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25 Years of LINK


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The Major Events shaping the Period 1986-2011, the time LINK Associates International Ltd have been in business.

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25 Years of LINK

  1. 1. 25 Years of LINK The Major Events shaping the Period
  2. 2. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>BRAIN, the first PC virus, starts to spread worldwide – January </li></ul><ul><li>Space Shuttle CHALLENGER explodes after launch – January </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish premier, Olaf Palme, assassinated in Stockholm – February </li></ul><ul><li>Hampton Court Palace fire – March </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power station explosion at Chernobyl – April </li></ul><ul><li>US bombing of Libya – April </li></ul><ul><li>PANAM aircraft hijacked at Karachi Airport – September </li></ul><ul><li>Chinook crash near Sumburgh – 43 from Brent Field killed – November </li></ul>26 th April 1986 - Nuclear Power Station Explosion, Chernobyl A mishandled safety test in Reactor No 4 led to a catastrophic power increase and explosion in the core. Large quantities of radioactive fuel and core material released to atmosphere. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Over 4000 deaths from explosion and subsequent radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive fallout over Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, leading to resettlement of 350,000 away from contaminated areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Traces of radioactive deposits found in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term health issues remain for humans and animals. </li></ul>1986
  3. 3. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan challenges Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall - June </li></ul><ul><li>Tornado in Edmonton, Alberta. Hundreds left homeless - July </li></ul><ul><li>Black Monday: Stock market levels fall sharply on Wall Street - October </li></ul><ul><li>The King's Cross fire on the London Underground kills 31 - November </li></ul><ul><li>Worst in history peacetime sea disaster, passenger ferry Doña Paz sinks after colliding with the oil tanker in the Philippines, killing an over 4,000 people </li></ul>6 th March, 1987 - Zeebrugge Disaster, Belgium Over 190 people died when the roll-on roll-off ferry, operated by Townsend Thoresen, capsized moments after leaving the Belgian port of Zeebrugge, Belgium in March 1987. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>This was the worst maritime disaster involving a British registered ship in peacetime since 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Townsend Thoresen was severely criticised in the public inquiry report published later in 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>In October 1987, an inquest jury returned verdicts of unlawful killing </li></ul><ul><li>The company was later charged with manslaughter </li></ul>1987
  4. 4. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Record drought in N America kills 4000 to 17,800 and costs $60Bn – all year </li></ul><ul><li>Clapham Junction train crash - December </li></ul><ul><li>Ojhri Camp munitions explosion – Rawalpondi/Islamabad – April </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet withdrawal from Afganistan begins - May </li></ul><ul><li>Iran Air Flight 655 shot down by USS Vincennes – Strait of Hormuz - July </li></ul><ul><li>End of Iraq-Iran war– August </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Gilbert – Jamaica/Mexico - September </li></ul><ul><li>Pan Am Flight 103 bombed – Lockerbie - December </li></ul>6 th July, 1988 – Piper Alpha, North Sea, UK Series of massive explosions results in total loss of Piper Alpha production platform, the most productive in the North Sea. 167 killed. 30 bodies never recovered. Only 59 survived. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological damage amongst survivors – at least one suicide and damaged families </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for oversight of safety offshore moved from Dept of Energy to HSE </li></ul><ul><li>Cullen Report introduces wide-ranging changes in construction, equipment, safety management, training and delegation of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Occidental Petroleum, although not prosecuted, no longer active in North Sea </li></ul>1988
