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Evaluation in the
decentralised System –
Innovative approach


     Sampo Suihko
Content of presentation


•   Espoo – speakers homecourt
•   Finnish necessity – education for all
•   Perspective from a providers sight
•   What are we evaluating – and why
•   How we are evaluating




                                            15.02.13
                                                   2
Backround of the speaker

• City of Espoo; Deputy Mayor of Education and Culture
• EUproVET, Chairman of the Board
• VET Finland, Vice-Chairman of the Board
• Finnish Education Evaluation Council; member of experts
• Quality Prize Committee; member of experts (vocational
  education)
• International Coordination Committee; member of experts
  (Ministry of Education)
• EU Twinning project in Egypt; Project Leader
  ”Strengthening the Institutional Capacity of the
  Productivity and Vocational Training Department”
                                                     15.02.13
                                                            3
The City of Espoo
                                   Mission Statement

                 The City of Espoo creates the preconditions

                for a good quality of life for residents and

                offers enterprises an internationally competitive
                operational milieu that complies with the
                principles of sustainable development.



A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in.           15.02.13
                                                                      4
Centrally located between
Europe, Russia and Asia



                       Bangkok         9 h 45 min
                       Beijing         7 h 40 min
                       Berlin          1 h 55 min
                       Brussels        2 h 40 min
                       Chicago         9 h 35 min
                       Copenhagen      1 h 40 min
                       Frankfurt       2 h 40 min
                       Hong Kong       9 h 50 min
                       London          3 h 10 min
                       Moscow          1 h 45 min
                 o
           Espoegion
              iR
                       Delhi
                       New York
                                       6 h 45 min
                                       8 h 40 min
             i nk
         Hels          Osaka           9 h 35 min
                       Paris           3 h 05 min
                       Seoul           8 h 45 min
                       Shanghai        8 h 55 min
                       Singapore       11 h 30 min
                       St Petersburg   1h
                       Stockholm       55 min
                       Tokyo           9 h 40 min
                       Toronto         8 h 50 min
A City like a Central Park

               •     The northern parts of Espoo are mainly fields and
                     forests, recreation and conservation areas.

               •     Nuuksio National Park is only 20 km air distance away
                     from Nokia headquarters.

               •     Green space is never further away than 1 km.

               •     58 km coastline, 95 lakes and 165 islands




A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in.                         15.02.13
                                                                                   6
A High-Tech Economy

            •    Northern Europe’s largest high-tech hub in Otaniemi
            •    Over 20 % of jobs in ICT
            •    Biggest employers are the municipality, Nokia, the Technical
                 Research Centre of Finland VTT and the Aalto University
            •    More than 60 % of turnover at Helsinki Stock Exchange
            •    About 400 global companies and headquarters,
                 including Nokia, Kone and Rovio




A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in.                        15.02.13
                                                                                  7
A Young and
                                  Fast Developing City

   •    The population has increased tenfold in the last fifty years
        and by 2030 the population will grow by 24 % to 310,000.
   •    20 % of our residents are under 15 (EU 15,5 %).
   •    44 % of our residents over 15 have a university diploma (EU 23 %).
   •    Our international community will grow from 10 % to 17 % by 2030.




A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in.                   15.02.13
                                                                             8
Highest quality education

                                  •   The City of Espoo offers quality
                                      services and versatile
                                      recreational opportunities for its
                                      residents
                                  •   The second largest city in
                                      Finland (pop. around 260 000)
                                  •   As part of the metropolitan area,
                                      Espoo is globally recognised as
                                      a networked city with special
                                      expertise in high technology,
                                      education, culture, physical
                                      exercise, research and
                                      innovations

Finnish Education Unit                                              15.02.13
                                                                           9
A Good City to Grow Up In

             •     Decentralised day care: Small groups, always nearby
             •     Day care in Finnish, Swedish, English and French
             •     OECD: Finnish education is one of the best in the world
             •     Instruction in one’s mother tongue for 30 language groups
             •     Primary and secondary education in English
             •     International Baccalaureate (IB)




A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in.
A Multifaceted Professional
Education Environment

Metropolia University of Applied Sciences


Laurea University of Applied Sciences


Omnia – Joint Authority of Education in Espoo Region
A World-Class University

•   Aalto University – Where Science and Art meet Technology and Business
•   20,000 students, 340 professors, € 400M Budget
•   Independent governance as foundation-based university
•   Cooperation with e.g. Stanford University and Tongij University (CHN)
•   Strategic partnerships with Microsoft, Nokia, PWC, Kone and others
•   Aalto Center for Entrepreneurship
Key figures of schools

•   97 comprehensive schools with roughly 27 000 pupils
     – 83 Finnish-speaking comprehensive schools
          • 24 000 pupils, of which roughly 8 000 in middle schools
          • about 2 000 teachers
     – 12 Swedish-speaking comprehensive schools
          • about 2 600 pupils in total
     – 2 private schools
•   11 Finnish-speaking general upper secondary schools
     – About 4 600 students and roughly 300 teachers
•   1 general upper secondary school for adults (about 1 500 students)
•   1 Swedish-speaking general upper secondary school (about 500
    students)
•   Several upper secondary vocational education and training
    institutions, of which the largest is Omnia, about 10 000 students and 600
    teachers                                                              15.02.13
                                                                                13
Pre-primary education

            • Given in schools and day-
              care centres
            • Lays emphasis on the
              preparation for school
            • Special attention is paid to
              readiness for school
              attendance, i.e. to the phase of
              the child’s emotional, social
              and cognitive development
            • Approximately 98 % of Espoo’s
              6-year-olds attend pre-primary
              education


Finnish Education Unit                           15.02.13
                                                       14
How the schools are run

•   The Education and Cultural Services of Espoo organise basic
    education, pre-primary education and general upper secondary
    education in the city and vocational education in the area together
    with two other cities
•   Teaching is provided in Finnish-speaking and Swedish-
    speaking schools that are administered in different units
•   Both units
•   are responsible for organising, evaluating and developing
    education in Finnish-speaking schools
•   coordinate the organisation of student welfare and special support
    to pupils
•   arrange for continuing education to teachers in cooperation with
    the schools

                                                                  15.02.13
                                                                        15
Educational and Cultural Services
           expenditure 2013 (676 EUR mil.)
                            Youth      Other Educational
          Urban culture   6 EUR mil.         work
           27 EUR mil.                    27 EUR mil.
        Sports and
         Exercise
       31 EUR mil.
Free educational
      work
   39 EUR mil.
                                                           Finnish Child Day
Swedish Child Day                                              Care and
    Care and                                                  Education
   Education                                                 482 EUR Mil.
  54 EUR mil.


