- coming from design education, working in graphic design studios, and web design studios - 2000 TD securities - re-work portal product proof-of-concepts - in the days when software companies let you test out the product to see if it was customizable to your needs- In a design and front-end code role - quickly aligned myself with 2 hired gun consultants - became a key part of the UX definition team - interviews, complex navigation flow diagrams, user needs, business needs, tech constraints etc. - fell in love and never turned back
I&#x2019;ve always had interest in branding, marketing, business strategy, human behavioral and cognitive psychology, human to human relationships,
the reasons why technology succeeds and fails, obviously interface design, interaction design, Information architecture,
why I absolutely love certain products (even during the Steve-less years), and the concept of simplicity and complexity as useful tools in the right context.
I never saw each as a whole, but rather as independent elements that somehow could abstractly help me in my ability to design powerful user experiences... not knowing why.
Always intrigued by the work done by Xerox Park, early Mac OS teams and how it related to design...
always felt that there was a stronger connection between UX and brand development
I&#x2019;ve had problems connecting how human computer interaction research and development evolved before the web, and how it is progressing now, somewhat independently or ignorantly from its early roots. for years I haven't been able to define UX, and thus I hadn't been able to describe what I do in a succinct manner that felt complete or even correct
when I was asked by random non industry people I would generally say "i do some things..." to avoid explaining what ux is, and what value it provides...
I may not have known exactly what ux is, but I certainly knew what it isn't
- given my issues with grasping the concept of UX in the past...
- thought it might be interesting to get a pulse on how UX is understood and perceived by both practitioners and the general public
- asked a collection of people, both inside and outside the industry to define user experience in their own words: - found the responses quite interesting
- so it&#x2019;s obvious that we have a conceptual problem with the understanding, or lack thereof, with UX as a profession, a practice, and as a valuable service.
- not only with the general public - which makes it hard to promote, sell and advance the profile of UX
- but with the people that actually call themselves UX designers, or consider themselves involved in UX design
- problems with perception, understanding and as a result: formalization outside of our own community
- this isn&#x2019;t anyone else&#x2019;s fault, but rather our own as practitioners
- let&#x2019;s take a quick look at the main reasons why UX is misunderstood:
- a lot has to do with the name
According to the New Oxford American Dictionary: on screen.
User: an &#x201C;individual&#x201D; that operates or manipulates, so basically a crackhead, or politician.
Experience: noun, verb, and tactile event or occurrence, knowledge, previous experience, current experience, life as experience... on and on...
The experience a user has with a product
The concept of defining a product to deliver an optimal experience for its users
The perception of the interaction with a product once experienced by a user as defined by their memory of it
Experience - something that is occurring to or involved with the participant creating a continuous stream that flows through the mind of the participant.
An Experience - something with a beginning and an end. Usually extraordinary, outside of the norm and distinctly memorable. May influence the participant in terms of behavior, or perception.
Co-Experience - experiences created with others, creating meaning and emotion through use of product (a nightclub is a shared/ co-experience)
Experience as Story - the digestion, organization, and storage of &#x2018;an experience&#x2019; for later retrieval and recounting. A means of describing an experience to ones self or others.
information architects vs. interaction designers.
the ultimate battle
- usability more easily understood and value more easily sold in organizatrions so it takes off faster than the more integrated concept of ux
- as an industry we see the need to have an integrated approach, but ech try to do it from the perspective of thier practice experience, not from a holistic perspective.
- Coalescence confusion - what are we, where ds we come from? We're right back where we were before the web scatter bomb
- Reintegration power struggle- what we're seeing between the IAs and UXers (same as content vs. creative in web early days)
- how is this innate infighting going to affect Mobile? Segregation? Or cross-pollination?&#xA0;
JJG has a different model based on the same elements
broken into two modes information and application
the types of experiences we are designing for are expanding 2 fast
emotional affect: creating the desired expressed or observed emotional response
Forlizzi & ford model
cognitive when learning/ concentrating
becomes sub-conscious when learned
storytelling when storing, remembering, recounting to others
jumps back to cognitive when interupted, or something unexpected occurs
Sub-conscious: Routine previously learned and mastered, walking, golf swing
Experience: as written
Cognition: First use, adaptive/ contextual dynamic menus, learning curve
Narrative: (realization of what was happening - or is happening) more process/ procedural in nature
Storytelling: This means that the user interacts with subset of features to make their own unique and subjective story and relates the &#x201C;experience&#x201D; in their own words to make it their own. Gives meaning to the situation or product.