  5. 5. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Kegworth Air Disaster M1 East Midlands Airport UK- January </li></ul><ul><li>Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Alaska USA - March </li></ul><ul><li>Hillsborough Football Supporters Disaster Sheffield UK - April </li></ul><ul><li>Tiananmen Square massacre Beijing China - June </li></ul><ul><li>Ufa train disaster due to Natural Gas Explosion Ufa Russia - June </li></ul><ul><li>Marchioness Pleasure Boat Collision – River Thames UK - August </li></ul><ul><li>Loma Prieta earthquake San Francisco USA - October </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War – Berlin Wall torn down Berlin Germany - November </li></ul>24 th March, 1989 – Exxon Valdez, Alaska USA The Exxon Valdez oil tanker struck Prince William Sound’s Bligh Reef spilling up to 750,000 barrels of oil which covered 11,000 square miles and devastated wild life in the region. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Reductions in population of various ocean animals and some shoreline habitats may take 30 years to recover </li></ul><ul><li>Exxon fined $287 million actual damages and $5 billion for punitive damages . </li></ul><ul><li>The Oil Pollution Act passed by congress which includes the phasing in of double hulled vessels by 2015. </li></ul><ul><li>Loaded tankers are now escorted by specially designed escort vessels </li></ul>1989
  6. 6. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Trial of Exxon Valdez master – Anchorage - January </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson Mandela released – South Africa - February </li></ul><ul><li>Exxon indicted for Exxon Valdez oil spill – February </li></ul><ul><li>Germany wins soccer World Cup – Italy - July </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq invades Kuwait - August </li></ul><ul><li>Mikhail Gorbachev awarded Nobel peace prize - October </li></ul><ul><li>Channel Tunnel workers meet under Channel - December </li></ul>31 st March 1990, – Poll Tax Riots, UK By far a largest series of mass disturbances that occurred in the UK against introduction of community charge (aka Poll Tax) <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 injured in worst riots for a century </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 took part; 340 arrests </li></ul><ul><li>Major looting/fire bombing </li></ul><ul><li>Led to downfall of PM Thatcher </li></ul><ul><li>Police riot tactics reappraised </li></ul><ul><li>Council Tax replaces Poll Tax </li></ul>1990
  7. 7. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Orkney Stadium Disaster, South Africa - January </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwaiti Oil Fires, Persian Gulf - January / February </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Pinatuba Eruption, Philippines - March </li></ul><ul><li>The Bright Sparklers Fireworks Factory, Malaysia - May </li></ul><ul><li>Lauda Air Boeing 767 Crash, Bangkok - May </li></ul><ul><li>Major Earthquake, Kalabari, East of Timor Islands - July </li></ul><ul><li>Oakland Firestorm, California - October </li></ul><ul><li>Halloween Blizzard, Upper Mid West, USA - October/November </li></ul>3 rd September, 1991 - Hamlet, North Carolina, USA 25 people died, 54 injured in a chicken processing factory fire. The escape doors were routinely locked. 3 previous non-fatal fires had brought no changes. There had been no safety inspections in 11 years <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>The Company was fined the highest penalty in N.C. State history </li></ul><ul><li>The owner received 20 year jail sentence but served only four </li></ul><ul><li>N.C. State passed a number of Worker Safety laws, including a system whereby workers could report concerns without fear of job loss </li></ul><ul><li>The number of safety inspectors in North Carolina were increased from 60 to 114 </li></ul>1991
  8. 8. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq disarmament crisis- February </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey coal mine disaster - March </li></ul><ul><li>Fergana Valley Oil Spill ( 285,000 t) - March </li></ul><ul><li>UK General Election, Tories elected - April </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed - April </li></ul><ul><li>Pound & Euro out of European Exchange Rate mechanism- September </li></ul><ul><li>Allied Colloids fire - July </li></ul><ul><li>US Presidential Election, Bill Clinton wins - November </li></ul>18 th February , 1992 – Disarmament Crisis, Iraq US demands to end production of weapons of mass destruction. Demand for unfettered inspections to take place. US begins military build up in the Gulf Region <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>UN pressure to bring Iraq to compliance causes diplomatic crisis in UN </li></ul><ul><li>Inspectors visit sites and find no weapons of mass destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>US president declares intention to use military force in Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Several close allies opposed military intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of people participate in peace marches </li></ul>1992