                                                                               15.02.13
                                                                                     16
The Finnish Education System


• Every citizen has the
  right to receive education
• Basic education is free
  for all
• The key words in Finnish
  education policy are
  quality, efficiency,
  equity and
  internationalisation.


                                      15.02.13
                                            17
The Finnish Education system


    Flexibility and diversity
    • School-based curriculum development,
    • Steering by information and support.
    Emphasis on broad knowledge
    • Equal value to all aspects of individual growth and learning:
    personality, morality, creativity, knowledge and skills.
    Trust through professionalism
    • A culture of trust on teachers’ and headmasters’
    professionalism in judging what is best for students
    and in reporting of progress.


.                                                                 15.02.13
                                                                       18
The Finnish Education System


• pre-primary
  education
• nine years of
  basic
  education
• general upper
  secondary
  education
  or vocational
  education and
  training
• higher
  education
• adult education                        15.02.13
                                               19
Basic Education in short

        • A nine-year comprehensive
          curriculum for the whole
          age group
        • No degree; a final
          certificate will be given for
          completing the syllabus
        • Teaching, text books and
          other materials, school
          transport and school
          meals are free
        • Provides the necessary
          prerequisites for all upper
          secondary education
Finnish Education Unit                              15.02.13
                                                          20
andreas schleicher
               Head of the indicators and analysis division at OECD
               In the best performing countries


•   Decentralized decision making is combined with devices
    to ensure a fair distribution of substantive educational
    opportunities

•   The provision of standards and curricula at national /
    sub-national levels is combined with advanced
    evaluation systems

•   Process-oriented assessments and/or centralised final
    examinations are complemented with individual reports
    and feedback mechanisms on student learning process

                                                                      15.02.13
                                                                            21
andreas schleicher
            In the best performing countries

•   Teacher training schemes are selective

•   The training of pre-school personnel is closely
    inegrated with the professional development of
    teachers

•   Continuing professional development is a constitutive
    part of the system

•   Special attention is paid to the professional
    development of school management personnel

                                                            15.02.13
                                                                  22
andreas schleicher
                   In the best performing countries

•   Students are offered a variety of extra curricular activities

•   Schools offer differentiated support structures for students

•   Institutional differentiation is introduced, if at all, at later stages

•   Effective support systems are located at individual school level
    or in specialised support institutions

•   Schools and teachers have explicit strategies and approaches
    for teaching heterogeneous groups of learners

                                                                              15.02.13
                                                                                    23
International evaluations

• PISA (Programme for International Students
  Assessments); OECD
• PIAAC (Programme for the International Assessment of
  Adult Competencies), OECD
The International Association for the Evaluation of
  Educational Achievement)
• PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy
  Study)
• TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and
  Science Study
• European schoolnet evaluation
                                                   15.02.13
                                                         24
Finnish Success – PISA
     Since the launch of PISA Finland has scored
     in the top five in all three components..




,.                                                 15.02.13
                                                        25
PISA 2009; 65 countries
    Young Finns were again among the best performers in the
    assessment of reading, mathematical and scientific literacy

    A slight fall, but still among OECD top

    Variation in different aspects of reading

    Girls have a huge lead over boys in reading

    Interest in reading and mastery of strategies crucial

    Variation between schools still minimal

A
    Mathematical literacy the same, scientific literacy falling slightly 15.02.13
                                                                               26
The roots for the Finnish success in PISA can be
searched for in the history and rapid development of
the Finnish well-fare state as well as in the bold
education policy of the past forty years with its
emphasis on educational equality.



                                                  15.02.13
                                                       27
Evaluation in Finnish education


• PISA scores are by-products, we do not teach to
  PISA
• The important role of self-evaluation
• Student centered approaches and inclusion
• Accomodating special needs in evaluation
• Use of modern technology and eg. eportfolios, class
  wikis and blogs
• Evaluation of teachers and schools - why ranking
  has not been a real issue in Finland
                                                  15.02.13
                                                        28
National evaluations


•   National questionnairs
•   Local questionnairs
•   Principles questionnairs
•   Healthcare questionnairs
•   Finnish evaluation committee
•   Universities

No school inspection.

                                   15.02.13
                                         29
Why Finland succeeds?


             •   Education is highly valued in the society
             •   National (only!) core curricula
             •   Student support and wellfare
             •   School development is based on cooperation of
                 many authorities and parents




Tapio Erma                                                 15.02.13
                                                                 30
Why Finland succeeds?


             •   Nationwide educational system
             •   Professional, excellent teachers
             •   Independancy of the schools
             •   Excellent free library-network in every city




Tapio Erma                                                      15.02.13
                                                                      31
Autonomy

Decentralization

State guidance


                   15.02.13
                         32
No inspection – so how does
             the state guide ed?




Tapio Erma                                 15.02.13
                                                 33
Curriculum

   •    The Finnish National Board of
        Education prepares the national
        core curriculum for basic education
        and general upper secondary
        education

                 Municipalities compile
                  municipality-specific
                  curricula

                          Individual schools
                           prepare their own
                           school curricula


Finnish Education Unit                          15.02.13
                                                      34
Curriculum

• The Government defines the minimum
  number of lessons for core subjects
  during basic education
   – In grades 1–6, pupils usually receive
     the same education, but schools
     may focus on different subjects in
     different ways due to the flexible time
     allocation.
   – In grades 7–9, more elective
     subjects are included in the
     curriculum.
                                               15.02.13
                                                     35
Decentralization of the
                     curriculum
                                           Cal
                                           Eng

                          Bel
                        G/NW
Centralized                                      Decentr
                                           Fin   alized


                                         Net

                                   Swe

                          Por


  Source: SLO 2005                                  15.02.13
                                                          36
A three-level curriculum


1. National core curriculum

2. Local curriculum

3. School-level curriculum




                                    15.02.13
                                          37
A three-level curriculum


1. National core curriculum

2. Local curriculum
   city values, profiles,
   language programme,
   structures for support, Espoo
   specific contents
3. School-level curriculum
   optional courses, learning
   units, methods, evaluation
                                    15.02.13
                                          38
Competent teachers
        •    On all school levels, teachers are
             highly qualified and committed.
        •    A master’s degree is required.
        •    Teacher education includes
             teaching practice.
        •    The teaching profession is very
             popular in Finland, and hence
             universities can select the most
             motivated and talented applicants.
        •    Teachers work independently and
             enjoy full autonomy in the
             classroom.