brand and UX are inextricably intertwined
customers dont like to think, so brands tell them what to think.
users dont like to think, so ux simplifies the interaction for them
O&#x2019;s or Diamonds (where we should go. cross pollination...)
o&#x2019;s have the full gamut. Business, marketing, brand, technology, design
outside forces are business and product centric diamonds tie it into the centre centre is the user focussed and business aligned sweet spot.
start at first meeting.
content/ functionality remains constant, only the focal length changes.
mobile is more detailed, intimate interaction experienced in quick, functional manner
Many device categories: Small screen cellphones Smartphones Full Screen Smartphones & Mobile Devices
Many product variants: WAP Mobile Web (it is different) Mobile Web Apps Native Mobile Apps
Bell WAP portal coded differently to give same/similar UI / UX across all devices
lighting conditions, weather, more distractions,
washroom, desk, bus, walking down the street, sleeping
how the user relates to the device OEM, the network provider (ahem... AT&T) the app developer, the content... and how it relates to the users current situation
private & public use, use with and in front of friends
- interupted by passer by, horn honking,
- receiving call (takes user out of current focus or app)
explore -> evaluate -> decision -> understand -> acclimate -> basic use -> intermediate use -> expert use -> abandon
input: take a picture of a book & send to amazon
0- We have still not even begun to take advantage of the unique capabilities, both physical and technological, of the mobile device. We are on the brink of a new world of products and applications - augmented reality is merely the beginning - we don&#x2019;t even know what our devices will be doing for us in 5 years. This is a first, and the most exciting revolution since 1984.
1 - allowing for more complex, more robust feature sets and software capabilities
5 -like the business person at the other end of the bar that is currently desperately seeking a service provider with exactly the service and experience you have.
6 - A users experience with their data does not start and stop on a particular device or medium, it merely continues from one to the next as they use, interact and manipulate it through various lenses.
7- from the desktop model of a product that contains a set of features that allow you to perform tasks to a more service / experience model - like interactive digital music experiences as applications/ products.
FITC Mobile 09 Presentation: UX From Stationary To Mobile
"user experience is an emotional response to
interacting with whatever the communicative tool is”
“a user experience is how enjoyable it is to
use something to complete a task”
“This is an umbrella term used to describe all the factors that contribute to a
user’s overall perception of a system. Is it easy to use, attractive and
appropriate? Does it meet user needs?”
“the feeling I get as I am doing something”
“how I engage with the content being presented to me.
It's akin to going to a movie and covers a whole range of things.”
“level of satisfaction I undergo when interacting with anything
designed to serve a speciﬁc purpose or purposes”
“user experience - the result of interfacing”
“user experience refers to whether or not a user is
positively or negatively affected by the use of the item.”
“a good user experience is kind of like good sex:
hard to deﬁne but you know it when you feel it.”
“user experience is often [the] reason behind software application
creation and always the validation of the creators' abilities”
“simple, intuitive site navigation.”
why there’s a perception issue with
“user experience” as a term
1. A person who uses or operates something, esp. a computer or other machine.
• A person who takes illegal drugs; a drug user : the drug causes long-term brain damage in users; a heroin user.
• A person who manipulates others for their own gain : he was a gifted user of other people.
1. Practical contact with and observation of facts or events : he had already learned his lesson by painful experience; he spoke from experience.
• The knowledge or skill acquired by such means over a period of time, esp. that gained in a particular profession by someone at work : older
men whose experience could be called upon; candidates with the necessary experience.
• An event or occurrence that leaves an impression on someone : for the younger players it has been a learning experience.
verb [ trans. ]
encounter or undergo (an event or occurrence) : the company is experiencing difﬁculties.
• feel (an emotion) : an opportunity to experience the excitement of New York.
“user experience” as a term
• a user can experience an experience that they have yet to previously
experience in their personal experience.
“user experience” as a term
• a user can partake in an event or occurrence that they have yet to
previously participate in in their life.
