Development of strategy for the e pub library of wu


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Development of strategy for the e pub library of wu

  1. 1. Development of Strategy for the ePub Library of the Vienna University to maximize the profits: Concerning the rights management By Dr. Michael Hahsler [Reviewed by L.R. Amarakoon
  2. 2. Contents  Introduction  Summary of the paper  Definitions of Information Goods and Digital      Technology Key learning Industrial applications, if any ? Your personal analysis and point of views Recommendations Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction  The aim of this study is to develop best possible strategies for the digital library of the Vienna University Digital Library – ePub, concerning rights management in order to maximize the profits (based on the assumption that ePub would sell its content.  Through the digital technology the global economies have totally changed. The technological developments , as well as the dramatic reduction in costs of copying and distribution make rights management difficult. However, through illicit copying this technology also offers many great new opportunities for the publishing industry.
  4. 4. Introduction (Contd...)  This paper also explains what information goods and the problem with the digital technology, digital libraries and digital rights management  Present few case studies of other DL depicting what strategies they use to sell their products.  Based on them the research team had made recommendations on suitable strategies for the e-Pub of WU to make profits related to rights management.
  5. 5. - The first part of the paper describes “information goods” and the problems associated with digital technology. -The 2nd part describe what digital libraries and their properties and its functionality. - Then it introduce us to digital rights management and “Architecture of DRM systems”. - Digital Millennium Copy Right Act of 1998 is also described. - 04 case studies of other digital libraries are presented. - Presented 05 strategies for the e-Pub library of the WU recommended by the team, based on the above parts of this paper. Summary of the paper
  6. 6. Information Goods and Digital Technology  Definition of information good: An information good is anything that can be digitized. This can be a book, a record, a movie, an image etc. They are also called digital content  Definition of IP: IP refers to creations of the mind: Inventions, literacy and artistic works, and symbols, names, images and designs used in commerce
  7. 7. Information goods and the digital technology (Contd...) : Properties of Information Goods:  Information as experience goods: Information goods are experience goods . At the of purchasing them customers always want know what it is like first, in order to determine whether it fulfils his/her requirements. But if the owner gives away the material he wants to sell in order to show people what they are, how can the owner make profits then?.  There are solutions for this problem: - Previewing and browsing - Reviews - Reputation
  8. 8. Information goods and the digital technology : Properties of Information Goods (Contd...)  Cost Structures of information goods - Information goods have high fixed costs of production and low marginal cost of reproduction. Ex. Production of a Hollywood movie is very expensive. Reproduction cost are very low. “With IP, the upfront costs are what it‟s all about,”(Bill Gates) ...”Say a piece of software cost $10m to create and the marginal costs, because it‟s going to be distributed electronically , are basically zero”. Once costs of development have been recouped , “every single additional unit is pure profit.”But some one comes with a significantly superior product, “your demand can literally almost drop to zero”. – Wall Street Journal, Aug23,2001.
  9. 9. Information goods and the digital technology : Properties of Information Goods (Contd...)  Production costs, warehouse expense and reproduction costs: - Production Costs – The cost of production of an information good typically has the property that it is very costly to produce the first copy and very cheap to produced the rest of the copies. - Warehouse expense – The costs for the storage of information goods depend on the size, duration of the storage and medium where they are saved. Since storing files is very cheap nowadays these costs are normally very minimal. - Reproduction costs – Reproduction costs depend mainly on technical aspects. Normally they are very low compared to production costs.
  10. 10. Information goods and the digital technology : Properties of Information Goods (Contd...)  Information as a public good - In contrast to private goods, pure public goods are non-rival and non-excludable. Non-rival – a person’s consumption doesn’t diminish the amount available to other people; Non-excludable - One person cannot exclude another person from consuming the good. National defence would be an example for such a pure public good.  There is a difference between the above two properties. Non- rivalness is a property of the good itself. By the very nature of the good the same amount of i.e. Defence are available to everyone in an area.
  11. 11. Digital libraries and their properties  Definition “Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence overtime of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities” – DLF (1998).  The term “digital library” has a many potential meanings: It can be a collection of material in organized electronic form that one might find in a traditional library through to the collection of all digital information along with the services that make that information useful to all users. Primary goal of a DL is to provide universal access to information goods.