Finnish Education Unit                            15.02.13
                                                        39
Competent teachers

Instruction may be given by
     • kindergarten teachers
          o pre-primary education in separate pre-primary classes
     • class teachers
          o instruction for grades 1–6 in basic education, teaching all
            subjects
          o may also give pre-primary education
     • subject teachers
          o teach one or several subjects in basic education (primarily in
            grades 7–9) and/or in general upper secondary education
     • special needs teachers and special class teachers
          o instruction for children in need of special needs education
     • pupil counsellors and student counsellors
          o educational guidance in basic education and in general
            upper secondary education.


                                                                             15.02.13
                                                                                   40
Basic Education, € / student




                               16.1.2012
                                      41
Student associations -
          participation

• Pupils vote for a representative from each grade into
  the board of the school’s student association
• The board plans presentations and proposals
• Improves everyday life at school from the
  perspective of pupils
• Develops the pupils’ possibilities to have an
  influence
• Improves the communal sprit of the school


                                                   15.02.13
                                                         42
Youth guarantee 2013


Society’s large-scale problems related to the
education, employment and participation of young
people.

Private-People Partnership approach based on which
young people themselves are active participants and
make decisions regarding their own future.



                                                   15.02.13
                                                        43
President Niinistö on the social exclusion of
              young people: We all have a responsibility in this

              President Niinistö stressed that the contribution of
              each and every adult is needed to prevent the social
              exclusion of young



A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in.            15.02.13
                                                                     44
Educational guarantee – a study place
          for everyone finishing basic education


The educational guarantee secures every comprehensive school
graduate a place in a general upper secondary school or
vocational school, an apprenticeship, a workshop or vocational
rehabilitation place, or a place in some other form of study.

The guarantee sets out aims to provide all young people with
realistic opportunities to pursue and complete a post-basic
qualification and find employment. Simultaneously, attention is
paid to not leaving young people without a study place or work
for too long, as this increases their risk of social exclusion.


                                                             15.02.13
                                                                  45
Even just one everyday thing

Wellbeing of young people cannot be pursued by official action
and committee reports alone. The entire community around a
young person growing up has a huge impact: home, family,
neighbours, friends, daycare, school and hobbies.

All these are communities that help shape what a young person
becomes. We all have a responsibility in this

What we need are solutions that are simple enough and easy
enough to put into practice.


                                                             15.02.13
                                                                  46
The Finnish Education
            Evaluation Council
• Serves as an expert body for educational evaluation in
  connection with the Ministry of Education and Culture

• The operations of the Council are prepared and organized by
  the Secretariat of the FEEC

• FEEC is a separate institute within the University of Jyväskylä




                                                              15.02.13
                                                                    47
Operation of the Education
                Evaluation council
•   The Council is appointed as an independent body by the Ministry
    of Education and Culture and has 14 members maximum.

•   The Council, together with the Ministry of Education and Culture,
    is responsible for educational evaluation and its development in
    the areas of basic education, upper secondary school education,
    vocational education and vocational adult education as well as
    independent civic education.

•   Evaluation supports decision making by the Ministry of Education
    and Culture, education providers and educational institutes


                                                                 15.02.13
                                                                       48
Values of evaluation


•   Evaluation supports the promotion of educational equality.

•   Fairness means establishing an ethically sound basis for
    evaluation and refraining from comparisons that could
    damage the target.

•   Truthfulness refers to ethically high-level responsibility,a
    critical approach, and optimal reliability in evaluation

•   Constructive evaluation.


                                                                   15.02.13
                                                                         49
Priciples of evaluation

• Evaluation is independent.

• Evaluation involves active participation.

• Evaluation aims at quality.

• Evaluation is based on openness.

• Evaluation promotes development.

• Evaluation is efficient and economical.


                                              15.02.13
                                                    50
The aims of evaluation

•   Evaluation seeks to acquire and analyze data
in order to provide a basis for national education
    policy and local decision-making as well as for
educational development.

•  In addition, it aims to support students’
learning, the work of educational personnel, and
the development of educational institutes.




                                                      15.02.13
                                                            51
Evaluation methods


•   The Council develops evaluation methods for the
    needs of various users.

•   National evaluations will make use of
    self-evaluations both by education providers and
    by educational institutes and also disseminate
    successful practices.




                                                       15.02.13
                                                             52
Utilisation of evaluation
           information
•   Evaluation information plays a central role in the
    formation of education policy and in educational
    development.

•   The emphasis of the evaluation programme is on the
    appropriateness, timeliness, and versatility of
    evaluation.

•    In evaluation activities a premium is placed on
    customer-oriented reporting, development
    recommendations and consultative support at the
    customer’s request.
                                                         15.02.13
                                                               53
Communication and
            information
• The transparency and effectiveness of educational
evaluation will be promoted by the release of evaluation
results in the Council’s publication series.

• Education providers and educational institutes
concerned will always be notified of the evaluation results,
and schools will not be ranked.

• Evaluation publications are available also on the web.
Evaluation reports will include an abstract in English.