“user experience” as a term
• speciﬁc problems with experience
• to experience
• an experience
• experience as a story
• as a term in general
• as a professional ﬁeld (user experience)
• as a discipline/ practice of that ﬁeld (user experience design)
• as a description of the resulting product of that practice (a user’s experience)
• perhaps we need a new label for UX?
where does that leave
UX designers, and UX as a ﬁeld?
tasks confused as roles
• practitioners coming from singular disciplines (IA, ID) perceive their
components of user experience design to be the most important... and
push the process in that direction
• I believe: the culmination of a number of individual, and previously
independent, disciplines (IA, ID, GD, UID, MarCom, Brand, etc.) into a
cohesive and collaborative unit (whether individual or team) with shared
knowledge, experience and mutual respect for the value provided by
each to build the best experience possible.
tech & techniques more valued than UX
• AJAX, Web 2.0, Social Networking, etc. are easier to grasp conceptually
by the masses than UX and get more focus as a result
• technology, methods and techniques are means to an end, not a value
• easier to sell what can be explained, and easier to buy what can be
• difﬁcult to convince clients of the value of research & testing when faced
with tight timelines and budgets
over reliance on “best-practices”
• as a community, we seem to have a need to quantify our value though
• best-practices may have worked on a previous product, but may not
be the optimal solution for the current
• UXD is evolving so quickly that best-practices are generally outdated
• Best-practices can be the lazy way out - stagnating innovation
little to no accountability
• because user experience is so misunderstood:
• clients can be embarrassed by lack of knowledge... so they don’t
push for explanations or justiﬁcations
• UX deliverables are rarely held to task & measured for effectiveness
• products languish and degrade as a result of poor updates &
management - lack of respect for good UX
• partial deliverables passed off as full UXD
• if we don’t know where we came from, how do we expect to
understand where we are?
• and more importantly, where we’re going?
• 1940s - human factors grows out of WW2 cognitive psychology research on the strains on military personnel
• 1970s - human computer interaction (HCI) develops thanks to Scandinavian labour unions demand for
usable computer systems from occupational health perspective, starting with hardware, then software
• 1980s - usability emerges
• 1980s - term User Experience coined by Don Norman as self title at Apple
• 1990s - Norman builds on concept of User Experience with series of “...Everyday Things” books
• late 1990s - the explosion in popularity acts as a scatter-bomb for existing practices and thinking in UX
• 1999 - usability takes forefront “Designing Web Usability”
• 2004 - Norman quantiﬁes the “fuzzy” / intangible side of interaction with book Emotional Design
• usability more easily understood and value more easily sold in organizations so it takes off
faster than the more integrated concept of UX
• numerous new roles, titles and disciplines emerge as a result of popularity of web,
• as an industry we see the need to have an integrated approach, but each try to do it from
the perspective of their fractured discipline - no cohesion
• confusion - what are we, where did we come from? where are we going?
• reintegration power struggle - what we're seeing between the IAs and IDs
• and here we are today...
the elements and principals
of user experience
elements of user experience
• useful: allows the user to accomplish a particular goal or task
• usable: allows the user to interact intuitively, with ease & fails gracefully
• desirable: satisﬁes an emotional need, personal or social, for the user
• ﬁndable: content or functionality must be easily discovered, exploited and remembered
• accessible: can be used without barrier by majority of target audience
• credible: creates an environment of trust and safety
• valuable: provides a return on investment for the user (acquisition cost, time spent interacting)
• physical: how the product feels, is it easy to manipulate, carry and physically interact
• sensual: arouses and gratiﬁes the senses outside of the intellectual brain
• cognitive: allows for concentration when needed, but doesn’t overwhelm the users
• emotional: creates a bond between user and brand, product, or service provided
• aesthetic: is pleasing to look at, aligns with users self-concept, aligns with expectations
context of use
• psychological: who the user “thinks” they are and what they bring to the experience, their needs,
desires, values, personality, preferences and current mindset, mentality and disposition
• relational: how the user relates or perceives the product, brand or company behind the product,
also any third-party user or company they interact with through the product
• situational: psycho-social “where” the user is communicating: in a meeting vs. alone at their desk
• environmental: physical “where” the user is communicating: noise level, distractions, lighting, time
of day, etc.
• cultural: what is perceived as acceptable and unacceptable from a societal perspective
an experience framework
• sub-conscious: the most automatic or ﬂuent
• experience: consistent stream of input in context
of situational, environmental and perception
• cognition: experience that demands user to
concentrate on how to use the product
• narrative: experiences that have been formalized
in the users head explaining what to do or what
has been done
• storytelling: remembering and communicating
subjective aspects of experience. Gives meaning
a hierarchy of UX?