  9. 9. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolution of Czechoslovakia - January </li></ul><ul><li>European Community instigates single market - January </li></ul><ul><li>MV Braer runs aground on Shetland Islands - January </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Clinton becomes US President - January </li></ul><ul><li>World Trade Centre bombing - February </li></ul><ul><li>Bombay bombings- March </li></ul><ul><li>Warrington bomb attack - March </li></ul><ul><li>Maastricht Treaty takes effect - November </li></ul>26 th February, 1993 – World Trade Centre Blast Massive truck bomb detonated below North Tower in New York <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>1500 lb bomb intended to collapse North Tower into South Tower killing thousands </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt failed but seven died </li></ul><ul><li>1042 injured, six men convicted </li></ul><ul><li>In the wake of the bombing, and the chaotic evacuation which followed, the World Trade Center and many of the firms inside it, revamped emergency procedures, particularly with regard to evacuation of the tower </li></ul>1993
  10. 10. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake, Northridge California - January </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide, Rwanda, hundreds of thousands of Tutsi killed - April </li></ul><ul><li>China Airlines Airbus A300 crashes in Nagoya killing 264 people - April </li></ul><ul><li>The Channel Tunnel opens - May </li></ul><ul><li>Sarin Gas attack, Matsumoto, Japan. 7 dead, 600 injured - June </li></ul><ul><li>Chinook crash over Mull of Kintyre - June </li></ul><ul><li>US Air Boeing 737 crashes in Pittsburgh killing 132 people - September </li></ul><ul><li>MS Estonia capsizes in the Baltic Sea killing 852 people - September </li></ul>28 th September 1994 – Ship Capsize, Baltic Sea The Estonian registered Ro Ro ferry the MS Estonia capsized on route from Tallinn, Estonia to Stockholm resulting in the loss of 852 lives. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Improved alarm systems for bow doors </li></ul><ul><li>Improved dissemination of incident data </li></ul><ul><li>Improved guidelines and limits for manoeuvring in heavy weather </li></ul><ul><li>Clear instructions given to Ro Ro crews on maximising chances of survival in cases of water ingress to the car deck </li></ul><ul><li>Re-assessment of vessels to increase the time available for evacuation </li></ul>1994
  11. 11. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Great Hanshin earthquake - Kobe, Japan- January. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinton loans $20b to Mexico – January. Prevents financial collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>Barings Bank collapsed, UK’s oldest Investment Bank- February </li></ul><ul><li>Sarin Gas attack – Tokyo subway – March. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Building bombed - Oklahoma City – April </li></ul><ul><li>Shell decide NOT to sink Brent Spar – North Atlantic - June </li></ul><ul><li>Dept Store collapsed - Seoul, S Korea – June. </li></ul><ul><li>Metro Fire – Baku, Azerbaijan – October </li></ul>20 th June 1995 – Brent Spar Oil Storage Buoy, North Atlantic Shell caves in to international environmental, social, economic and political pressure and abandons plans to sink the Brent Spar oil rig in deep Atlantic water 250km W of Scotland. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Greenpeace organized a worldwide, high-profile media campaign against Shell’s plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Shell abandoned its plans to dispose of Brent Spar at sea. Cut-up rig sections were eventually used in harbour extensions at Stavanger, Norway in 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenpeace later quietly admitted they had made assessment errors, and that sinking would have been the best option </li></ul>1995
  12. 12. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>IRA ceasefire ends with half-tonne bomb in Canary Wharf– February </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Empress, spills 73,000 tonnes of crude, Welsh coast – February </li></ul><ul><li>IRA Bomb Manchester , UK – June </li></ul><ul><li>Dolly the Sheep is successfully cloned, Scotland – July </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Bertha causes $270 m in damage, North Carolina USA - July </li></ul><ul><li>Outbreak of E.coli kills 6000, Japan – July </li></ul><ul><li>Centennial Olympic Park Summer Olympics Bombing, Atlanta – July </li></ul><ul><li>Channel Tunnel HGV train fire, English Channel – November </li></ul>15 th February, 1996 - Sea Empress Disaster, Wales The disaster occurred in Britain’s only coastal national park . 73,000 tonnes of crude oil polluted 200km of a coastline internationally famed for its wildlife and beauty <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Milford Haven Port Authority was fined £4m after pleading guilty to the offence of causing pollution in 1999. (Later reduced) </li></ul><ul><li>Devastating effect on the fishing industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Claims from local businesses reached 34m </li></ul><ul><li>It took 10 years for the balance of the ecology to recover </li></ul><ul><li>The UK subsequently played a leading role in securing an international agreement to phase out single hull oil tankers. </li></ul>1996