  12. 12. Properties of Digital Libraries  Services offered: A DL is more than a collection of materials. It offers number of services to its readers. Those services offered are: Services to support management of collection, services to provide replicated and reliable storage, services to aid in query formulation and execution, services to assist in name resolution and location etc.  Collection of information resources: The information objects that provide the content are the basis for a digital library, which are digital objects. They may also be in other media, i.e. Paper editions, but represented in the library via digital means.  Supporting users deal with information objects: assist users by satisfying their needs and requirements for access, management, storage and manipulation of the variety of information stored in the collection
  13. 13. DRM  The traditional rights management of physical material was easier because the fact that these materials where physical and not digital . But digital materials. because of the ease of digital reproduction and transmission there are serious breaches of rights law.  1 st generation DRM focused on security and encryption to solve the problem of unauthorized copying. This security and encryption has the purpose to lock the content and limit its distribution to only those who pay. However, 2nd generation of DRM covers the description, identification, trading, protection, monitoring and tracking of all forms of rights usages.
  14. 14. Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998  DMCA is needed because it protects the intellectual work from copyright violations.  As researchers point out it could adversely affect research competitiveness: In section 1201 of the DMCA it says “ No person shall circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls access to work protected under this title”.
  15. 15. Key Learning  DRM technology can prevent normal uses of works protected by copyright law, such as printing or excising portions for quotation. For libraries and schools to serve their educational, research, and information roles, the public must be able to use works in the full range of ways envisioned by the Copyright Act in its limitations and exceptions.  Eliminating “fair use” and other exceptions in Copyright Law that underpin education, criticism, and scholarship.  Apart from that it pose a serious threat to the ability of the public to access and use works in the public domain. The DRMs have the potential to protect works indefinitely. This permanent lock up of public domain material runs contrary to the principle of balance in copyright law.
  16. 16. Key Learning (contd…)  They even threaten to lock up and permanently render works inaccessible because data stored in proprietary DRM formats is at a much greater risk of being lost once the playback media become obsolete.  Due to the lack of inter-operability in DRM related services, there is the potential that large collections of content will not be able to be accessed at all.  This has a serious affect on the availability and accessibility of information and shrinks what is available via the public domain.
  17. 17. Industrial Applications, If any  Using „digital licenses‟ is the core concept in DRM  Instead of buying the digital content, the user purchase a license permitting some rights to him/her. This license is a digital data file that spells out usage rules for the digital content. These can be described by number of criteria, such as frequency of access, expiration date, limits of transfer to other devices etc. However, these rules can be combined to enforce certain business model for a industry, such as rental or subscription, try-before-buy, pay-peruse etc.  This technology which controls the use and distribution of electronic files- has been traditionally used by the commercial book publishing and music industries. DRM in these fields is justified as a protection of intellectual properties (IP). However, now that DRM is being used by Academic Institutions such as WU, technical organizations and scientific and engineering publications, one can questioned who should be the rightful owner of the IP.  ePub Library has to implement Digital Rights Management Systems (DRMs) together with technological protection measures (TPMs) in order to make profits in respect to DRM of electronic media they held in the library collection.
  18. 18. Personal analysis and point of view  It is observed that digital libraries can improve the access to     information in a large scale. Information in digital form available on line through internet creates a big problem to intellectual content provides/owners. Digital resources in libraries are available from a home computer or handheld devices such as Smart Phones, iPads, iPhones or a Tab etc. These advances in the technology create new opportunities and markets for content owners and publishes etc. Although it is easier and less expensive for content owner to distribute a digital good rapidly, but beside the thread through illicit copying this technology also offers many great new opportunities for the publishing industries. Hence DRM poses one of the greatest challenges for content communities. The present DRM covers the
  19. 19. Personal analysis and point of view (Contd...)  It is no doubt that libraries support copyright , which is called balanced copyright. But nowadays they are concerned at the growing imbalance of copyright laws in favor of rightsholders.  Digital rights management systems(DRMs) together with technological protection measures (TPMs) have become a controversial topic of discussion around copyrights of electronic media.  Digital networked environment makes copying and distribution of information far easier for
  20. 20. Personal analysis and point of view (Contd...)  As observed, in order to protect the interests of copyright holders (DRMs) restrict the use of digital files (usually valuable original intellectual property such as movies, music, etc.) These technologies can control file access (number of views, length of views), altering, sharing, copying, printing, and saving. These technologies may be contained within the operating system, program software, or in the actual hardware of a device.  DRM systems take two approaches to securing content. -The first is "containment," an approach where the content is encrypted in a shell so that it can only be accessed by authorized users. -The second is "marking," the practice of placing a watermark, flag, or an electronic tag on content as a signal to a device that the media is copy protected.
