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EDUCATIONAL EQUITY ACCOUNT PISA 2006 in Finland  with different comparisons   University of Helsinki, Finland Jarkko Hautamäki  30.9.2009
To Start
Science 2006 (explaining, identifying, using science)  (Symbolic mapping )
Science 2006 (explaining, identifying, using science)+ (with the 2 science attitude-scales) OECD countries
A general problem or an issue for interpreting and using PISA type of information: so what?
Among School Children ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Among School Children solving PISA items ,[object Object],[object Object]
Developing national education using causal information ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Developing national education using causal information - 2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Developing national education using causal information - 3 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Developing national education using causal information - 4 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The fundamental explanation:  the system and the people together with the common history of the role of education in the nation making – and the extent the class-based divisions can be prevented or postponed in schooling
Finland at a glance ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Finnish Education System ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Finnish Education System, cont. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],PISA assessment point/position
From Parallel to Comprehensive School  The Finnish School Reform ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Some Features of  the Finnish Comprehensive School
Some Features of  the Finnish Comprehensive School, cont. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
EDUCATIONAL EQUITY ACCOUNT as a way to look for [any] educational and schooling related results from the point-of-view of the educational policy, when repeated and abundant data are available, which makes it increasingly difficult to summarize and draw conclusions [of national gaps to be healed or bridged, or accepted]
Educational Equity Account Educational equity refers to the impact of contextual factors on educational outcome [1] . Ideally it should be non-existent. Educational equity is seen to be in balance or to show an educationally relevant positive outcome or ‘profit’ when relevant contextual factors do not explain any of the variation in students’ school attainment, that is, the only source of variation in scholastic attainment would stem from students’ individual characteristics.   [1]   The concept of (total) equity is not unproblematic. If education is expected to have a lasting impact on an individual’s life it is difficult to see why these should or would not pay dividends in children’s lives and future success.
Educational Equity Account The most essential educational equity factors or factors that have been shown to impede educational equity or the equal realisation of individual educability are  gender, parents’ socio-economic or educational status, immigration status, home- and schooling language and, of course, schools.  There are also other factors that could be taken into account in estimating national educational equity account in specific areas like in Nordic countries, in Europe, in world.
National Gaps in Finland 1 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
National Gaps in Finland  2  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
EEA using condensed information:  level and balance of PISA science, math and reading results
PISA level and PISA balance The first principal component, indicating student’s general level of attainment, was named  level , following Hunt & Wittmann (2008; Wittmann 2004).  The second component, indicating the profile or the relative role of the three different literacies in students’ attainment was named  balance .  Positive values  in balance indicate a performance where reading is relatively stronger in relation to math and science, and  negative values  indicate a performance where math is relatively stronger in relation to reading. Balance is, accordingly, an index for student’s competence profile.  The estimates for level and balance are based on the PISA data (OECD 2007) as a whole, that is the means for level and balance for the whole student population of PISA 2006 were zero [sometimes I am using only data from OECD countries]
  Level[86%] Balance[5%] Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06
Level and balance as indices for PISA_competence and _profile (read/math) Finnish correlations //  UK correlations level balance read science math level 1  0,12  0,95  0,98  0,96  balance -  0,10  1  0,41  0,05  -  0,11  meanread 0,92  0,30  1  0,90  0,86  meanscie 0,97  -  0,18  0,83  1  0,93   meanmath 0,94  -  0,37  0,77  0,89  1
Educational Equity Account in Finland (PISA 2006 data, Hautamäki & al, 2008) Factor Level Balance Interpretation Regional No difference Small difference only in one region of 6 Regional balance is achieved Urban/rural Urban M > rural M Urban >0, rural < 0 Real, but so far small differences, monitoring in needed Parents’ education Higher means for students with better educated parents No difference Debates and further analyses still needed; a complex issue! Finnish/Swedish Finnish > Swedish No difference Need to be analysed even if the diffs were same in PISA 00 and 03 Immigrants Natives > immigrants Native = 0, immigrants > 0 Need to be monitored reading habits? Gender Girls > boys Boys < 0, girls > 0 Level diff is modest; balance diff is large
 
 
 
