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Different ways of knowing


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Different ways of knowing

  1. 1. Different ways of knowing Dr Valerie Mannix 1
  2. 2. Rationale• Call by several academics in the field of education for an alternative view of learning i.e. Enabling learners to perceive themselves as creators of personal knowledge.• Need to escape “a one size fits all approach to teaching and learning” (Gamache, 2002) 2
  3. 3. Discussion Outline• Draw on key PhD research finding- motivational self systems in a SLA context (Mannix, 2008)• Explore the reconstruction of learner identities (habitus) and learner perceptions of knowledge, skills, dispositions and qualities via motivational self systems and life wide learning.• Implications for curriculum development and learning facilitation 3
  4. 4. PhD Research Project• Involved 49 student participants at WIT• Investigated the perceived sources of language learner motivation and demotivation.• Students were pursuing language studies across a wide range of disciplines – engineering, science, business, humanities. 4
  5. 5. Kind finding of the research Academic Year Abroad/ Work Placement• Students pursuing language studies were more motivated and self-determined in their learning and had developed a more defined sense of self or future self having spent an academic year abroad (alternative learning space). 5
  6. 6. Having spent time in a second language (L2 ) community:• Students were more inclined to relate aspects of their previous learning experience to their current one.• Use creative strategies in achieving their learning goals (e.g. Tandem learning) 6
  7. 7. Having spent time in a second language (L2 ) community:• Students reported being able to identify more with the second language and culture and their attitudes towards learning other languages and other cultures (alternative spaces) had changed in a positive way (actual and future selves). 7
  8. 8. Learners who did not partake in the academic year abroad:• Perceived the value of learning and indeed the value of language learning to be purely instrumental, for example, the completion of an academic degree course in order to enhance their employment prospects• Reported feeling anxious before assessments. 8
  9. 9. Learners who did not partake in the academic year abroad:• Reported less confidence or a lack of confidence in their own ability to succeed or to improve on their existing grades.• More reliance on lecture notes and support from Lecturer. 9
  10. 10. Studies in Second Language Acquisition• Strong evidence that learners who encounter and draw on different spaces of learning are more self-determined in their learning and are more willing to engage in new and multiple spaces (also collaborative spaces) of learning. 10
  11. 11. Motivation – Possible and Ideal Selves- Learning Spaces 11
  12. 12. The notion of ‘Self’• Traditionally self-representations were static concepts• Self-theorists have become increasingly interested in the active dynamic nature of the self system reflecting changing realities (Leahy, 2007). 12
  13. 13. Changing reality• Globalisation• Widespread political and economic migration• Increased mobility• Ever-developing media technologies• Electronic discourse communities. 13
  14. 14. The Notion of Self- Key Researchers• Markus and Nurius (1986) Multiple Self Systems• Higgins et al (1985) and Higgins (1987 &1996) – Self Discrepancy Theory ( One single ideal or ought self shaped by composite self guides) 14
  15. 15. Markus and Nurius 1986 Multiple Possible Selves• Possible selves, “a future self state rather than a current one, represents the ideas which an individual has regarding what they could become, what they would like to become and what they are afraid of becoming”. (Markus and Nurius,1986, 954) 15
  16. 16. Markus and Nurius 1986 – Multiple Possible Selves• Information derived from past experiences also plays a significant role in this regard.• Markus and Nurius provide a broad outline of the scope of possible selves, that is, multiple future orientated possible selves, but do not provide a finite taxonomy. 16
  17. 17. Markus and Nurius 1986 Multiple Possible Selves• The possible selves that are hoped for might include:• the successful self• the creative self• the rich self• the loved and admired self 17
  18. 18. Markus and Nurius 1986• The dreaded possible selves could be• the alone self• the depressed self• the incompetent self• the alcoholic self• the unemployed self 18
  19. 19. Higgins et al. (1985) Self- discrepancy theory• A systematic framework of the interrelations among the different self states.• 3 Self domains – Actual, Ideal and Ought Self• 2 Standpoints- One’s one; significant other. 6 Basic Self States 19
  20. 20. Domains of the Self• Actual Self – representation of the attributes that someone (yourself or another) believes you actually possess.• Ideal Self – representation of the attributes (hopes, aspirations or wishes for you) that someone (yourself or another) would like you ideally to possess. 20
  21. 21. Domains of the Self• Ought Self – representation of the attributes that someone (yourself or another) believes you should or ought to possess (sense of duty, obligations or responsibilities). 21