  13. 13. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Clinton inaugurated for second term – January </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce becomes legal in Republic of Ireland – February </li></ul><ul><li>Omaria massacre in Algeria – April </li></ul><ul><li>House of Commons votes for handgun ban – June </li></ul><ul><li>Woolworths closes after 117 years – July </li></ul><ul><li>Korean Air flight 801 crash in Guam – August </li></ul><ul><li>Diana Princess of Wales dies – August </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol adopted – December </li></ul>11 th December, 1997 - Kyoto Protocol Adopted The Protocol is launched aimed at fighting global warming with the goal of achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilisation of greenhouse gases </li></ul><ul><li>Minimising impacts on developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>United States did not sign the treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Developed countries have to pay billions of dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement on reduction of emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Penalties agreed for non-compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Many economists think that the commitments are stronger than is justified </li></ul>1997
  14. 14. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>NATO Aircraft flies into Ski Cablecar – Italy - February </li></ul><ul><li>China Airlines flight crashes into residential area – Taiwan – February </li></ul><ul><li>66 day Power Blackout – Auckland New Zealand – February </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Metal Waste reservoir ruptures into river – Spain – April </li></ul><ul><li>US embassy bombings, Kenya - August </li></ul><ul><li>Yangtse River floods kill > 12,000 – China – August </li></ul><ul><li>Swissair Flight 111 from New York crashes into sea - Canada – September </li></ul>18 th October 1998 Jesse, Niger Delta, Nigeria 1082 die as result of Petroleum Pipeline Explosion. Pipeline owned by Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation who claimed that disaster due to scavengers rupturing line to obtain fuel <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Fire burned for 5 days and then extinguished by US firm using Nitrogen-rich foam </li></ul><ul><li>Many people were too badly burned for identification and were buried in mass graves </li></ul><ul><li>This was the first and the worst incident of many similar incidents in Southern Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>Nigerian President promised aid to help prevent recurrence </li></ul>1998
  15. 15. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake, Colombia – January </li></ul><ul><li>Fire, Mont Blanc tunnel, France – March </li></ul><ul><li>Kosovo air strikes, NATO intervention – March </li></ul><ul><li>J18 Anti-globalization riots, London – June </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion by Chechen guerrillas, Dagestan, Russia – August </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium exposure, Tokaimura nuclear plant, Japan – September </li></ul><ul><li>World population reaches 6 billion – October </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake, Duzce, Turkey – November </li></ul>5 th October, 1999 - Ladbroke Grove Rail Crash, London 31 people were killed and 520 injured when two trains collided at a combined closing speed of 130 mph during the morning rush hour. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>HSE and HM Railway Inspectorate criticized for inspection procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Rail Safety & Standards Board formed 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Thames Trains fined £2 million for violations of H&S law 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for regulation of H&S on the railways passed to the Office of Rail Regulation 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Network Rail fined £4 million 2007 in breach of H&SAW Act 1974 </li></ul>1999
  16. 16. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Phillips Petroleum Chemical Plant explodes at Pasadena, USA – March </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft guilty of breaking US Anti-trust Regulations in the USA – April </li></ul><ul><li>Leaking pipeline in Nigeria kills 250 villagers –-July </li></ul><ul><li>Air France Concorde crashes after take off from Paris – July </li></ul><ul><li>Russian submarine Kursk sinks in the Barents Sea – August </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrators block fuel storage sites in the UK – September </li></ul><ul><li>United States Navy Destroyer USS Cole was attacked by Al-Qaeda suicide bombers in Aden Port Yemen – October </li></ul>25 th July, 2000 – Crash of Concorde Flight 4590, Paris The crash killed 109 passengers and crew. Four people were killed on the ground. The beginning of the end for Concorde. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications made to Concorde but it was taken out of service in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal investigation of Continental Airlines started on 10th March 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>On 12 th March 2008 manslaughter charges were made against the airline and 4 people </li></ul><ul><li>Following trial Continental Airlines were found criminally responsible. </li></ul><ul><li>An employee was given a 15 month suspended prison sentence. All subject to an appeal process. </li></ul>2000