ICC = intra class correlation, i.e, between_school variation of PISA level Multilevel modeling, MlwiN2.10
 
 
 
Comment ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
 
UK and Finland: Comparisons - School Gender R = -0.08   = -0.02
UK and Finland: Comparisons - School Immigrants (natives, 2nd generation, 1st generation) R = -0.11   = -0.12
UK and Finland: Comparisons - School Socio-economic status (white/blue/high/low) R = -0.67   = -0.35
UK, or Xountry and Finland: Comparisons  What can we learn from each other? The scale-factor: 10 to 1, doesn’t it have a role? Local vs general goods, or  The Holiness of Minute Particulars: Labor well the minute particulars: attend to the little Ones … He who would do good to another must do it in Minute particulars. General Good is the plea of the scoundrel, hypocrite, and flatterer; For Art and Science cannot exist but in minutely organised Particulars, and not in generalising Demonstrations of the Rational Power:    William Blake, UK
Extra material, or director’s cut
Highest International Socio-economic Effect, hisei on PISA 2006 reading scores: Nordic countries and UK Multilevel modelling (2-level model, by countries) Hisei is a composition index of father’s and mother’s socio-economic positions hisei se Denmark 1.18 0.07 Finland 1.01 0.06 Iceland 1.07 0.09 Norway 1.71 0.08 Sweden 1.52 0.08 UK 1.33 0.05
 
LEVEL in UK ICC, or between-school differences, = 0.297, about 30%
LEVEL in Finland ICC, or between-school differences, = 0.297, about 30% Note: here level estimated using only OECD countries, UK with world data, where Finland would be
LEVEL in UK No gender difference, at all!
LEVEL in UK The reference is white collar high status, and all the other groups do worse SES explains 24% of school-level variance 7% of student-level variance
LEVEL in UK The reference is native, and all the other groups do worse, and the 1st generation students worse than 2nd generation students  Immigrant status explains 4% of school-level variance 1% of student-level variance
 
BALANCE in UK ICC, or between-school differences, is 0.27, or 27%
BALANCE in UK The profile of boys is math dominated and of girls, strongly reading dominated  Gender explains 6% of between-school 27% of between-student variance

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Jarkko hautamäki pisa finland

