure that the infant is clinically stable. 2. Ensure that the infant is alert 3. Make sure that the mother is comfortable and relaxed. 4. Make her sit down in a comfortable and convenient position.
  • 15. Demonstrate the four key points in position. 1. Baby’s head and body should be straight. 2. Baby’s face should face mothers breast. 3. Baby’s body should be close to her body. 4. Mother should support the baby’s whole body
  • 16. Show the mother how to support her breast with the other hand. 1. Put her fingers below breast 2. Use her first finger to support the breast
  • 17. Look for signs of good attachment 1. More areola is visible above the baby’s mouth than below it. 2. Baby’s mouth is wide open 3. Baby’s lower is turned outwards. 4. Baby’s chin is touching the breast.
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  • 19. HOW FREQUENTLY A MOTHER HAS TO BREAST FEED HER BABY?  A healthy newborn baby can be breast feed on demand.
  • 20. ASSESSING THE FREQUENCY OF BREAST FEEDING  Passes urine 6-8 times in 24 hours.  Goes to sleep for 23 hours after the feed.  Gains weight 15-30 gm per day
  • 22. KEY MESSAGE TO PROMOTE EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING  Put baby to feed at breast as soon as possible after birth preferably in the delivery room.  Do not discard the colostrum  Keep baby close to mother.  Mother may lie down, sit on a bed chair or floor to breast feed her.
  • 23.  Breast feed during the day and night for at least eight to ten times and whenever baby cries with hunger  The more baby sucks at breast, more milk the breast will produce and healthier the baby becomes.  Allow baby to feed at one breast until he leaves the nipple on his own.
  • 24.  Give baby only one breast for the first six month.  Don’t give baby ghutti water, gripe water, honey, animal or powered milk before six months.  Never use bottles and pacifier
  • 25. ISSUES IN BREAST FEEDING. SORE NIPPLES Causes 1. Incorrect attachments: Nipple sucking 2. Frequent use of soap and water. 3. Fungal infection of nipple
  • 26. Treatment 1. Continue breast feeding and change position . 2. Apply hind milk to the nipple after breast feed. 3. Expose the nipple to air between feeds . Do not wash time before and after feed. 4. Use local antifungal medication.
  • 27. Breast engorgement Milk production increases during the second and third day after delivery. If feeding is delayed, infrequent or the baby is not well positioned at the breast, the milk accumulates in the alveoli.
  • 28. Treatment. Breast engorgement can be prevented by early and frequent breast feeds and correct attachments of the baby to the breast. Treatment consist of local warm water packs for not more than 15 minutes. Gently express the milk to soften the breast and then help the mother to correctly latch the baby on the breast. Cabbage therapy
  • 29. Breast abscess. If conditions like engorged breast, cracked nipples, blocked neck are not treated early breast abscess may develop. Causes  Not breast feeding frequently  Too short or hurried breast feeding  Poor position
  • 30. Treatment  Mother may treated with analgesics and antibiotics.  Incision and drainage.
  • 31. CONTRAINDICATIONS TO B.F  Mother on anti metabolic/ anticancer /radioactive drug  HIV Infection.