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Introduction to Human Anatomy

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Introduction to Human Anatomy

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Introduction to Human Anatomy

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO <br />Anatomy & physiology<br />by: adamlinoby<br />Human Body<br />Week 1<br />V 1.0<br />
  2. 2. introduction<br />Anatomy<br />Studies of the body parts <br /> and their relationships.<br />Study of large body structure.<br />(e.g: heart, lungs, kidneys… etc.)<br /><ul><li> can be further divided into:</li></ul>1. Regional Anatomy<br />- all structures in one particular region.<br />Macroscopic (Gross) Anatomy<br />
  3. 3. Cont..<br />2. Systemic Anatomy<br /> - system by system<br />3. Surface Anatomy<br /> - study of internal body structures<br />Microscopic Anatomy<br /> Very small structures that cannot be <br /> seen with naked eyes.<br />1. Cytology<br /> - Study of body cells<br />2. Histology<br /> - Study of body tissues<br />
  4. 4. Cont..<br />Developmental Anatomy<br /> Structural changes to the body <br /> throughout lifespan. <br />1. Embryology<br />- Development which occur before birth<br />
  5. 5. introduction<br />Physiology<br /> Study of the body function<br /><ul><li>System Physiology</li></ul> - study of body system’s function<br /><ul><li>Comparative Physiology</li></ul> - study of various characteristics <br /> of living organisms<br /><ul><li>Medical Physiology</li></ul> - study of physiological dysfunction <br /> and diseases<br />
  6. 6. STRUCTURAL LEVEL OF A BODY<br />Chemical<br />Combination of atoms to form molecules <br />Cell<br />Basic living units; have common characteristics, <br />differ in structure and function<br />Tissue<br />A group of cells with similar structure and function: <br />epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous<br />Organ<br />Two or more tissues work together perform one or <br />more common function: eye, skin, stomach, heart.<br />Organ System<br />A group of organs of a common function: <br />Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine,<br />Cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive.<br />
  7. 7. SYSTEM OF THE BODY<br />Integumentary System<br /> - External cover of the body (skin)<br /> - Protects deeper tissues from injury<br /> - Site of cutaneous, receptors, sweat<br /> and oil glands.<br />Skeletal System<br /> - Bones<br /> - Protects and supports body organs<br />
  8. 8. Cont..<br />SYSTEM OF THE BODY<br />Muscular System<br />- muscles<br />- produce body movement<br />Nervous System<br />- consist of brain, sensory receptor, <br /> nerves, spinal cord<br />- control homeostasis by stimulating <br /> particular muscles contraction <br /> and glands secretion<br />
  9. 9. Cont..<br />SYSTEM OF THE BODY<br />Endocrine System<br />- Hormones secretion to <br /> regulate body processes.<br />Cardiovascular System<br /> - Transport blood to the body<br />Lymphatic/Immune System <br /> - Protect the body by attacking <br /> foreign substances entering <br /> body system<br />
  10. 10. Cont..<br />SYSTEM OF THE BODY<br />Respiratory System<br /> - supply blood with oxygen <br /> and removing carbon dioxide.<br />Digestive System<br /> - break down the food for absorption <br /> - indigestible food will be <br /> removed as feces<br />
  11. 11. Cont..<br />SYSTEM OF THE BODY<br />Urinary System<br /> - regulation of water, electrolytes <br /> and acid-base balance in the body.<br />Reproductive System<br /> - production of babies<br />
  12. 12. HOMEOSTASIS<br />Body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions although the external environment keep changing…<br />3 components:-<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />Response<br />(Output)<br />Feedback<br />
  13. 13. Cont..<br />HOMEOSTASIS<br />Negative Feedback Mechanisms<br /> - Restoring back the body to its <br /> original state.<br /> - Cut-off the original stimulus and <br /> reduce the intensity<br /> - Make up most of the homeostasis <br /> control mechanisms<br /> - Avoid sudden and harmful <br /> changes to our body<br /> - e.g: Insulin will be secreted if the <br /> glucose level in blood is too high.<br />- ve<br />
  14. 14. Cont..<br />HOMEOSTASIS<br />Positive Feedback Mechanisms<br />- Triggering an enhance action <br /> from the original stimulus.<br />- Commonly for activity that <br /> do not need further adjustment.<br />- e.g: Blood clotting where platelets <br /> will pile up and clot at the injured side.<br />+ve<br />
  15. 15. ANATOMICAL POSITION<br />Standing position with the body erect facing forward, feet slightly apart, arms hanging and palms also facing forward. <br />
  16. 16. DIRECTIONAL TERMS<br />Explain and locate precisely where the body structure and it’s relation to another.<br />
  17. 17. DIRECTIONAL TERMS<br />
  18. 18. REGIONAL TERMS<br />Axial Region<br />- axis of our body<br />- comprise of three parts:<br /> head, neck and trunk<br />Perpendicular Region<br />- limbs, or appendages<br />- body parts that attached to the axis.<br />
  19. 19. BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS<br />Sagittalplane <br />- Vertical plane divide body into right and left<br />- Sagittal plane that exactly cut in the middle <br /> called midsagittal or median plane.<br /> - Sagittalplane that offset from <br /> median line called <br />parasagittalplane.<br />Midsagittal Plane (Exact middle)<br />Parasagittal Plane (Offset)<br />
  20. 20. BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS<br />Frontal Plane<br /> - vertical line that divide the body to anterior <br />and posterior parts. <br />Frontal Plane<br />
  21. 21. BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS<br />Transverse Plane<br />- horizontal plane which divide body into <br />superior and inferior.<br />Transverse Plane<br />
  22. 22. Terms of motion<br />
  23. 23. BODY cavity<br />Dorsal Cavity – protects nervous system<br /> - two subdivisions:-<br /> 1. Cranial Cavity – brain<br /> 2. Spinal Cavity – spinal cord<br />Ventral Cavity – houses visceral organs<br />- two subdivisions:-<br />1. Thoracic Cavity – pleural (lungs), <br />mediastinum(heart, esophagus, <br />trachea, etc…)<br /> 2. Abdominopelviccavity – abdominal (stomach,<br />intestines, spleen, liver, etc…), pelvic (bladder, <br />reproductive system, rectum)<br />

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