• The Council produce publications concerning evaluation
                                                               15.02.13
methodology.                                                         54
Learner evaluation


• Self-evaluation
• Grades, and semester evaluation
• National tests on mathematics and finnish
  language to define support needs
• Social and healthcare

No tests geared towards ranking


                                              15.02.13
                                                    55
Teacher evaluation


•   Development discussions
•   Peer feedback
•   Self-evaluation
•   Feedback from the parents
•   Direct feedback from the learners




                                        15.02.13
                                              56
Examples of Evaluations

• Basic educational security, special needs education,
  remedial teaching and student welfare services in basic
  education.
• The need for special education in upper secondary schools.
• From goals to interaction. Evaluation of pedagogy in Finnish
  basic education.
• Evaluation of pedagogy in Finnish upper secondary
  education
• The functionality of the Finnish pre-primary and basic
  education curriculum system

                                                         15.02.13
                                                               57
Educational outcomes and health of
                                     children – process of segregation in the
                                     Helsinki Metropolitan Area - MetrOP
              •     Focus: increasing differentiation in children’s educational outcomes
                    and health as components of a process of social and spatial
                    segregation in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA)
              •     Research team:
                     – Tampere University (School of Public Health and Medical School)
                     – National Institute for Health and Welfare
                     – University of Helsinki (Geography Department and Centre for
                        Educational Assessment)
              •     HMA: the commuting zone of Helsinki (1.2 million inhabitants, 14
                    municipalities)
              •     the city of Espoo one of the municipalities



Tekijätiedot ja/tai esityksen nimi                                                 15.02.13
                                                                                        58
Educational outcomes and health of
                          children – process of segregation in the
                          Helsinki Metropolitan Area - MetrOP
          •           in 2012 all 7th graders (13 years old) were included in the survey: in
                      Espoo 29 schools participated
               • some results of the study:
                        – girls succeeded somewhat better than boys in all areas of the
                            study
                        – clear connection between the parents’ educational background
                            and the educational outcomes of the children
                        – negative attitudes on learning have a slightly stronger connection
                            on educational outcomes than positive
                        – clear differences between schools were detected when the
                            educational outcomes and the pupils’ school marks at the 6th
                            grade were compared
                        – in terms of educational outcomes, Espoo was found to be above
                            the average and in terms of health, on the normal level
               • the final
Tekijätiedot ja/tai esityksen nimi report will be published in 2013                     15.02.13
                                                                                             59
Educational outcomes and health of
                                     children – process of segregation in the
                                     Helsinki Metropolitan Area - MetrOP
              •     in 2012 all 7th graders (13 years old) were included in the survey: in
                    Espoo 29 schools participated
              •     some results of the study:
                      – girls succeeded somewhat better than boys in all areas of the study
                      – clear connection between the parents’ educational background and
                         the educational outcomes of the children
                      – negative attitudes on learning have a slightly stronger connection on
                         educational outcomes than positive
                      – clear differences between schools were detected when the
                         educational outcomes and the pupils’ school marks at the 6th grade
                         were compared
                      – in terms of educational outcomes, Espoo was found to be above the
                         average and in terms of health, on the normal level
              •     the final report will be published in 2013


Tekijätiedot ja/tai esityksen nimi                                                       15.02.13
                                                                                                60
Linkage between external and local
          evaluation and external support to education
          providers
• Education providers evaluate their own provision
of education and decide on their own evaluation models,
   methods and indicators.
National evaluations make use of the evaluations carried out by
   educational providers and educational institutes.

• To support local evaluation, efforts will be made to develop a
relevant expertise reserve, networked evaluation culture,
evaluationmodels, methods, criteria, measures, and indicators
as well as information networks.



                                                           15.02.13
                                                                 61
Networks and other co-
              operation in evaluation

•  The evaluation system will be developed and the
evaluations carried out through a network that is built on
partnership with experts from science and research,
educational administration, teaching, and various interest groups.

•   Major partners in international co-operation include
evaluation organisations from different countries along with the
Nordic Council of Ministers, the CEDEFOP, the OECD, and
the EU. The Education Evaluation Council contributes actively
to the European evaluation policy and culture.

                                                                   15.02.13
                                                                         62
• Every school is consequently expected to
  provide an adequate learning environment for
  every pupil and it is therefore a big challenge for
  an individual school to build a full functioning
  support system for a very heterogeneous group
  of pupils. It will require a great deal of
  development work if inclusion is to be
  incorporated into Finnish schools.



                                                 15.02.13
                                                       64
Autonomy


  State            Municipality   Principal


Municipality        School /      Teacher
                    Principal
                                  Learner




                                              15.02.13
                                                    65
Autonomy
•   Administration
•   Finances
•   Grouping
•   Recruiting
•   Number of schools
•   The evaluation system
•   Profiled education
•   Education in other languages
•   In-house training
•   Languages offered
                                   15.02.13
                                         66
Evaluation in Espoo

•   The self-evaluation of school activities in our school is systematic.

•   The evaluation of school activities complies with ethical principles
    (such as objectivity, confidentiality, ways that the evaluation and its
    outcomes are used).

•   The outcomes of the self-evaluation of our school are taken into
    account in the plans for academic years.

•   The information generated by evaluations leads to practical
    improvements in our school.
•   .

                                                                       15.02.13
                                                                             67
Evaluation in Espoo

• Guardians are informed of the key evaluation data concerning
  our school.

• The quality of pupil assessments in our school is consistent.

• Pupils are allowed to demonstrate their true potential through
  diverse assessment methods.

• ADDITIONAL STATEMENTS
• The implementation of the plan for the academic year is
  evaluated regularly.
• The implementation of the curriculum is evaluated regularly.
                                                             15.02.13
                                                                   68
15.02.13
      69
Tapio Erma   15.02.13
                   70
SELF-EVALUATION OF SCHOOLS
                                 IN THE CITY OF ESPOO
                                         •   Self-evaluation helps schools to pinpoint strengths and challenges
                                             and develope key processes. School´s an evaluation plan guides
                                             the evaluation process over a three-year period.
                                         •   Self-evaluation tools:
                                              –   Primary and secondary schools: Self-evaluation Questionnaire for
                                                  Basic Education in Espoo (based on National Quality Criterias for
                                                  Basic Education) and Manual
                                              –   Upper secondary schools: EfeCaf (EFQM)
                                         •   Subjects of evaluation: Productivity in education, Learning
                                             environment, Student services, Management and leadership, Personnel
                                             welfare, Studet welware

•   Self-evaluation is based on the
    collected key evaluation data.
•   Schools analyse the results
    by themselves and also write
    the evaluation report and
    development plans.
•   Finnish Education Unit in
    Espoo uses the collected
    evaluation data as a part of it´s
    development and planning.
    Tekijätiedot ja/tai esityksen nimi                                                                      15.02.13
                                                                                                                  71
• Self- evaluation and audition have become
  common as an apparatus of evaluation in
  Finnish schools but they must be used
  systematically and regularly to provide useful
  information on the quality and content of the
  basic processes and procedures in school.