  22. 22. Implications of Self State representations• Individuals differ as to which self guide they are motivated towards.• Individuals are motivated to reach a condition which matches their personally relevant self guides. 22
  23. 23. Implications• Applied to an educational context the motivation to learn involves the desire to reduce the discrepancy between one’s actual self and the projected behavioural standards of the ideal/ought selves• This would imply that future self guides provide incentive, direction and impetus for action 23
  24. 24. Implications• Discrepancy between actual and future selves initiates self-regulatory strategies to reduce the discrepancy. 24
  25. 25. Imagination- envisioning futures “Imagination refers to a process of expanding our self by transcending our time and space and creating new images of the world and ourselves”. (Wenger, 1998, 176) 25
  26. 26. Imagination- Wide Array of Contexts- Life wide learning The wider the array of contexts, (spaces for learning –past, present and future), the more capable and willing, people will be to generate possible selves. Markus (2006, xii)The Searcher 26
  27. 27. Life wide Learning (Liquid Learning)• Learning in different and multiple spaces simultaneously (Ronald Barnett, 2008,1)• Goes beyond the boundaries of disciplines Learning Learning Space Space Learners drawing on various experiences in Learning their learning Space 27
  28. 28. Examples of Learning Spaces Barnett (2008)Individuals inhibit created learning spaces• Work, non work, occupational networks.• Family, leisure, social networks and engagements,• Manifold channels of news, information and communication• Physical and global mobility (actual and virtual) 28
  29. 29. Examples of Learning Spaces Savin- Baden (2008,12)Individuals inhibit created learning spaces• Bounded learning spaces: days away in which to think and reflect as a group• Formal learning spaces: Courses and Conferences• Social learning spaces: dialogue and debate in informal settings 29
  30. 30. Examples of Learning Spaces Savin- Baden (2008,12)Individuals inhibit created learning spaces• Silent learning spaces: away from noise that erodes creativity, innovation and space to think• Writing space: Places not only to write but to consider one’s stances and ideas• Dialogic spaces: critical conversations where the relationship between the oral and the written can be explored. 30
  31. 31. Examples of Learning Spaces Savin- Baden (2008,12)Individuals inhibit created learning spaces• Reflective learning spaces: which reach beyond contemplation and reconsidering past thought, they are spaces of meaning-making and consciousness- raising.• Digital learning spaces: where explorations occur about new types of visuality, literacy, pedagogy, representations of knowledge, communication and embodiment. 31
  32. 32. Striated and Smooth Spaces Deleuze and Guattari (1998,487)• Striated Learning Spaces: Characterised by a strong sense of organisation and boundedness- Spaces of arrival. Strong sense of authorship. Clear definition of outcomes, of a point that one is expected to reach 32
  33. 33. Striated and Smooth Spaces Deleuze and Guattari (1998,487)• Smooth learning: Open, flexible and contested spaces in which both learning and learners are always on the move.- Spaces of becoming.` Sense of displacement of notions of time and place so that the learning space is not defined but is defined by the creator of the space. 33
  34. 34. Categorisation of forms of Lifewide Learning• The language of knowledge and skills is insufficient to capture the complexity of the learning processes that many are undergoing.• These domains need to be supplemented with a sense of a student’s being, and indeed , their continuing becoming- dispositions and qualities. (Barnett, 2008) 34
  35. 35. Being and Becoming Dispositions Qualities Skills Knowledge
  36. 36. Being (Actual Self) and Becoming (Possible Self)Being BecomingActual Possible Ideal/Self Self Feared Personal self guides + Formation of strategies Self Dispositions Dispositions Qualities Qualities Skills Skills Knowledge Knowledge 36
  37. 37. ImplicationInvestment in learningthrough different spaces andin various forms is also aninvestment in the learner’scomplex identity (habitus) 37
  38. 38. ImplicationFurther exploration of thepossibilities for the creationof smooth spaces in straitedenvironments is required forhigher education. 38
  39. 39. Incorporating the Imaginative Capacity Promoting Learner Systematic i.e. Visual Learning Style Reflection Self and Social (particularly n the creation and Awareness and Management maintenance of smooth spaces in Straited learning environments) Pedagogical Implications and Professional DevelopmentFacilitator Awareness of ways in which straited learning Spatial Ecology environments mould their Idea that staff and students assumptions, come to understand how they interact perceptions with one another and the various learning and pedagogies. spaces in which they live, work and learn. 39
  40. 40. Creating harmony between Robust assessment the ideal and ought selves procedures(learners personal and social identity). for liquid learning outcomes. Pedagogical Implications and Professional DevelopmentDesign of curricula needs Promotion of collaboration in learning to reflect learning Utilizing approaches intentions to learning such as problem-based learning, as opposed to project –based learningoutcomes pedagogy. and action learning approaches 40
  41. 41. Thank You 41