  17. 17. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Foot and Mouth crisis hits UK – February </li></ul><ul><li>Slobodan Milosovic surrenders to police – March </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Storm Alison causes $5bn damage in US – June </li></ul><ul><li>US terrorist attacks – September </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion at fertiliser plant on Toulouse kills 31 – September </li></ul><ul><li>China admitted to World Trade Organisation – November </li></ul><ul><li>American Airlines Flight crashes on take off - JFK Airport – November </li></ul><ul><li>Enron files for bankruptcy protection – December </li></ul>11 th September, 2001 - USA Terrorist Attacks 2001 Almost 3000 are killed during attacks on World Trade Centre, The Pentagon and Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Al Qaeda hijacked airliners and flew them into buildings <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>836 responders died </li></ul><ul><li>War on Terror announced by US </li></ul><ul><li>American Stock exchanges stayed closed for a week </li></ul><ul><li>Many aircraft grounded across the world </li></ul><ul><li>US airspace closed </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid orders issued to look for Iraqi involvement </li></ul><ul><li>US presidents approval rating soared 90% </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1 st March, 2002 – Coalition Invasion Of Afghanistan 2002 <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Euro Notes issued across Europe - January </li></ul><ul><li>Ex currencies of Euro Nations now illegal - February </li></ul><ul><li>US invasion of Afghanistan - March </li></ul><ul><li>China Airlines flight crashes in Taiwan Strait - April </li></ul><ul><li>European Floods ravage Europe - August </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq war resolution ratified by US Congress - October </li></ul><ul><li>United Airlines files for bankruptcy </li></ul><ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Aftermath of 9/11 attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands killed, many of which are civilians </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at smothering insurgency </li></ul><ul><li>Local population resorted to suicide bombings </li></ul><ul><li>Bonn Agreement created, intended to re-create the State of Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>UK, Canada and Australia also deployed forces </li></ul>Coalition invades Afghanistan in response to the 9/11 attacks, to try to capture Osama Bin Laden and eradicate al Qaeda. Initial attack removed Taliban from power
  19. 19. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Space Shuttle Columbia explodes on return to earth – February </li></ul><ul><li>SARS outbreak in Hong Kong and Vietnam – March </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake in Algeria kills 2,000 – May </li></ul><ul><li>Heat wave in France kills 10,000 – August </li></ul><ul><li>Major power outage in US and Canadian cities – August </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorist bombings on HSBC and British Consulate in Istanbul – November </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake in Bam, Iran kills 28,000 – December </li></ul>13 th March, 2003 – SARS Coronavirus <ul><li>Legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate surge capacity in hospitals & public health systems has been a major problem. Health care workers have themselves been victims of the disease and are the frontline troops at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>The SARS experience has shown once again the power of a poorly understood new infectious disease to incite widespread public anxiety. The fear of SARS spread faster than the virus, causing great social unease, economic losses, and some political changes </li></ul>2003 SARS is the first severe and easily transmissible new disease to emerge in the 21 st century. It was first carried out into the world at large on 21 February, when an infected medical doctor from Guangdong checked into the Metropole Hotel in Hong Kong.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Train carrying fuel and chemicals explodes in Iran killing 320 – Feb </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorist bombs on rush-hour trains in Madrid kill 191 - March </li></ul><ul><li>Train crash in N Korea (explosives and fuel) kills 161 - April </li></ul><ul><li>Air traffic control computer failure grounds flights in UK - June </li></ul><ul><li>Severe flooding at Boscastle, Cornwall - August </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Ivan kills 92 in Caribbean and US - September </li></ul><ul><li>Coal mine explosion kills over 150 in China - November </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami in Indian Ocean - December </li></ul>26 th December, 2004 – Tsunami, Indian Ocean Indian Ocean tsunami triggered by an earthquake off Indonesia resulted in the deaths of over 230,000 people in 14 countries in SE Asia, South Asia and Africa <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Damage totaling US$10 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of villages washed away, entire coastal zones and ecosystems destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of high-tech early warning systems </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasised need for governments to incorporate disaster risk reduction measures in national plans </li></ul><ul><li>Better coordination of international aid activities for major natural disasters </li></ul>2004