• user and product working together seamlessly to accomplish goals
• pride of use, pride of competence with product
• emotional bond, personal connection, loyalty
• fails gracefully, promotes exploration
• functional, does what it’s supposed to
brand & user experience
• user experiences are enhanced customer-to-brand touch-points
• the more interactions a user has with a brand, the more the message is reinforced
• good branding personiﬁes a company; good ux personiﬁes a product or service as well as the company
• ux, like branding, allows users to attribute emotions and create bonds otherwise impossible with inanimate
• the experience a user has with a companies’ product is more valid, persuasive, and powerful than advertising
• user experience is the new brand ambassador in a world where individuals don’t pay attention to advertising
• negative ux can hurt a brand, but poor brand perception can prevent a product from ever being used
roles & titles
• ethnography/ anthropology/ • functional design
cognitive psych/ research
• graphic design
• human factors design
• user Interface design
• content design
• usability design
• information architecture
• interaction design
roles & titles
• separate the work from the worker
• should not be separate titles, but tasks performed by members of a
• each task should be performed on rotation, cross-pollination
• JJG: “we are all user experience designers” - IA Summit ‘09
where UXD ﬁts in product development
• user experience needs to start at the beginning of the project
• research should not only inform the experience, but the direction of the
• needs to be considered and consulted throughout
• evaluates and measures success to gain insight
• iterate, iterate, iterate...
why thoughtful UX design matters...
• UX goes beyond the screen, into the thoughts and emotions of the user creating stronger connections
• a products user experience is the new brand ambassador in a world where individuals don’t pay attention to
• prevent the commoditization of a product
• reduce price sensitivity of the product
• increase customer acquisition and retention
• protect against competitive threat by building stronger bonds with users
• users will feel the company behind the product cares more about them
• can mitigate excessive feature bloat - the reason software is versioned
• micro interactions culminate into a uniﬁed macro experience
mobilize, don’t... cripple
• mobile UX is no longer simply about short task completion.
• users beginning to perform exploratory and organic browsing tasks on
mobile web (mobile safari, 3G, Wi-Fi)
• don’t omit features to make products more mobile centric, provide full
featured products with mobile-optimized task ﬂows
• mobile speciﬁc features that take advantage of mobile-only capabilities
different contexts of use
• environmental differences
• situational differences
• relational differences
• cultural & social differences
• plan for interruption
• casual interruptions
• disruptive interruptions
• dangerous interruptions
• mobile as an interruption to life
• different motivations
• different desires
• different goals
different physical and technical constraints
• size of screen • user settings, pre-set
• size of physical buttons
• available networking protocols
• portability of device itself
• available bandwidth
• inherent capabilities of product
type (app, web, WAP) • network latency
• hardware limitations • battery life
more mobile UX considerations...
• mobile products allow users to fail gracefully, encouraging more curious and exploratory mentalities
when using devices
• mobile UX should never need a help system
• mobile UX is no longer simply about short task completion. Now performing exploratory and organic
browsing tasks more and more
• the problem now is not to omit features to make products more mobile centric, but rather to provide full
featured products with mobile-optimized task ﬂows
• different scenarios will bring about different purposes or goals in the user - the desk chair in front of the
computer will afford the user more time, patience, and less distractions than walking down the street
using a mobile app
• features & functionality need to be more carefully balanced with simplicity & effectiveness
iPhone as a catalyst
• the iPhone UX has raised the expectations of the general public from
accepting poor, difﬁcult device software to why doesn’t it just work the
way I want it to?
• gestural touch is the biggest leap in input method since the mouse
• a wake up call to the rest of the industry - from OEMS, to software
developers, to the telcos
• made mobile a platform, not an afterthought
the future of mobile user experience
• awareness of not just location, but context of location, situation, environment and other
individuals around you - automatically adapting the priority of user interface elements,
features and functionality to the current situation
• persistent and instant cloud sharing of data between all devices, your friends and family
creating an always on, pervasive “you” ecosystem
• smart agents that not only ﬁnd what you know you’re looking for, but anticipate and ﬁnd
things you didn’t know you wanted or needed
• mobile vs. desktop experiences as separate concepts will dissolve and information/ data
experiences will evolve
• concept of an “App” will change
• the evolution of mobile user experience will not be made by the big
software companies, the handset manufacturers, or the carriers, it will
become what we, the designers and developers of mobile applications
and products make it to be