                                                   15.02.13
                                                         72

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Riad sent 20.2.2013 suihko

  • 1. Evaluation in the decentralised System – Innovative approach Sampo Suihko
  • 2. Content of presentation • Espoo – speakers homecourt • Finnish necessity – education for all • Perspective from a providers sight • What are we evaluating – and why • How we are evaluating 15.02.13 2
  • 3. Backround of the speaker • City of Espoo; Deputy Mayor of Education and Culture • EUproVET, Chairman of the Board • VET Finland, Vice-Chairman of the Board • Finnish Education Evaluation Council; member of experts • Quality Prize Committee; member of experts (vocational education) • International Coordination Committee; member of experts (Ministry of Education) • EU Twinning project in Egypt; Project Leader ”Strengthening the Institutional Capacity of the Productivity and Vocational Training Department” 15.02.13 3
  • 4. The City of Espoo Mission Statement The City of Espoo creates the preconditions for a good quality of life for residents and offers enterprises an internationally competitive operational milieu that complies with the principles of sustainable development. A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in. 15.02.13 4
  • 5. Centrally located between Europe, Russia and Asia Bangkok 9 h 45 min Beijing 7 h 40 min Berlin 1 h 55 min Brussels 2 h 40 min Chicago 9 h 35 min Copenhagen 1 h 40 min Frankfurt 2 h 40 min Hong Kong 9 h 50 min London 3 h 10 min Moscow 1 h 45 min o Espoegion iR Delhi New York 6 h 45 min 8 h 40 min i nk Hels Osaka 9 h 35 min Paris 3 h 05 min Seoul 8 h 45 min Shanghai 8 h 55 min Singapore 11 h 30 min St Petersburg 1h Stockholm 55 min Tokyo 9 h 40 min Toronto 8 h 50 min
  • 6. A City like a Central Park • The northern parts of Espoo are mainly fields and forests, recreation and conservation areas. • Nuuksio National Park is only 20 km air distance away from Nokia headquarters. • Green space is never further away than 1 km. • 58 km coastline, 95 lakes and 165 islands A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in. 15.02.13 6
  • 7. A High-Tech Economy • Northern Europe’s largest high-tech hub in Otaniemi • Over 20 % of jobs in ICT • Biggest employers are the municipality, Nokia, the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT and the Aalto University • More than 60 % of turnover at Helsinki Stock Exchange • About 400 global companies and headquarters, including Nokia, Kone and Rovio A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in. 15.02.13 7
  • 8. A Young and Fast Developing City • The population has increased tenfold in the last fifty years and by 2030 the population will grow by 24 % to 310,000. • 20 % of our residents are under 15 (EU 15,5 %). • 44 % of our residents over 15 have a university diploma (EU 23 %). • Our international community will grow from 10 % to 17 % by 2030. A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in. 15.02.13 8
  • 9. Highest quality education • The City of Espoo offers quality services and versatile recreational opportunities for its residents • The second largest city in Finland (pop. around 260 000) • As part of the metropolitan area, Espoo is globally recognised as a networked city with special expertise in high technology, education, culture, physical exercise, research and innovations Finnish Education Unit 15.02.13 9
  • 10. A Good City to Grow Up In • Decentralised day care: Small groups, always nearby • Day care in Finnish, Swedish, English and French • OECD: Finnish education is one of the best in the world • Instruction in one’s mother tongue for 30 language groups • Primary and secondary education in English • International Baccalaureate (IB) A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in.
  • 11. A Multifaceted Professional Education Environment Metropolia University of Applied Sciences Laurea University of Applied Sciences Omnia – Joint Authority of Education in Espoo Region
  • 12. A World-Class University • Aalto University – Where Science and Art meet Technology and Business • 20,000 students, 340 professors, € 400M Budget • Independent governance as foundation-based university • Cooperation with e.g. Stanford University and Tongij University (CHN) • Strategic partnerships with Microsoft, Nokia, PWC, Kone and others • Aalto Center for Entrepreneurship
  • 13. Key figures of schools • 97 comprehensive schools with roughly 27 000 pupils – 83 Finnish-speaking comprehensive schools • 24 000 pupils, of which roughly 8 000 in middle schools • about 2 000 teachers – 12 Swedish-speaking comprehensive schools • about 2 600 pupils in total – 2 private schools • 11 Finnish-speaking general upper secondary schools – About 4 600 students and roughly 300 teachers • 1 general upper secondary school for adults (about 1 500 students) • 1 Swedish-speaking general upper secondary school (about 500 students) • Several upper secondary vocational education and training institutions, of which the largest is Omnia, about 10 000 students and 600 teachers 15.02.13 13
  • 14. Pre-primary education • Given in schools and day- care centres • Lays emphasis on the preparation for school • Special attention is paid to readiness for school attendance, i.e. to the phase of the child’s emotional, social and cognitive development • Approximately 98 % of Espoo’s 6-year-olds attend pre-primary education Finnish Education Unit 15.02.13 14
  • 15. How the schools are run • The Education and Cultural Services of Espoo organise basic education, pre-primary education and general upper secondary education in the city and vocational education in the area together with two other cities • Teaching is provided in Finnish-speaking and Swedish- speaking schools that are administered in different units • Both units • are responsible for organising, evaluating and developing education in Finnish-speaking schools • coordinate the organisation of student welfare and special support to pupils • arrange for continuing education to teachers in cooperation with the schools 15.02.13 15
  • 16. Educational and Cultural Services expenditure 2013 (676 EUR mil.) Youth Other Educational Urban culture 6 EUR mil. work 27 EUR mil. 27 EUR mil. Sports and Exercise 31 EUR mil. Free educational work 39 EUR mil. Finnish Child Day Swedish Child Day Care and Care and Education Education 482 EUR Mil. 54 EUR mil. 15.02.13 16
  • 17. The Finnish Education System • Every citizen has the right to receive education • Basic education is free for all • The key words in Finnish education policy are quality, efficiency, equity and internationalisation. 15.02.13 17
  • 18. The Finnish Education system Flexibility and diversity • School-based curriculum development, • Steering by information and support. Emphasis on broad knowledge • Equal value to all aspects of individual growth and learning: personality, morality, creativity, knowledge and skills. Trust through professionalism • A culture of trust on teachers’ and headmasters’ professionalism in judging what is best for students and in reporting of progress. . 15.02.13 18
  • 19. The Finnish Education System • pre-primary education • nine years of basic education • general upper secondary education or vocational education and training • higher education • adult education 15.02.13 19
  • 20. Basic Education in short • A nine-year comprehensive curriculum for the whole age group • No degree; a final certificate will be given for completing the syllabus • Teaching, text books and other materials, school transport and school meals are free • Provides the necessary prerequisites for all upper secondary education Finnish Education Unit 15.02.13 20
  • 21. andreas schleicher Head of the indicators and analysis division at OECD In the best performing countries • Decentralized decision making is combined with devices to ensure a fair distribution of substantive educational opportunities • The provision of standards and curricula at national / sub-national levels is combined with advanced evaluation systems • Process-oriented assessments and/or centralised final examinations are complemented with individual reports and feedback mechanisms on student learning process 15.02.13 21
  • 22. andreas schleicher In the best performing countries • Teacher training schemes are selective • The training of pre-school personnel is closely inegrated with the professional development of teachers • Continuing professional development is a constitutive part of the system • Special attention is paid to the professional development of school management personnel 15.02.13 22