  21. 21. Recommended Strategies for the ePub  The research team recommend the following strategies for the ePub – the digital library of the WU  Strategy 1: giving away “ePubs” content Give away a table of content and only some of the chapters of the literature. Ex. Give away the first 25 pages of each work for free like does. Epub could also make these 25 pages available for download in PDF format or post it online. Users could browse through these free chapters to experience the good and see what it is worth to them in order to buy it or not.  Strategy 2: Demand for repeat views Post the whole document online. The user would only have the privilege to view the content over the internet. The value of the downloaded PDF file would be that it could be printed out and read whenever the customer wants. Compared to the online version “option value” is added to the PDF version of the book. The PDF or printed version of the book satisfy the users demand for repeat views.
  22. 22. Recommended Strategies (Contd…)  Strategy 3 : Similar products which are not identical Users don‟t want to repeat viewing the same image over and over again, they want variations. Epub could give away the older material of their holdings for free in order to sell the rest. Users could experience the quality of Epubs content and this could raise the demand for similar products  Strategy 4 : Complimentary goods Offering the Index or search service for free is another way to increase the demand for content.
  23. 23. Recommendations of Strategies (Contd…)  Strategy 5 : Charge a certain amount of money for offering access to their whole or a special part of their content fro a limited period of time as what Academic Library does. ePub too could make its materials accessible for i.e. 24 hours or even 7 days for a certain amount. All these possible strategies could perhaps also be combined. User can choose whether he/she wants to pay a big amount to gain access to the whole material, or pay a smaller amount to get only a special work or even only some of the chapters
  24. 24. Scenario in Sri Lanka with regards to Digital Libraries  A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats and accessed through computers. That is to say, digital content may be stored locally and accessed remotely through computer networks.  It is observed that digital library services in Sri Lanka are offered by the following organizations: - National Science Foundation (NSF) : NSF erepository has been launched to create global visibility and accessibility to scholarly research in Sri Lanka. Registered users can upload papers.
  25. 25. Scenario in Sri Lanka with regards to Digital Libraries (Contd…)  The Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka  Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL) – Digital content of Theses, abstracts of papers, past question papers, OUSL journal issues can be access online using the following URL“  EduLankas ( – This is the largest online education web site with digital content in Sri Lanka, which is popular among students. Provides digital content related to ebooks, online lessons, teacher information, education related course information etc.
  26. 26.  National Library of Sri Lanka (NL) – It has commenced a Scenario in Sri Lanka with regards project to develop a digital library. Started a document scanningto Digital Libraries (Contd…) project with the aim of providing access to readers regardless of the location, materials related to Sri Lanka and Sri Lankans.  Dept of National Archives and the Museum Library of Sri Lanka started digitizing 20-30 years ago.  However in Sri Lanka it is observed that DRM is in its infancy.  It is recommended that NILIS and all the other University libraries should get-together and establish a e-library consortium, since Sri Lanka has a 20-30 yrs experience in such consortium for printed publications and information and proved successful venture. Digitization project can be commenced as a collaborative efforts of this suggested digital library consortium. The consortium can decide on a
  27. 27.  Information goods are experience goods.  In order to buy an information good users Conclusions have to know what it is like first an if it fulfils their requirements. But if the content owner gives away the materials he wants to sell in order to show people what they are, then the question arises of making profits.  There are solutions to this problems. Content owners have to offer opportunities to let users browse through their products. Ex. Movie industry solve this problem by offering previews.  Reviewing products and providing those reviews to the users  It is a standard practice in the information
  28. 28. Conclusions (Contd…)  Increasing profits is the motive for DRM schemes for those who impose them. Their profits is a side issue when millions of people‟s freedoms at stake; Though it is not wrong to expect profits, it cannot justify denying the public control over its technology.  It is observed that there are campaigns launched in the developed countries such as “Defective by Design” exposing DRMencumbered devices and media. There are protests against DRM since 2006.
  29. 29. Q and A