  • 1. EDUCATIONAL EQUITY ACCOUNT PISA 2006 in Finland with different comparisons University of Helsinki, Finland Jarkko Hautamäki 30.9.2009
  • 3. Science 2006 (explaining, identifying, using science) (Symbolic mapping )
  • 4. Science 2006 (explaining, identifying, using science)+ (with the 2 science attitude-scales) OECD countries
  • 5. A general problem or an issue for interpreting and using PISA type of information: so what?
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. The fundamental explanation: the system and the people together with the common history of the role of education in the nation making – and the extent the class-based divisions can be prevented or postponed in schooling
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. EDUCATIONAL EQUITY ACCOUNT as a way to look for [any] educational and schooling related results from the point-of-view of the educational policy, when repeated and abundant data are available, which makes it increasingly difficult to summarize and draw conclusions [of national gaps to be healed or bridged, or accepted]
  • 20. Educational Equity Account Educational equity refers to the impact of contextual factors on educational outcome [1] . Ideally it should be non-existent. Educational equity is seen to be in balance or to show an educationally relevant positive outcome or ‘profit’ when relevant contextual factors do not explain any of the variation in students’ school attainment, that is, the only source of variation in scholastic attainment would stem from students’ individual characteristics. [1] The concept of (total) equity is not unproblematic. If education is expected to have a lasting impact on an individual’s life it is difficult to see why these should or would not pay dividends in children’s lives and future success.
  • 21. Educational Equity Account The most essential educational equity factors or factors that have been shown to impede educational equity or the equal realisation of individual educability are gender, parents’ socio-economic or educational status, immigration status, home- and schooling language and, of course, schools. There are also other factors that could be taken into account in estimating national educational equity account in specific areas like in Nordic countries, in Europe, in world.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. EEA using condensed information: level and balance of PISA science, math and reading results
  • 25. PISA level and PISA balance The first principal component, indicating student’s general level of attainment, was named level , following Hunt & Wittmann (2008; Wittmann 2004). The second component, indicating the profile or the relative role of the three different literacies in students’ attainment was named balance . Positive values in balance indicate a performance where reading is relatively stronger in relation to math and science, and negative values indicate a performance where math is relatively stronger in relation to reading. Balance is, accordingly, an index for student’s competence profile. The estimates for level and balance are based on the PISA data (OECD 2007) as a whole, that is the means for level and balance for the whole student population of PISA 2006 were zero [sometimes I am using only data from OECD countries]
  • 26.   Level[86%] Balance[5%] Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in math 0,92 -0,24 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in reading 0,91 0,31 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06 Plausible value in science 0,95 -0,06
  • 27. Level and balance as indices for PISA_competence and _profile (read/math) Finnish correlations // UK correlations level balance read science math level 1 0,12 0,95 0,98 0,96 balance - 0,10 1 0,41 0,05 - 0,11 meanread 0,92 0,30 1 0,90 0,86 meanscie 0,97 - 0,18 0,83 1 0,93 meanmath 0,94 - 0,37 0,77 0,89 1
  • 28. Educational Equity Account in Finland (PISA 2006 data, Hautamäki & al, 2008) Factor Level Balance Interpretation Regional No difference Small difference only in one region of 6 Regional balance is achieved Urban/rural Urban M > rural M Urban >0, rural < 0 Real, but so far small differences, monitoring in needed Parents’ education Higher means for students with better educated parents No difference Debates and further analyses still needed; a complex issue! Finnish/Swedish Finnish > Swedish No difference Need to be analysed even if the diffs were same in PISA 00 and 03 Immigrants Natives > immigrants Native = 0, immigrants > 0 Need to be monitored reading habits? Gender Girls > boys Boys < 0, girls > 0 Level diff is modest; balance diff is large
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32. ICC = intra class correlation, i.e, between_school variation of PISA level Multilevel modeling, MlwiN2.10
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39. UK and Finland: Comparisons - School Gender R = -0.08 = -0.02
  • 40. UK and Finland: Comparisons - School Immigrants (natives, 2nd generation, 1st generation) R = -0.11 = -0.12
  • 41. UK and Finland: Comparisons - School Socio-economic status (white/blue/high/low) R = -0.67 = -0.35
  • 42. UK, or Xountry and Finland: Comparisons What can we learn from each other? The scale-factor: 10 to 1, doesn’t it have a role? Local vs general goods, or The Holiness of Minute Particulars: Labor well the minute particulars: attend to the little Ones … He who would do good to another must do it in Minute particulars. General Good is the plea of the scoundrel, hypocrite, and flatterer; For Art and Science cannot exist but in minutely organised Particulars, and not in generalising Demonstrations of the Rational Power: William Blake, UK
  • 43. Extra material, or director’s cut
  • 44. Highest International Socio-economic Effect, hisei on PISA 2006 reading scores: Nordic countries and UK Multilevel modelling (2-level model, by countries) Hisei is a composition index of father’s and mother’s socio-economic positions hisei se Denmark 1.18 0.07 Finland 1.01 0.06 Iceland 1.07 0.09 Norway 1.71 0.08 Sweden 1.52 0.08 UK 1.33 0.05
  • 45.  
  • 46. LEVEL in UK ICC, or between-school differences, = 0.297, about 30%
  • 47. LEVEL in Finland ICC, or between-school differences, = 0.297, about 30% Note: here level estimated using only OECD countries, UK with world data, where Finland would be
  • 48. LEVEL in UK No gender difference, at all!
  • 49. LEVEL in UK The reference is white collar high status, and all the other groups do worse SES explains 24% of school-level variance 7% of student-level variance
  • 50. LEVEL in UK The reference is native, and all the other groups do worse, and the 1st generation students worse than 2nd generation students Immigrant status explains 4% of school-level variance 1% of student-level variance
  • 51.  
  • 52. BALANCE in UK ICC, or between-school differences, is 0.27, or 27%
  • 53. BALANCE in UK The profile of boys is math dominated and of girls, strongly reading dominated Gender explains 6% of between-school 27% of between-student variance