  • 23. andreas schleicher In the best performing countries • Students are offered a variety of extra curricular activities • Schools offer differentiated support structures for students • Institutional differentiation is introduced, if at all, at later stages • Effective support systems are located at individual school level or in specialised support institutions • Schools and teachers have explicit strategies and approaches for teaching heterogeneous groups of learners 15.02.13 23
  • 24. International evaluations • PISA (Programme for International Students Assessments); OECD • PIAAC (Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies), OECD The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) • PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) • TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study • European schoolnet evaluation 15.02.13 24
  • 25. Finnish Success – PISA Since the launch of PISA Finland has scored in the top five in all three components.. ,. 15.02.13 25
  • 26. PISA 2009; 65 countries Young Finns were again among the best performers in the assessment of reading, mathematical and scientific literacy A slight fall, but still among OECD top Variation in different aspects of reading Girls have a huge lead over boys in reading Interest in reading and mastery of strategies crucial Variation between schools still minimal A Mathematical literacy the same, scientific literacy falling slightly 15.02.13 26
  • 27. The roots for the Finnish success in PISA can be searched for in the history and rapid development of the Finnish well-fare state as well as in the bold education policy of the past forty years with its emphasis on educational equality. 15.02.13 27
  • 28. Evaluation in Finnish education • PISA scores are by-products, we do not teach to PISA • The important role of self-evaluation • Student centered approaches and inclusion • Accomodating special needs in evaluation • Use of modern technology and eg. eportfolios, class wikis and blogs • Evaluation of teachers and schools - why ranking has not been a real issue in Finland 15.02.13 28
  • 29. National evaluations • National questionnairs • Local questionnairs • Principles questionnairs • Healthcare questionnairs • Finnish evaluation committee • Universities No school inspection. 15.02.13 29
  • 30. Why Finland succeeds? • Education is highly valued in the society • National (only!) core curricula • Student support and wellfare • School development is based on cooperation of many authorities and parents Tapio Erma 15.02.13 30
  • 31. Why Finland succeeds? • Nationwide educational system • Professional, excellent teachers • Independancy of the schools • Excellent free library-network in every city Tapio Erma 15.02.13 31
  • 33. No inspection – so how does the state guide ed? Tapio Erma 15.02.13 33
  • 34. Curriculum • The Finnish National Board of Education prepares the national core curriculum for basic education and general upper secondary education  Municipalities compile municipality-specific curricula  Individual schools prepare their own school curricula Finnish Education Unit 15.02.13 34
  • 35. Curriculum • The Government defines the minimum number of lessons for core subjects during basic education – In grades 1–6, pupils usually receive the same education, but schools may focus on different subjects in different ways due to the flexible time allocation. – In grades 7–9, more elective subjects are included in the curriculum. 15.02.13 35
  • 36. Decentralization of the curriculum Cal Eng Bel G/NW Centralized Decentr Fin alized Net Swe Por Source: SLO 2005 15.02.13 36
  • 37. A three-level curriculum 1. National core curriculum 2. Local curriculum 3. School-level curriculum 15.02.13 37
  • 38. A three-level curriculum 1. National core curriculum 2. Local curriculum city values, profiles, language programme, structures for support, Espoo specific contents 3. School-level curriculum optional courses, learning units, methods, evaluation 15.02.13 38
  • 39. Competent teachers • On all school levels, teachers are highly qualified and committed. • A master’s degree is required. • Teacher education includes teaching practice. • The teaching profession is very popular in Finland, and hence universities can select the most motivated and talented applicants. • Teachers work independently and enjoy full autonomy in the classroom. Finnish Education Unit 15.02.13 39
  • 40. Competent teachers Instruction may be given by • kindergarten teachers o pre-primary education in separate pre-primary classes • class teachers o instruction for grades 1–6 in basic education, teaching all subjects o may also give pre-primary education • subject teachers o teach one or several subjects in basic education (primarily in grades 7–9) and/or in general upper secondary education • special needs teachers and special class teachers o instruction for children in need of special needs education • pupil counsellors and student counsellors o educational guidance in basic education and in general upper secondary education. 15.02.13 40
  • 41. Basic Education, € / student 16.1.2012 41
  • 42. Student associations - participation • Pupils vote for a representative from each grade into the board of the school’s student association • The board plans presentations and proposals • Improves everyday life at school from the perspective of pupils • Develops the pupils’ possibilities to have an influence • Improves the communal sprit of the school 15.02.13 42
  • 43. Youth guarantee 2013 Society’s large-scale problems related to the education, employment and participation of young people. Private-People Partnership approach based on which young people themselves are active participants and make decisions regarding their own future. 15.02.13 43
  • 44. President Niinistö on the social exclusion of young people: We all have a responsibility in this President Niinistö stressed that the contribution of each and every adult is needed to prevent the social exclusion of young A good place to live, learn, work and enterprise in. 15.02.13 44
  • 45. Educational guarantee – a study place for everyone finishing basic education The educational guarantee secures every comprehensive school graduate a place in a general upper secondary school or vocational school, an apprenticeship, a workshop or vocational rehabilitation place, or a place in some other form of study. The guarantee sets out aims to provide all young people with realistic opportunities to pursue and complete a post-basic qualification and find employment. Simultaneously, attention is paid to not leaving young people without a study place or work for too long, as this increases their risk of social exclusion. 15.02.13 45
  • 46. Even just one everyday thing Wellbeing of young people cannot be pursued by official action and committee reports alone. The entire community around a young person growing up has a huge impact: home, family, neighbours, friends, daycare, school and hobbies. All these are communities that help shape what a young person becomes. We all have a responsibility in this What we need are solutions that are simple enough and easy enough to put into practice. 15.02.13 46
  • 47. The Finnish Education Evaluation Council • Serves as an expert body for educational evaluation in connection with the Ministry of Education and Culture • The operations of the Council are prepared and organized by the Secretariat of the FEEC • FEEC is a separate institute within the University of Jyväskylä 15.02.13 47
  • 48. Operation of the Education Evaluation council • The Council is appointed as an independent body by the Ministry of Education and Culture and has 14 members maximum. • The Council, together with the Ministry of Education and Culture, is responsible for educational evaluation and its development in the areas of basic education, upper secondary school education, vocational education and vocational adult education as well as independent civic education. • Evaluation supports decision making by the Ministry of Education and Culture, education providers and educational institutes 15.02.13 48
  • 49. Values of evaluation • Evaluation supports the promotion of educational equality. • Fairness means establishing an ethically sound basis for evaluation and refraining from comparisons that could damage the target. • Truthfulness refers to ethically high-level responsibility,a critical approach, and optimal reliability in evaluation • Constructive evaluation. 15.02.13 49
  • 50. Priciples of evaluation • Evaluation is independent. • Evaluation involves active participation. • Evaluation aims at quality. • Evaluation is based on openness. • Evaluation promotes development. • Evaluation is efficient and economical. 15.02.13 50
  • 51. The aims of evaluation • Evaluation seeks to acquire and analyze data in order to provide a basis for national education policy and local decision-making as well as for educational development. • In addition, it aims to support students’ learning, the work of educational personnel, and the development of educational institutes. 15.02.13 51