  21. 21. 11 th December, 2005 – Buncefield Petrol Explosion and fire The largest fire in Europe since the second world war occurred when a vapour cloud ignited at the Buncefield storage facility in Hertfordshire. Much damage to neighbouring property The Legacy: 2005 <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1000 firefighters attended and over 37km of large diameter hose used. Command coordination was a big issue </li></ul><ul><li>Firewater run off caused huge environmental impact </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of foam stocks was a huge issue due to amount required </li></ul><ul><li>Business continuity problems fro neighbouring businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Plume prediction was a big issue to forecast landing and health and safety issues </li></ul><ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>George W Bush inaugurated as president of US - January </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol comes into effect - February </li></ul><ul><li>Texas City Refinery explosion - March </li></ul><ul><li>London bombings (7/7) - July </li></ul><ul><li>Bali bombings - October </li></ul><ul><li>Kashmiri earthquake - October </li></ul><ul><li>Trials of Saddam Hussein begin - October </li></ul><ul><li>European Union launched - December </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Russia closes gas pipeline to Ukraine – January </li></ul><ul><li>Mudslide in Philippines kills 1100 people – February </li></ul><ul><li>April: first case of UK Avian Flu (in swan) identified – April </li></ul><ul><li>Java earthquake kills 6,000, injures 36,000 – May </li></ul><ul><li>Heatwave in Western Europe kills 1300+ people – June/July </li></ul><ul><li>Probo Koala dumps waste at Ivory coast, 40,000 made ill – August </li></ul><ul><li>Google buys YouTube for £880 million – October </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel pipeline at Lagos explodes, killing over 250 people – December </li></ul>August 2006 – Probo Koala , Abidjan, Ivory Coast 40,000 people affected by fumes when 500 tonnes ship’s slops illegally dumped in lagoons. Discharge of slops stopped in Amsterdam earlier in voyage <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Greenpeace blockade ship in Estonia, warns of “toxic waste colonialism” </li></ul><ul><li>Company directors arrested in Abidjan: released in Feb. 07, after payment of €150million </li></ul><ul><li>BBC issues apology over Newsnight reports </li></ul><ul><li>Payment of £30million to 29,000 claimants. Legal fees £105 million, plus £14million in-company </li></ul><ul><li>Shipper fined €1million by Dutch court </li></ul>2006
  23. 23. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Burnley Tunnel Fire, Australia - March </li></ul><ul><li>Glasgow Airport Terrorist Attack – June </li></ul><ul><li>National flooding - June </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine mine disaster kills 101 miners – November </li></ul><ul><li>T2 Laboratories runaway chemical reaction Jacksonville Florida kills 4 and injures 32 - December </li></ul>23 rd February, 2007 - Pendolino crash, Greyriggs Cumbria Train derailed at 96 mph on a bendy section of track Remarkably only one person died This was due to the crash worthiness of the rolling stock <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated issues other than operational management control that influence outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Justified use of quantified risk assessment and cost benefit analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Showed how advances in the construction of the rolling stock had reduced the propensity of high speed rail accident to inflict fatalities </li></ul>2007
  24. 24. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme snowstorm kills 133 and disrupt supply chains, China - January </li></ul><ul><li>'Improper Payments' End Bridgestone Marine Hose Unit, Global – Feb </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Rock Bank Nationalised, UK - February </li></ul><ul><li>133,000 killed in Cyclone Nargis, Burma/Myanmar - May </li></ul><ul><li>Political crisis and street riots, Thailand - September </li></ul><ul><li>Three banks taken under government control, Iceland - October </li></ul><ul><li>Barrack Obama elected 44 th President, United States - November </li></ul><ul><li>Series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai, India - November </li></ul>15 th September, 2008 – Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy, US The world’s largest bankruptcy ($691bn) more than 10 times that of Enron in 2001, began a global domino effect of financial failures and government rescues. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of contagion inside firms and inside systems became widely used </li></ul><ul><li>The role of regulation and the need for systemic regulation to understand shared vulnerabilities is highlighted and reformed </li></ul><ul><li>Debate over making big banks failsafe or slim enough to ‘fail safely’ </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the role of testing inter-relationships between businesses and the concept of ‘stress testing’ </li></ul>2008