  • 52. Evaluation methods • The Council develops evaluation methods for the needs of various users. • National evaluations will make use of self-evaluations both by education providers and by educational institutes and also disseminate successful practices. 15.02.13 52
  • 53. Utilisation of evaluation information • Evaluation information plays a central role in the formation of education policy and in educational development. • The emphasis of the evaluation programme is on the appropriateness, timeliness, and versatility of evaluation. • In evaluation activities a premium is placed on customer-oriented reporting, development recommendations and consultative support at the customer’s request. 15.02.13 53
  • 54. Communication and information • The transparency and effectiveness of educational evaluation will be promoted by the release of evaluation results in the Council’s publication series. • Education providers and educational institutes concerned will always be notified of the evaluation results, and schools will not be ranked. • Evaluation publications are available also on the web. Evaluation reports will include an abstract in English. • The Council produce publications concerning evaluation 15.02.13 methodology. 54
  • 55. Learner evaluation • Self-evaluation • Grades, and semester evaluation • National tests on mathematics and finnish language to define support needs • Social and healthcare No tests geared towards ranking 15.02.13 55
  • 56. Teacher evaluation • Development discussions • Peer feedback • Self-evaluation • Feedback from the parents • Direct feedback from the learners 15.02.13 56
  • 57. Examples of Evaluations • Basic educational security, special needs education, remedial teaching and student welfare services in basic education. • The need for special education in upper secondary schools. • From goals to interaction. Evaluation of pedagogy in Finnish basic education. • Evaluation of pedagogy in Finnish upper secondary education • The functionality of the Finnish pre-primary and basic education curriculum system 15.02.13 57
  • 58. Educational outcomes and health of children – process of segregation in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area - MetrOP • Focus: increasing differentiation in children’s educational outcomes and health as components of a process of social and spatial segregation in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) • Research team: – Tampere University (School of Public Health and Medical School) – National Institute for Health and Welfare – University of Helsinki (Geography Department and Centre for Educational Assessment) • HMA: the commuting zone of Helsinki (1.2 million inhabitants, 14 municipalities) • the city of Espoo one of the municipalities Tekijätiedot ja/tai esityksen nimi 15.02.13 58
  • 59. Educational outcomes and health of children – process of segregation in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area - MetrOP • in 2012 all 7th graders (13 years old) were included in the survey: in Espoo 29 schools participated • some results of the study: – girls succeeded somewhat better than boys in all areas of the study – clear connection between the parents’ educational background and the educational outcomes of the children – negative attitudes on learning have a slightly stronger connection on educational outcomes than positive – clear differences between schools were detected when the educational outcomes and the pupils’ school marks at the 6th grade were compared – in terms of educational outcomes, Espoo was found to be above the average and in terms of health, on the normal level • the final Tekijätiedot ja/tai esityksen nimi report will be published in 2013 15.02.13 59
  • 60. Educational outcomes and health of children – process of segregation in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area - MetrOP • in 2012 all 7th graders (13 years old) were included in the survey: in Espoo 29 schools participated • some results of the study: – girls succeeded somewhat better than boys in all areas of the study – clear connection between the parents’ educational background and the educational outcomes of the children – negative attitudes on learning have a slightly stronger connection on educational outcomes than positive – clear differences between schools were detected when the educational outcomes and the pupils’ school marks at the 6th grade were compared – in terms of educational outcomes, Espoo was found to be above the average and in terms of health, on the normal level • the final report will be published in 2013 Tekijätiedot ja/tai esityksen nimi 15.02.13 60
  • 61. Linkage between external and local evaluation and external support to education providers • Education providers evaluate their own provision of education and decide on their own evaluation models, methods and indicators. National evaluations make use of the evaluations carried out by educational providers and educational institutes. • To support local evaluation, efforts will be made to develop a relevant expertise reserve, networked evaluation culture, evaluationmodels, methods, criteria, measures, and indicators as well as information networks. 15.02.13 61
  • 62. Networks and other co- operation in evaluation • The evaluation system will be developed and the evaluations carried out through a network that is built on partnership with experts from science and research, educational administration, teaching, and various interest groups. • Major partners in international co-operation include evaluation organisations from different countries along with the Nordic Council of Ministers, the CEDEFOP, the OECD, and the EU. The Education Evaluation Council contributes actively to the European evaluation policy and culture. 15.02.13 62
  • 63.
  • 64. • Every school is consequently expected to provide an adequate learning environment for every pupil and it is therefore a big challenge for an individual school to build a full functioning support system for a very heterogeneous group of pupils. It will require a great deal of development work if inclusion is to be incorporated into Finnish schools. 15.02.13 64
  • 65. Autonomy State Municipality Principal Municipality School / Teacher Principal Learner 15.02.13 65
  • 66. Autonomy • Administration • Finances • Grouping • Recruiting • Number of schools • The evaluation system • Profiled education • Education in other languages • In-house training • Languages offered 15.02.13 66
  • 67. Evaluation in Espoo • The self-evaluation of school activities in our school is systematic. • The evaluation of school activities complies with ethical principles (such as objectivity, confidentiality, ways that the evaluation and its outcomes are used). • The outcomes of the self-evaluation of our school are taken into account in the plans for academic years. • The information generated by evaluations leads to practical improvements in our school. • . 15.02.13 67
  • 68. Evaluation in Espoo • Guardians are informed of the key evaluation data concerning our school. • The quality of pupil assessments in our school is consistent. • Pupils are allowed to demonstrate their true potential through diverse assessment methods. • ADDITIONAL STATEMENTS • The implementation of the plan for the academic year is evaluated regularly. • The implementation of the curriculum is evaluated regularly. 15.02.13 68
  • 69. 15.02.13 69
  • 70. Tapio Erma 15.02.13 70
  • 71. SELF-EVALUATION OF SCHOOLS IN THE CITY OF ESPOO • Self-evaluation helps schools to pinpoint strengths and challenges and develope key processes. School´s an evaluation plan guides the evaluation process over a three-year period. • Self-evaluation tools: – Primary and secondary schools: Self-evaluation Questionnaire for Basic Education in Espoo (based on National Quality Criterias for Basic Education) and Manual – Upper secondary schools: EfeCaf (EFQM) • Subjects of evaluation: Productivity in education, Learning environment, Student services, Management and leadership, Personnel welfare, Studet welware • Self-evaluation is based on the collected key evaluation data. • Schools analyse the results by themselves and also write the evaluation report and development plans. • Finnish Education Unit in Espoo uses the collected evaluation data as a part of it´s development and planning. Tekijätiedot ja/tai esityksen nimi 15.02.13 71
  • 72. • Self- evaluation and audition have become common as an apparatus of evaluation in Finnish schools but they must be used systematically and regularly to provide useful information on the quality and content of the basic processes and procedures in school. 15.02.13 72