  25. 25. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Russia Shuts off gas supplies to Europe – January </li></ul><ul><li>Barack Obama inaugurated as US president - January </li></ul><ul><li>Deadliest bushfires in Australian history – February </li></ul><ul><li>Air France Flight 447 crashes off Brazil – June </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Jackson dies - June </li></ul><ul><li>Longest total eclipse of 21 st century - July </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoon Morakot hits Taiwan killing 500 - August </li></ul><ul><li>7.6 magnitude earthquake off Sumatra kills 1000 - September </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Lisbon comes into force - December </li></ul>7 th January, 2009 – Russia Shuts Off Gas Supplies To Europe Crisis began on not being able to reach agreement on gas prices for 2009. Russia demanded full payment of debt from Ukraine. Payment not made, supplies to Ukraine/Europe were cut on 7 th January <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Gas supplies flowing through Ukraine cut </li></ul><ul><li>European countries subsequently lost gas supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Request for European Union to become involved </li></ul><ul><li>International conference in Moscow failed to resolve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Irreparable & irreversible damage to customers confidence in Russia and Ukraine – no longer regarded as reliable partners </li></ul>2009
  26. 26. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti earthquake – January </li></ul><ul><li>Polish president killed in air crash – April </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic ash cloud creates air travel chaos – April </li></ul><ul><li>Deepwater Horizon explosion, fire and oil spill - April </li></ul><ul><li>Major protests in Thailand – May </li></ul><ul><li>Wikileaks leaks secrets to public – July </li></ul><ul><li>Miners trapped in Chilean mine </li></ul><ul><li>Escalated tensions between North and South Korea - November </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Sludge at Ajka Aluminum plant in Hungary - October </li></ul>20 th April, 2010 - Macondo Well Gulf of Mexico 11 people died and 17 injured when explosion and fire ripped through the Deepwater Horizion. 4.9 million barrels of oil released before well capped in September. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to marine and wildlife habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing and tourism industries badly hit </li></ul><ul><li>Undersea plumes decimated sea bed life in some areas </li></ul><ul><li>BP had to sell assets to pay the cost of clean up etc </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of claims for loss of trade etc </li></ul><ul><li>Law suits pending </li></ul><ul><li>CEO loses job </li></ul>2010
  27. 27. <ul><li>Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-government protest result in Tunisian President fleeing – January </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian President steps down following huge protests – February </li></ul><ul><li>8.9 magnitude earthquake and tsunami in Japan - March </li></ul><ul><li>NATO air strikes begin in Libya to protect civilians – March </li></ul><ul><li>Osama bin Laden killed in Pakistan – May </li></ul><ul><li>Chile's Puyehue volcano eruption causes international disruption – June </li></ul><ul><li>Famine declared in southern Somalia – July </li></ul><ul><li>Final Space Shuttle flight lands at Kennedy Space Centre, USA – July </li></ul><ul><li>UK tabloid The News of the World closed amid hacking scandal - July </li></ul>11 th March, 2011 – Fukushima Nuclear Accident, Japan Damage to safety systems after the earthquake and tsunami caused a series of explosions and release of radiation at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant. <ul><li>The Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Response beyond scope of plant owner - Government assistance essential </li></ul><ul><li>National electricity shortages because two-thirds of Japans nuclear reactors offline. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions over global nuclear energy safety </li></ul><ul><li>About 80,000 people living with 20km of the Fukushima plant have been forced to abandon their homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tepco president quits as firm reports $15bn loss </li></ul>2011