Editor's Notes

  1. Neighbouring municipalities: Helsinki, Vantaa, Nurmijärvi, Vihti, Kirkkonummi, Kauniainen (situated within Espoo) Area of Espoo 528 km² Land territory 312 km² Water 216 km² of which sea 198 km² Coastline 58 km The highest place in Espoo 114.2 m, Velskola. 165 islands, Pentala being the largest. 95 lakes, Bodom being the largest. Inhabitants on 1 January 2006 per sq.km on land 743
  2. TAUSTAA: The objectives and key contents of education are governed by act, degrees and the National Core Curriculum. Education providers and schools are responsible for the improvement of quality. The improvement of quality is based on the devised (=laadittu) strategy in addition to shared values, vision and mission. BASIC EDUCATION ACT - Section 21, Educational evaluation: The purpose of the evaluation of education is to assure that the purpose of this Act is carried out, to support educational development and to improve conditions for learning. 2. An education provider shall evaluate the education it provides and its impact and take part in external evaluations of its operations. … .. 4. The salient findings of evaluation shall be published. * * * * * * * * * * * 1. KOHTA: The evaluation cycle for schools is three years . The Finnish Education Unit does evaluation each year, also following through these three stages. Schools are required to submit to Finnish Education Unit the evaluation report including development plans every three years. Schools execute evaluation process by themselves : Evaluation process is planned in school´s evaluation plan. According to evaluation plan schools collect and analyse required data for evaluation, analyse the results of the self-evaluation questionnaire and finally prepare and implement the development plans. The evaluation plan describes the targets of evaluation, the evaluation criteria, the evaluation method, the evaluation schedule, the data collection method and the individuals responsible for the evaluation in terms of the municipality and the individual schools. In many schools, the planning team of the school or a specifically appointed person (member of the staff) is responsible for the evaluation process in addition to the principal. 2. KOHTA: The evaluation tools: Primary and secondary schools: Self-evaluation Questionnaire formulated in Espoo, it is based on the National Quality Criterias for Basic Education formed by the Ministry of Education and Culture (2009, completed in 2012). To support schools´ self-evaluation process a separate manual was formulated. The manual describes the three stages of evaluation. Upper secondary schools: EfeCaf- tool created for based on EFQM evaluation areas: 3. KOHTA: Schools carry out self-evaluation based on the key evaluation data collected according the evaluation plan. Key evaluation data includes: Client responses Human resource responses Active community membership Key performance results Additional information 4. KOHTA: Schools analyse the results by themselves and also write the evaluation report and development plans . As the next evaluation cycle begins, so will the targets chosen for development continue to be developed according to development plan using Demings cycle (Plan, Do, Check, Act). 5. KOHTA: Finnish Education Unit in Espoo uses the collected evaluation data from schools as a part of it´s development and planning. The Finnish Education Unit receives information for it´s evaluation through evaluation reports of the schools as well as trough national questionnaires and Espoo´s standard questionnaires, which include separate questionnaires for pupils/students, guardians and school personnel.